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 biogeography: Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 

    Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 is a bibliography and full-text archive designed as a service to advanced students and researchers engaged in work in biogeography, biodiversity, history of science, and related studies. All items in the bibliography are primary sources and were published in 1950 or before. The subjects involved touch on fields ranging from ecology, conservation, systematics and physical geography, to evolutionary biology, cultural biogeography, paleobiology, and bioclimatology--but have in common a relevance to the study of geographical distribution and diversity. 

    Special Notice: The coverage of this database has now been extended through sister sites entitled "Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: 1951-1975" and "Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists: Chrono-Biographical Sketches"  !

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    Reviewed and adjusted 2/15/2012.


Adams, Charles C. [1873-1955], 1901. Baseleveling and its faunal significance, with illustrations from southeastern United States. American Naturalist 35(418): 839-852. A.T.: physiography; topographical change

_____, 1902. Southeastern United States as a center of geographical distribution of flora and fauna. Biological Bull. (Woods Hole) 3(3): 115-131. A.T.: postglacial dispersal; relicts; centers of dispersal  

_____, 1902. Postglacial origin and migrations of the life of the northeastern United States. Journal of Geography 1(7): 303-310; 1(8): 352-357. A.T.: postglacial dispersal; zoogeography; centers of dispersal

_____, 1905. The postglacial dispersal of the North American biota. Biological Bull. (Woods Hole) 9(1): 53-71. A.T.: refugia; centers of dispersal

Adamson, Alastair M. [1901-1945], 1939. Review of the Fauna of the Marquesas Islands and Discussion of Its Origin. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bull. 159. 93 pp. A.T.: island life

Adamson, Robert S. [1885-1965], 1938. The Vegetation of South Africa. London: British Empire Vegetation Committee. 235 pp. A.T.: regional floras

Agassiz, Louis [1807-1873], 1850. Geographical distribution of animals. Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany 48(2): 181-204. A.T.: zoological provinces

_____, 1854. The primitive diversity and number of animals in geological times. American Journal of Science 17 (2nd ser.): 309-324. A.T.: geological succession; multiple creation

_____, 1854. Sketch of the natural provinces of the animal world and their relation to the different types of man. In Josiah Nott & George R. Gliddon, Types of Mankind or, Ethnological Researches (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, Grambo & Co.): lviii-lxxviii.

Aleem, Anwar A. [1918-1996], 1948. The recent migration of certain Indo-Pacific algae from the Red Sea into the Mediterranean. New Phytologist 47(1): 88-94. A.T.: marine flora; bioinvasions; Suez Canal; dispersal

_____, 1950. Distribution and ecology of British marine littoral diatoms. Journal of Ecology 38(1): 75-106. A.T.: community ecology; algae; phytoplankton

Allan, Harry H. [1882-1957], 1940. A Handbook of the Naturalized Flora of New Zealand. Wellington: Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Bull. No. 83. 344 pp. A.T.: introduced species

Allard, Harry A. [1880-1963], 1932. Length of day in relation to the natural and artificial distribution of plants. Ecology 13(3): 221-234. A.T.: environmental factors; seasonal conditions; flowering; plant migration

Allee, Warder C. [1885-1955], 1926. Distribution of animals in a tropical rain-forest with relation to environmental factors. Ecology 7(4): 445-468. A.T.: Panama; animal communities; forest floor

*_____, 1931. Animal Aggregations; A Study in General Sociology. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 431 pp. A.T.: Allee effect; animal ecology; group selection

*Allee, Warder C., A. E. Emerson, O. Park, T. Park, & K. P. Schmidt, 1949. Principles of Animal Ecology. Philadelphia & London: W. B. Saunders. 837 pp. A.T.: sociobiology

Allen, Glover M. [1879-1942], 1911. Mammals of the West Indies. Bull. of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 54(6): 173-263. A.T.: land bridge theory; zoogeography

_____, 1942. Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, With the Marine Species of All the Oceans. Cambridge, MA: American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Special Publication No. 11. 620 pp. A.T.: endangered species; North America; South America; anthropogenic factors

Allen, Joel A. [1838-1921], 1871. On the mammals and winter birds of East Florida, with an examination of certain assumed specific characters in birds, and a sketch of the bird-faunae of Eastern North America. Bull. of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 2(3): 161-450. A.T.: character variation

_____, 1876. Geographical variation among North American mammals, especially in respect to size. Bull. of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 2(4): 309-344. A.T.: character variation; size variation

*_____, 1877. The influence of physical conditions in the genesis of species. Radical Review 1: 108-140. A.T.: Allen's Rule; environmental factors; character variation

_____, 1878. The geographical distribution of the Mammalia, considered in relation to the principal ontological regions of the earth, and the laws that govern the distribution of animal life. Bull. of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 4(2): 313-377. A.T.: zoological regions; climatic factors

_____, 1892. The geographical distribution of North American mammals. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 4(14): 199-243. A.T.: regional zoogeography

_____, 1893. The geographical origin and distribution of North American birds, considered in relation to faunal areas of North America. Auk 10(2): 97-150. A.T.: regional zoogeography

_____, 1905. The evolution of species through climatic conditions. Science 22(569) (new ser.): 661-668. A.T.: environmental factors; climate; isolation

Amadon, Dean [1912-2003], 1947. Ecology and the evolution of some Hawaiian birds. Evolution 1(1-2): 63-68. A.T.: Hawaiian honeycreepers; Drepaniidae; adaptive radiation

_____, 1948. Continental drift and bird migration. Science 108(2817): 705-707. A.T.: inter-hemispheric migration

*_____, 1950. The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Aves, Drepaniidae). Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 95(4): 151-262. A.T.: island life; evolution

Anderson, Edgar [1897-1969], 1948. Hybridization of the habitat. Evolution 2(1): 1-9. A.T.: hybrids; anthropogenic factors; evolution

Andrewartha, Herbert G. [1907-1992], 1944. The distribution of plagues of Austroicetes cruciata Sauss. (Acrididae) in Australia in relation to climate, vegetation and soil. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 68: 315-326. A.T.: grasshoppers

Arber, Agnes R. [1879-1960], 1950. The Natural Philosophy of Plant Form. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 246 pp. A.T.: plant morphology; plant anatomy; flowering plants

Archey, Gilbert E. [1890-1974], 1941. The Moa; A Study of the Dinornithiformes. Auckland Institute and Museum, Bull. No. 1. 145 pp. A.T.: extinct species; New Zealand

*Arrhenius, Olof [1896-1977], 1921. Species and area. Journal of Ecology 9(1): 95-99. A.T.: species-area relationship; plant associations

_____, 1923. Statistical investigations in the constitution of plant associations. Ecology 4(1): 68-73. A.T.: species-area relationship; sampling

Audubon, John James [1785-1851], 1831-1839. Ornithological Biography, Or an Account of the Habits of the Birds of the United States of America: Accompanied by Descriptions of the Objects Represented in the Work Entitled "The Birds of America." 5 vols. Edinburgh: Adam Black / Adam and Charles Black.

Axelrod, Daniel I. [1910-1998], 1948. Climate and evolution in western North America during Middle Pliocene time. Evolution 2(2): 127-144. A.T.: paleobotany; Tertiary floras

*_____, 1950. Evolution of desert vegetation in western North America. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 590: 217-306. A.T.: Pleistocene; Tertiary floras


Bailey, Irving W. [1884-1967], & Edmund W. Sinnott [1888-1968], 1916. The climatic distribution of certain types of Angiosperm leaves. American Journal of Botany 3(1): 24-39. A.T.: leaf-margin; environmental factors; morphology

Baker, Frank C. [1867-1942], 1920. The Life of the Pleistocene or Glacial Period as Recorded in the Deposits Laid Down by the Great Ice Sheets. Urbana, IL: Univ. of Illinois Bull. 17(41). 476 pp. A.T.: North America; paleontology

Baker, Frederick S. [1890-1965], 1944. Mountain climates of the western United States. Ecological Monographs 14(2): 223-254. A.T.: regional climatology

Barbour, Thomas [1884-1946], 1912. A contribution to the zoögeography of the East Indian Islands. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 44(1): 1-203. A.T.: Indonesia; herpetogeography

_____, 1914. A contribution to the zoögeography of the West Indies, with especial reference to amphibians and reptiles. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 44(2): 209-359. A.T.: herpetogeography

_____, 1916. Some remarks upon Matthew's Climate and Evolution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 27(1): 1-10. A.T.: waif dispersal; land bridge theory; island biogeography

Barbour, Thomas, & Arthur Loveridge [1891-1980], 1928. A comparative study of the herpetological faunae of the Uluguru and Usambara Mountains, Tanganyika Territory, with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 50(2): 87-265.

Bartholomew, John G. [1860-1920], William E. Clarke, & Percy H. Grimshaw, 1911. Atlas of Zoogeography. Edinburgh: John Bartholomew. 67 pp.

Barton, John [1789-1852], 1827. A Lecture on the Geography of Plants. London: Harvey and Darton. 94 pp.

*Bates, Henry Walter [1825-1892], 1862. Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon Valley: Lepidoptera: Heliconidae. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23: 495-566. A.T.: mimicry; regional faunas

*_____, 1863. The Naturalist on the River Amazons. London: John Murray. 2 vols. A.T.: Brazil; natural history; entomology

Beaufort, Lieven F. de [1879-1968], 1926. Zoögeographie van den Indischen Archipel. Haarlem: E. F. Bohn. 202 pp. A.T.: Malay Archipelago

Beddard, Frank E. [1858-1925], 1895. A Text-book of Zoogeography. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 245 pp.

Beirne, Bryan P. [1918-1998], 1947. The history of the British land mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14 (11th ser.): 501-514. A.T.: zoogeography; Pleistocene; regional faunas

*Belt, Thomas [1832-1878], 1874. The Naturalist in Nicaragua. London: John Murray. 403 pp. A.T.: natural history

Berg, Lev S. [1876-1950], 1950. Natural Regions of the U. S. S. R. (transl. of the Russian ed.). New York: Macmillan. 436 pp. A.T.: regional floras; regional geography; environmental factors

*Bergmann, Carl G. L. C. [1814-1865], 1847. Ueber die Verhältnisse der Wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihrer Grösse [link is to 1848 reprint]. Göttinger Studien (Göttingen) Abthl. 1: 595-708. A.T.: Bergmann's Rule; ecogeographic rules

Berry, Edward W. [1875-1945], 1911. The Lower Cretaceous floras of the world. Maryland Geological Survey: 99-151. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1916. The Upper Cretaceous floras of the world. Maryland Geological Survey: 183-313. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1916. The Lower Eocene Floras of Southeastern North America. Washington, D.C.: Geological Survey (U.S.), Professional Paper No. 91. 481 pp. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1924. The Middle and Upper Eocene Floras of Southeastern North America. Washington, D.C.: Geological Survey (U.S.), Professional Paper No. 92. 206 pp. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1937. Tertiary floras of eastern North America. Botanical Review 3(1): 31-46. A.T.: paleobotany

Bews, John W. [1884-1938], 1925. Plant Forms and Their Evolution in South Africa. London, etc.: Longmans, Green and Co. 199 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; regional biogeography

_____, 1927. Studies in the ecological evolution of the angiosperms. New Phytologist 26: 1-21, 65-84, 129-148, 209-248, 273-294. A.T.: climatic factors; grasses; habitat forms; flowering plants

Billings, W. Dwight [1910-1997], 1950. Vegetation and plant growth as affected by chemically altered rocks in the western Great Basin. Ecology 31(1): 62-74. A.T.: chemical weathering; soil; relictual stands

Bisby, Guy Richard [1889-1958], 1943. Geographical distribution of fungi. Botanical Review 9(7): 466-482. A.T.: dispersal; climate; age and area

Black, George A. [1916-1957], Th. Dobzhansky, & C. Pavan, 1950. Some attempts to estimate species diversity and population density of trees in Amazonian forests. Botanical Gazette 111(4): 413-425. A.T.: Brazil; tree counts; sampling

Bland, Thomas [1809-1885], 1862. On the geographical distribution of the genera and species of land shells of the West India Islands; With a catalogue of the species of each island. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7: 335-361.

Blanford, William T. [1832-1905], 1876. The African element in the fauna of India: a criticism of Mr. Wallace's views as expressed in the "Geographical Distribution of Animals." Annals and Magazine of Natural History 18 (4th ser.): 277-294. A.T.: regional zoogeography; zoological provinces; birds; mammals; reptiles

_____, 1890. The anniversary address of the President. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London (1889-90): 43-110. A.T.: oceanic basins permanence hypothesis; island biogeography; zoological regions

_____, 1901. The distribution of vertebrate animals in India, Ceylon, and Burma. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 194: 335-436. A.T.: zoogeography; faunas; sub-regions; refugia; glacial epoch

Blyth, Edward [1810-1873], 1835. An attempt to classify the "varieties" of animals, with observations on the marked seasonal and other changes which naturally take place in various British species, and which do not constitute varieties. Magazine of Natural History 8(1): 40-53.

_____, 1871. A suggested new division of the earth into zoological regions. Nature 3: 427-429. A.T.: regional zoogeography

*Bogert, Charles M. [1908-1992], 1949. Thermoregulation in reptiles, a factor in evolution. Evolution 3(3): 195-211. A.T.: physiological ecology; body temperature; bioclimatology

Bonaparte, "Prince" Charles Lucien [1803-1857], 1838. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: John Van Voorst. 67 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

Bond, James [1900-1989], 1940. Check-list of Birds of the West Indies. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences. 184 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

_____, 1948. Origin of the bird fauna of the West Indies. Wilson Bull. 60(4): 207-229. A.T.: ornithogeography; regional biogeography

*Borchert, John R. [1918-2001], 1950. The climate of the central North American grassland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 40(1): 1-39. A.T.: Great Plains; prairie; regional climatology

Bory de Saint-Vincent, Jean Baptiste G. M. [1778-1846], 1803. Essais sur les Isles Fortunées et l'Antique Atlantide, ou, Précis de l'Histoire Générale de l'Archipel des Canaries. Paris: Baudouin. 522 pp. A.T.: island life; natural history; Canary Islands

_____, 1804. Voyage dans les Quatres Principales Îles des Mers d'Afrique . . . Paris: Chez F. Buisson. 3 vols. A.T.: island life; natural history; Canary Islands; Réunion; Mauritius; Saint Helena

Boulenger, George A. [1858-1937], 1905. The distribution of African fresh-water fishes. Nature 72: 413-421. A.T.: zoogeography; regional faunas

*Bower, Frederick O. [1855-1948], 1908. The Origin of a Land Flora, A Theory Based Upon the Facts of Alternation. London: Macmillan and Co. 727 pp. A.T.: sporophytes; alternation of generations

_____, 1930. Size and Form in Plants with Special Reference to the Primary Conducting Tracts. London: Macmillan. 232 pp. A.T.: environmental factors; morphology

_____, 1935. Primitive Land Plants; Also Known as Archegoniatae. London: Macmillan. 658 pp. A.T.: cryptogams; alternation of generations; plant evolution

Boyko, Hugo [1892-1970], 1947. On the role of plants as quantitative climate indicators and the geo-ecological law of distribution. Journal of Ecology 35(1-2): 138-157. A.T.: insolation; exposure; slope aspect; topographical distribution

Braestrup, Frits W. [b. 1906], 1947. Remarks on faunal exchange through the Sahara. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening (Copenhagen) 110: 1-15.

*Braun, E. Lucy [1889-1971], 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. Philadelphia: Blakiston. 596 pp. A.T.: regional phytogeography; regional floras

*Braun-Blanquet, Josias [1884-1980], 1932. Plant Sociology; The Study of Plant Communities. New York: McGraw-Hill. 439 pp. A.T.: plant ecology; synecology

Bray, William L. [1865-1953], 1900. The relations of the North American flora to that of South America. Science 12(306) (new ser.): 709-716. A.T.: remnant floras; anthropogenic factors; long-term change; environmental factors

Brongniart, Adolphe T. [1801-1876], 1828-1837. Histoire des Végétaux Fossiles, ou Recherches Botaniques et Géologiques sur les Végétaux Renfermés dans les Diverses Couches du Globe. Paris & Amsterdam: G. Dufour et E. d'Ocagne. 2 vols. A.T.: paleobotany

*Brooks, Charles E. P. [1888-1957], 1926. Climate Through the Ages; A Study of the Climatic Factors and Their Variations. London: Ernest Benn. 439 pp. A.T.: interglacial periods; climate fluctuations; paleogeography

*Brooks, John Langdon [b. 1920], 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes. Quarterly Review of Biology 25(1): 30-60; 25(2): 131-176. A.T.: Lake Baikal; Lake Tanganyika; Lake Nyasa

Brown, Robert [1773-1858], & Ferdinand Bauer [1760-1826], 1814. General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis. In Matthew Flinders, Robert Brown, William Westall, John Pye, William Finden, & John Scott, A Voyage to Terra Australis . . . (London: G. and W. Nicol. 2 vols.), Vol. 2, Appendix No. 3: 533-591.

Brues, Charles T. [1879-1955], 1927. Animal life in hot springs. Quarterly Review of Biology 2(2): 181-203. A.T.: temperature; chemical factors

Brunhes, Bernard [1867-1910], 1906. Recherches sur la direction d'aimantation des roches volcaniques. Journal de Physique, Théorique et Appliquée 5 (4th ser.): 705-724. A.T.: geomagnetism

*Buffon, G.-L. Leclerc, Comte de [1707-1788], 1749-1789. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particuliere, Avec la Description du Cabinet du Roi. Paris: Imprimerie Royale. 36 vols. A.T.: natural history

Buxton, Patrick A. [1892-1956], 1923. Animal Life in Deserts; A Study of the Fauna in Relation to the Environment. London: Arnold. 176 pp. A.T.: physiological ecology; environmental factors


Cain, Stanley A. [1902-1995], 1931. Ecological studies of the vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. I. Soil reaction and plant distribution. Botanical Gazette 91(1): 22-41. A.T.: pH; soil acidity; environmental factors

*_____, 1938. The species-area curve. American Midland Naturalist 19(3): 573-581. A.T.: quadrat sampling; plant communities

_____, 1943. Criteria for the indication of center of origin in plant geographical studies. Torreya 43(2): 132-154. A.T.: dispersal

_____, 1944. Foundations of Plant Geography. New York: Harper & Brothers. 556 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; areography; paleoecology; polyploidy

_____, 1947. Characteristics of natural areas and factors in their development. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 185-200. A.T.: plant associations; phytogeography; mapped data

_____, 1950. Life-forms and phytoclimate. Botanical Review 16(1): 1-32. A.T.: Raunkiaer; vegetative form; climatic factors; phytogeography

Camp, Wendell H. [1904-1963], 1947. Distribution patterns in modern plants and the problems of ancient dispersals. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 159-183. A.T.: angiosperms; southern continents; evolutionary origins

Campbell, Douglas H. [1859-1953], 1944. Relations of the temperate floras of North and South America. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 25(2) (4th ser.): 139-146. A.T.: continental drift; phytogeography; historical biogeography

*Candolle, Alphonse L. P. P. de [1806-1893], 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonnée; Ou, Exposition des Faits Principaux et des Lois Concernant la Distribution Géographique des Plantes de l'Epoque Actuelle. Paris: V. Masson. 2 vols. A.T.: statistical methods

_____, 1859. On the causes which limit vegetable species towards the north, in Europe and similar regions. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 1858: 237-245. A.T.: limiting factors; temperature

*_____, 1883. Origine des Plantes Cultivées. Paris: G. Baillière. 377 pp. (English transl.: Origin of Cultivated Plants. London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1884. 468 pp.) A.T.: cultural biogeography; plant domestication; economic botany

Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de [1778-1841], 1817. Mémoire sur la géographie des plantes de France, considerée dans ses rapports avec la hauteur absolue. Mémoires de Physique et de Chimie de la Société d'Arcueil 3: 262-322. A.T.: physical factors

*_____, 1820. (Essai Élémentaire de) Géographie Botanique. In Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Tome 18 (Strasburg: F. G. Levrault): 359-436. A.T.: stations & habitations; phytogeography

Chambers, Robert [1802-1871], 1844 (published anonymously). Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. London: J. Churchill. 390 pp. A.T.: evolution

Chaney, Ralph W. [1890-1971], 1938. Paleoecological interpretations of Cenozoic plants in western North America. Botanical Review 4(7): 371-396. A.T.: paleobotany; climatic change

_____, 1940. Tertiary forests and continental history. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 51(3): 469-488. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1947. Tertiary centers and migration routes. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 139-148. A.T.: floras; forests; North America

_____, 1948. The bearing of the living Metasequoia on problems of Tertiary paleobotany. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 34(11): 503-515. A.T.: China

Chapin, James P. [1889-1964], 1923. Ecological aspects of bird distribution in tropical Africa. American Naturalist 57(649): 106-125. A.T.: temperature; environmental factors; isolation by altitude

Chapman, Frank M. [1864-1945], 1917. The Distribution of Bird-life in Colombia; A Contribution to a Biological Survey of South America. New York: American Museum of Natural History, Bull. Vol. 36. 729 pp. A.T.: regional faunas; life zones; ornithogeography

_____, 1926. The Distribution of Bird-life in Ecuador; A Contribution to a Study of the Origin of Andean Bird-life. New York: American Museum of Natural History, Bull. Vol. 55. 784 pp. A.T.: regional faunas; life zones; ornithogeography

*Chapman, Royal N. [1889-1939], 1928. The quantitative analysis of environmental factors. Ecology 9(2): 111-122. A.T.: Tribolium; flour beetles; populations; hypothesis testing

_____, 1931. Animal Ecology, With Special Reference to Insects. New York: McGraw-Hill. 464 pp. A.T.: environmental factors; communities

Clark, Andrew H. [1911-1975], 1949. The Invasion of New Zealand by People, Plants and Animals: The South Island. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press. 465 pp. A.T.: cultural biogeography; introduced species; anthropogenic factors

Clark, Hubert L. [1870-1947], 1946. The Echinoderm Fauna of Australia, Its Composition and Its Origin. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 566. 567 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

*Clausen, Jens [1891-1969], David D. Keck, & William M. Hiesey, 1940. Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species. I. Effect of Varied Environments on Western North American Plants. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 520. 452 pp. A.T.: environmental factors

_____, 1941. Regional differentiation in plant species. American Naturalist 75(758): 231-250. A.T.: vertical distribution; climatic races; ecotypes

_____, 1947. Heredity of geographically and ecologically isolated races. American Naturalist 81(797): 114-133. A.T.: Compositae; California; hybrids; sub-species; sunflowers

*_____, 1948. Experimental Studies on the Nature of Species. III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of Achillea. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 581. 129 pp. A.T.: yarrow; environmental factors

Clements, Frederic E. [1874-1945], 1905. Research Methods in Ecology. Lincoln: University Pub. Co. 334 pp. A.T.: plant ecology

**_____, 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 242. 512 pp. A.T.: community ecology; climatic factors; ecological climax

*_____, 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24(1): 252-284. A.T.: biotic communities; plant succession

*Clements, Frederic E., & Victor E. Shelford [1877-1968], 1939. Bio-ecology. New York: John Wiley, & London: Chapman & Hall, London. 425 pp. A.T.: plant succession; ecology; community ecology

Coe, Wesley R. [1869-1960], 1946. The means of dispersal of bathypelagic animals in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. American Naturalist 80(793): 453-469. A.T.: ocean currents; larvae; ocean circulation

Cooke, May Thacher [1885-1963], 1928. The Spread of the European Starling in North America (to 1928). United States Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 40. 10 pp. A.T.: naturalized species; introduced species; bioinvasions

Cooper, James G. [1830-1902], 1859. On the distribution of the forests and trees of North America, with notes on its physical geography. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Showing the Operations, Expenditures, and Condition of the Institution for the Year 1858: 246-280.

Cooper, William S. [1884-1978], 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and its development. I. Botanical Gazette 55(1): 1-44. A.T.: ecological climax; coniferous forest; island life

_____, 1926. The fundamentals of vegetational change. Ecology 7(4): 391-413. A.T.: dynamic ecology; history of ecology; ecological theory

Cope, Edward Drinker [1840-1897], 1875. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia with a systematic list of the higher groups and an essay on geographical distribution, based on the specimens contained in the U. S. National Museum. Bull. of the United States National Museum No. 1: 1-104.

**Cowles, Henry C. [1869-1939], 1899. The ecological relations of the vegetation on the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette 27: 95-117, 167-202, 281-308, 361-391. A.T.: ecological climax; pine forests; oak forests

*_____, 1901. The physiographic ecology of Chicago and vicinity; a study of the origin, development, and classification of plant societies. Botanical Gazette 31: 73-108, 145-182. A.T.: ecological climax; phytogeography; Schimper; plant formations

*Cowles, Raymond B. [1896-1975], & Charles M. Bogert [1908-1992], 1944. A preliminary study of the thermal requirements of desert reptiles. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 83(5): 265-296. A.T.: temperature; physiological ecology

Cunnington, William A., 1920. The fauna of the African lakes: A study in comparative limnology with special reference to Lake Tanganyika. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1920: 507-622. A.T.: regional faunas

Curtis, John T. [1913-1961], & H. C. Greene, 1949. A study of relic Wisconsin prairies by the species-presence method. Ecology 30(1): 83-92. A.T.: indicator species; relicts

Cuvier, Georges [1769-1832], 1812. Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles de Quadrupèdes, etc. Paris: Deterville. 4 vols. A.T.: paleontology

*Cuvier, Georges, & Pierre-André Latreille [1762-1833], 1817. Le Règne Animal Distribué d'après son Organisation, pour Servir de Base à l'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux et d'Introduction à l'Anatomie Comparée. Tome I. L'Introduction, Les Mammifères et Les Oiseaux. Paris: Deterville. 540 pp. A.T.: comparative anatomy


Dahl, Eilif [1916-1993], 1946. On different types of unglaciated areas during the ice ages and their significance to phytogeography. New Phytologist 45(2): 225-242. A.T.: arctic floras; refugia

Dammerman, Karel W. [1885-1951], 1929. On the zoogeography of Java. Treubia 11(1): 1-88. A.T.: vertebrates; molluscs; regional biogeography; regional faunas

*_____, 1948. The Fauna of Krakatau 1883-1933. Koninklïjke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Natuurkunde, Verhandelingen 2. Sect., Deel 44. 594 pp. A.T.: island biogeography; colonization

Dana, James D. [1813-1895], 1853. On the question whether temperature determines the distribution of marine species of animals in depth. American Journal of Science and Arts 15 (2nd ser.): 204-207. A.T.: molluscs

_____, 1853. On an isothermal oceanic chart, illustrating the geographical distribution of marine animals. American Journal of Science and Arts 16 (2nd ser.): 153-167, 314-327. A.T.: isocrymes; zoological provinces; winter temperatures

_____, 1856. On the origin of the geographical distribution of Crustacea. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 17 (2nd ser.): 42-51. A.T.: centers of creation; dispersal; centers of diffusion

_____, 1872. Corals and Coral Islands. New York: Dodd & Mead. 398 pp. A.T.: coral reefs

Darlington, Philip J., Jr. [1904-1983], 1938. Was there an Archatlantis? American Naturalist 72(743): 521-533. A.T.: Carabidae; beetles; land bridge theory; West Indies

*_____, 1938. The origin of the fauna of the Greater Antilles, with discussion of dispersal of animals over water and through the air. Quarterly Review of Biology 13(3): 274-300. A.T.: West Indies; accidental dispersal; island biogeography; land bridge theory

*_____, 1943. Carabidae of mountains and islands: Data on the evolution of isolated faunas, and on atrophy of wings. Ecological Monographs 13(1): 37-61. A.T.: insects; island biogeography; beetles

_____, 1948. The geographical distribution of cold-blooded vertebrates. Quarterly Review of Biology 23(1): 1-26; 23(2): 105-123. A.T.: reptiles; amphibians; freshwater fishes; dispersal; zoogeography

*Darwin, Charles [1809-1882], 1839. Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H.M.S. Beagle. London: Henry Colburn. 615 pp.

_____, 1842. The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 214 pp.

**_____, 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. 502 pp. A.T.: evolution; Darwinism

_____, 1868. The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. London: John Murray. 2 vols. A.T.: character variation

Daubenmire, Rexford F. [1909-1995], 1938. Merriam's life zones of North America. Quarterly Review of Biology 13(3): 327-332. A.T.: biotic provinces; temperature; bioclimatic zones

*_____, 1943. Vegetational zonation in the Rocky Mountains. Botanical Review 9(6): 325-393. A.T.: altitudinal zonation; alpine environments

*_____, 1947. Plants and Environment, A Textbook of Plant Autecology. New York: J. Wiley. 424 pp. A.T.: plant ecology; environmental factors

Davidson, James [d. 1945], & Herbert G. Andrewartha [1907-1992], 1948. Annual trends in a natural population of Thrips imaginis (Thysanoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 17(2): 193-199. A.T.: climatic factors; population levels

Davies, Arthur M. [1869-1959], 1934-1935. Tertiary Faunas: A Text-book for Oilfield Palæontologists and Students of Geology. London: Thomas Murby & Co. 2 vols. A.T.: paleontology

Dawson, George M. [1849-1901], 1894. The extinct northern sea-cow, and early Russian explorations in the North Pacific. Ottawa Naturalist 7(10): 151-161.

*Deevey, Edward S., Jr. [1914-1988], 1949. Biogeography of the Pleistocene. Part I: Europe and North America. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 60(9): 1315-1416. A.T.: glacial epoch; postglacial dispersal

_____, 1950. Hydroids from Louisiana and Texas, with remarks on the Pleistocene biogeography of the western Gulf of Mexico. Ecology 31(3): 334-367. A.T.: disjunct distribution patterns

Dice, Lee R. [1887-1977], 1923. Life zones and mammalian distribution. Journal of Mammalogy 4(1): 39-47. A.T.: Alabama

_____, 1931. The relation of mammalian distribution to vegetation types. Scientific Monthly 33(4): 312-317. A.T.: climatic factors

*_____, 1943. The Biotic Provinces of North America. Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. of Michigan Press. 78 pp. A.T.: systematic biogeography

*_____, 1945. Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology 26(3): 297-302. A.T.: Dice coefficient; Dice index; coefficients of association; measures of association

Dickerson, Roy E. [1878-1944], Elmer D. Merrill [1876-1956], Richard C. McGregor, W. Schultze, Edward H. Taylor, & Albert W. C. T. Herre, 1928. Distribution of Life in the Philippines. Manila: Bureau of Printing. 322 pp. A.T.: regional biotas

Dieffenbach, Ernst [1811-1855], 1843. Travels in New Zealand: With Contributions to the Geography, Geology, Botany, and Natural History of That Country. London: John Murray. 2 vols. [Vol. 1; Vol. 2] A.T.: regional biotas

Dobson, George Edward [1848-1895], 1884. On some peculiarities in the geographical distribution and in the habits of certain mammals inhabiting continental and oceanic islands. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14 (5th ser.): 153-159. A.T.: island life

Dobzhansky, Theodosius [1900-1975], 1940. Speciation as a stage in evolutionary divergence. American Naturalist 74(753): 312-321. A.T.: isolating mechanisms; physiological isolation

*_____, 1950. Evolution in the tropics. American Scientist 38(2): 209-221. A.T.: biodiversity; Drosophila; environmental factors

*Docters van Leeuwen, Willem M. [1880-1960], 1936. Krakatau, 1883 to 1933. A. Botany. Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg (Buitenzorg, Java), Annales Vols. 46-47. 506 pp. A.T.: succession; colonization

Dokuchaev, Vasilii V. [1846-1903], 1967. Russian Chernozem (transl. of the Russian ed., Russkii Chernozem, first published in 1883). Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 419 pp.

Doty, Maxwell S. [b. 1916], 1946. Critical tide factors that are correlated with the vertical distribution of marine algae and other organisms along the Pacific Coast. Ecology 27(4): 315-328. A.T.: environmental factors; intertidal zone

Douglass, Andrew Ellicott [1867-1962], 1919, 1928, 1936. Climatic Cycles and Tree-Growth. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 289. 3 vols. A.T.: climatic factors; solar activity; annual tree rings, dendrochronology

_____, 1941. Crossdating in dendrochronology. Journal of Forestry 39(10): 825-831. A.T.: tree ring chronology; annual tree rings

Drude, Oscar [1852-1933], 1890. Handbuch der Pflanzengeographie. Stuttgart: J. Engelhorn. 582 pp. (French transl.: Manuel de Géographie Botanique. Paris: P. Klincksieck, 1897. 552 pp.) A.T.: phytogeography

Duff, Roger S. [1912-1978], 1950. The Moa-hunter Period of Maori Culture. Wellington, New Zealand: Dept. of Internal Affairs, Canterbury Museum Bull. No. 1. 405 pp. A.T.: extinct species

Dunn, Emmett Reid [1894-1956], 1922. A suggestion to zoogeographers. Science 56(1447): 336-338. A.T.: geographical range; physiographic boundaries

_____, 1923. The geographical distribution of amphibians. American Naturalist 57(649): 129-136. A.T.: salamanders; dispersalism; age and area

_____, 1931. The herpetological fauna of the Americas. Copeia (3): 106-119. A.T.: regional faunas; zoogeography

Du Rietz, G. Einar [1895-1967], 1931. Life-forms of terrestrial flowering plants. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 3(1): 1-95.

_____, 1940. Problems of bipolar plant distribution. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 13: 215-282. A.T.: phytogeography

_____, 1949. Huvudenheter och huvudgränser i Svensk myrvegetation. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 43: 274–309. A.T.: mire vegetation; peat

Du Toit, Alexander L. [1878-1948], 1927. A Geological Comparison of South America with South Africa. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 381. 158 pp. A.T.: continental drift; historical geology; paleogeography

**_____, 1937. Our Wandering Continents; An Hypothesis of Continental Drifting. Edinburgh & London: Oliver & Boyd. 366 pp. A.T.: paleogeography

_____, 1944. Tertiary mammals and continental drift; a rejoinder to George G. Simpson. American Journal of Science 242(3): 145-163. A.T.: land bridge theory; paleogeography


Egler, Frank E. [1911-1996], 1942. Indigene versus alien in the development of arid Hawaiian vegetation. Ecology 23(1): 14-23. A.T.: naturalized plants; indigenous plants

Eigenmann, Carl H. [1863-1927], 1909. The fresh-water fishes of Patagonia and an examination of the Archiplata-Archhelenis theory. In William B. Scott, ed., Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press), Vol. 3(3): 225-374. A.T.: land bridge theory

_____, 1909. Cave Vertebrates of America; A Study in Degenerative Evolution. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 104. 241 pp.

_____, 1912. The Freshwater Fishes of British Guiana, Including a Study of the Ecological Grouping of Species and the Relation of the Fauna of the Plateau to That of the Lowlands. Pittsburgh: Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum Vol. 5. 578 pp. A.T.: regional biogeography

Eiseley, Loren C. [1907-1977], 1943. Archaeological observations on the problem of post-glacial extinction. American Antiquity 8(3): 209-217. A.T.: anthropogenic factors

_____, 1945. Myth and mammoth in archaeology. American Antiquity 11(2): 84-87. A.T.: extinct species

_____, 1946. Men, mastodons, and myth. Scientific Monthly 62(6): 517-524. A.T.: extinct species

Ekman, Sven [1876-1964], 1935. Tiergeographie des Meeres. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. 542 pp. A.T.: marine biogeography

_____, 1940. Begründung einer Statistischen Methode in der Regionalen Tiergeographie; Nebst einer Analyse der Palaarktischen Steppen- und Wustenfauna. Uppsala: Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientarum Upsaliensis 12(2) (4th ser.). 117 pp. A.T.: statistical methods; zoogeography

Ellerman, John Reeves [1909-1973], 1940-1949. The Families and Genera of Living Rodents. London: British Museum (Natural History). 3 vols.

*Elton, Charles S. [1900-1991], 1924. Periodic fluctuations in the numbers of animals: Their causes and effects. British Journal of Experimental Biology 2(1): 119-163. A.T.: population biology; population cycles

_____, 1925. The dispersal of insects to Spitsbergen. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1925 (Vol. 73): 289-299. A.T.: island biogeography

*_____, 1927. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick & Jackson; New York: Macmillan. 207 pp.

_____, 1949. Population interspersion: an essay on animal community patterns. Journal of Ecology 37(1): 1-23. A.T.: community ecology; habitat; patchiness

Engler, Adolf [1844-1930], 1879-1882. Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt, Insbesondere der Florengebiete seit der Tertiärperiode. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 2 vols. A.T.: paleobotany; phytogeography

Engler, Adolf, & Oscar Drude [1852-1933], eds., 1896-1928. Die Vegetation der Erde. Sammlung Pflanzengeographischer Monographien. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 15 vols. A.T.: phytogeography

*Engler, Adolf, & Karl Prantl, eds., 1887-1909. Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 32 vols. A.T.: botany

Epling, Carl [1894-1968], & Harlan Lewis [b. 1919], 1942. The centers of distribution of the chaparral and coastal sage associations. American Midland Naturalist 27(2): 445-462. A.T.: California; plant communities; Miocene

Ernst, Alfred, 1908. The New Flora of the Volcanic Island of Krakatau (translated from the German by Albert C. Seward). Cambridge, U.K.: University Press. 74 pp. A.T.: colonization


Felt, E. Porter [1868-1943], 1925. The dissemination of insects by air currents. Journal of Economic Entomology 18(1): 152-158. A.T.: dispersal; wind

Fernald, Merritt L. [1873-1950], 1924. Isolation and endemism in northeastern America and their relation to the age-and-area hypothesis. American Journal of Botany 11(9): 558-572. A.T.: floras; phytogeography

*_____, 1925. Persistence of plants in unglaciated areas of boreal America. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 15(3): 239-342. A.T.: relicts

_____, 1929. Some relationships of the floras of the Northern Hemisphere. In Proceedings of the International Congress of Plant Sciences, Ithaca . . . (Menasha, WI: George Banta Pub. Co.), Vol. 2: 1487-1507. A.T.: disjunct distribution patterns; postglacial distribution patterns

_____, 1931. Specific segregations and identities in some floras of eastern North America and the Old World. Rhodora 33: 25-63. A.T.: phytogeography; disjunct distribution patterns; paleogeography

Fisher, Albert K. [1856-1948], et al., 1893. The Death Valley Expedition. A Biological Survey of Parts of California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. Part II. Washington, D.C.: North American Fauna No. 7. 402 pp. A.T.: regional biotas; natural history

*Fisher, Ronald A. [1890-1962], A. S. Corbet, & C. B. Williams [1889-1981], 1943. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology 12(1): 42-58. A.T.: butterflies; mathematical models; diversity indices

Fleming, John [1785-1857], 1828. A History of British Animals, Exhibiting the Descriptive Characters and Systematical Arrangement of the Genera and Species of Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Mollusca, and Radiata of the United Kingdom; Including the Indigenous, Extirpated, and Extinct Kinds, Together with Periodical and Occasional Visitants. Edinburgh: Bell & Bradfute; London: James Duncan. 565 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

_____, 1829. On the value of the evidence from the animal kingdom, tending to prove that the Arctic regions formerly enjoyed a milder climate than at present. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 6: 277-286. A.T.: analogy; extinct species; Siberia

Florin, Rudolf [1894-1965], 1940. The Tertiary Fossil Conifers of South Chile and Their Phytogeographical Significance, With a Review of the Fossil Conifers of Southern Lands. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksells. 107 pp. A.T.: paleobotany

Forbes, Edward [1815-1854], 1844. Report on the Mollusca and Radiata of the Aegean Sea, and on their distribution, considered as bearing on geology. In Report of the Thirteenth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1843 (London: J. Murray): 130-193.

*_____, 1846. On the connexion between the distribution of the existing fauna and flora of the British Isles, and the geological changes which have affected their area, especially during the epoch of the northern drift. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and of the Museum of Economic Geology in London 1: 336-432. A.T.: historical biogeography; Pleistocene

_____, 1854. On the manifestation of polarity in the distribution of organized beings in time. Notices of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution 1: 428-433.

_____, 1856. Zoological geography: distribution of marine life. In Alexander K. Johnston, The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena (Edinburgh: W. Blackwood): 99-102. A.T.: marine biogeography

_____, 1859 (edited and continued by Robert A. C. Godwin-Austen). The Natural History of the European Seas. London: John Van Voorst. 306 pp. A.T.: marine biogeography

*Forbes, Stephen A. [1844-1930], 1887. The lake as a microcosm. Bull. of the Scientific Association, 1887 (Peoria, IL): 77-87. (1925 reprint: Illinois Natural History Survey Bull. 15: 537-550) A.T.: limnology; ecology

_____, 1907. On the local distribution of certain Illinois fishes: An essay in statistical ecology. Bull. of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 7: 273-303.

*Forster, Georg [1754-1794], 1777. A Voyage Round the World, in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, During the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5. London: B. White, J. Robson, P. Elmsly, & G. Robinson. 2 vols. A.T.: natural history

*Forster, Johann Reinhold [1729-1798], 1778. Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World, on Physical Geography, Natural History, and Ethic Philosophy. London: G. Robinson. 649 pp.

Fosberg, F. Raymond [1908-1993], 1948. Derivation of the flora of the Hawaiian Islands. In Elwood C. Zimmerman, Insects of Hawaii. Vol. 1: Introduction (Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press): 107-119. A.T.: phytogeography; island biogeography

Fraenkel, Gottfried S. [1901-1984], 1932. Die Wanderungen der Insekten. Ergebnisse der Biologie 9: 1-238. A.T.: dispersal; insects

Freeman, J. A. [b. 1912], 1945. Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial currents. The insect population of the air from ground level to 300 feet. Journal of Animal Ecology 14(2): 128-154. A.T.: England; wind dispersal; economic entomology

*Fry, Frederick E. J. [1908-1989], 1947. Effects of the Environment on Animal Activity. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Studies Biological Series, No. 55. 62 pp. A.T.: fishes; metabolic rate; temperature; physiological ecology

Fry, Frederick E. J., & J. S. Hart, 1948. The relation of temperature to oxygen consumption in the goldfish. Biological Bull. 94(1): 66-77. A.T.: physiological ecology; metabolism


Gadow, Hans F. [1855-1928], 1905. The distribution of Mexican amphibians and reptiles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1905, Pt. 2: 191-244. A.T.: regional biogeography

_____, 1910. The effect of altitude upon the distribution of Mexican amphibians and reptiles. Zoologische Jahrbücher: Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 29(6): 689-714. A.T.: temperature

_____, 1913. The Wanderings of Animals. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 150 pp. A.T.: dispersal

Garren, Kenneth H. [b. 1912], 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review 9(9): 617-654. A.T.: plant succession; ecological climax; controlled burning

Garretson, Martin S. [1866-1955], 1938. The American Bison; The Story of Its Extermination as a Wild Species and its Restoration Under Federal Protection. New York: New York Zoological Society. 254 pp.

Gaussen, Henri [1891-1981], 1933. Géographie des Plantes. Paris: A. Colin. 222 pp. A.T.: phytogeography

*Gauz[s]e, Georgii F. [1910-1986], 1934. The Struggle for Existence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 163 pp. A.T.: natural selection; mathematical models

*Geiger, Rudolf [1894-1981], 1950. The Climate Near the Ground. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. 482 pp. A.T.: bioclimatology; microclimatology

Gentilli, Joseph [1912-2000], 1949. Foundations of Australian bird geography. Emu 49(2): 85-129.

Gibbs, Lilian S. [1870-1925], 1920. Notes on the phytogeography and flora of the mountain summit plateaux of Tasmania. Journal of Ecology 8: 1-17, 89-117. A.T.: montane floras; floristic evolution

Gill, Theodore [1837-1914], 1885. The principles of zoogeography. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 2: 1-39. A.T.: faunal realms

_____, 1893. A comparison of antipodal faunas. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C.) 6(5): 89-124. A.T.: New Zealand; fishes; British Isles

Gleason, Henry A. [1882-1975], 1912. An isolated prairie grove and its phytogeographical significance. Botanical Gazette 53(1): 38-49. A.T.: fire; relictual distribution; oak forests

*_____, 1917. The structure and development of the plant association. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 44(10): 463-481. A.T.: plant succession; ecological climax; environmental factors; individualistic hypothesis

_____, 1922. The vegetational history of the Middle West. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 12: 39-85. A.T.: plant migration; dispersal; glacial epoch; interglacial periods; anthropogenic factors

*_____, 1922. On the relation between species and area. Ecology 3(2): 158-162. A.T.: quadrat sampling; plant associations

_____, 1925. Species and area. Ecology 6(1): 66-74. A.T.: species-area relationship; quadrat sampling; aspen association

**_____, 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 53(1): 7-26. A.T.: community ecology; philosophy of ecology

*_____, 1939. The individualistic concept of the plant association. American Midland Naturalist 21(1): 92-110. A.T.: community ecology; philosophy of ecology; plant migration

*Glick, Perry A., 1939. The Distribution of Insects, Spiders, and Mites in the Air. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bull. No. 673. 151 pp. A.T.: dispersal; wind

Glinka, Konstantin D. [1867-1927], 1927. The Great Soil Groups of the World and Their Development. (transl. of Die Typen der Bodenbildung, first published in 1914). Ann Arbor: Edwards Brothers. 235 leaves.

Gloger, Constantin W. Lambert [1803-1859], 1833. Das Abändern der Vögel durch Einfluss des Klima's. Breslau: August Schulz. 159 pp. A.T.: Gloger's Rule

Godman, Frederick Du Cane [1834-1919], & Osbert Salvin [1835-1898], eds., 1879-1888. Biologia Centrali-Americana; Or, Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America. London: R. H. Porter and Dulau & Co. 5 vols. A.T.: natural history

Godwin, Harry [1901-1985], 1923. Dispersal of pond floras. Journal of Ecology 11(2): 160-164. A.T.: barriers; England; phytogeography

_____, 1949. The spreading of the British flora: Considered in relation to conditions of the Late-Glacial Period. Journal of Ecology 37(1): 140-147. A.T.: pollen; seeds; postglacial dispersal

Goldman, Edward A. [1873-1946], & Robert T. Moore [1882-1958], 1946. The biotic provinces of Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 26(4): 347-360. A.T.: mammals; birds; regional biogeography

Good, Ronald [1896-1992], 1931. A theory of plant geography. New Phytologist 30(3): 149-171. A.T.: angiosperms; theory of tolerance; plant migration; plant distribution

*_____, 1947. The Geography of the Flowering Plants. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 403 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; geographical distribution

Gould, John [1804-1881], 1865. Handbook to The Birds of Australia. London: the author. 2 vols. A.T.: regional faunas

Gray, Asa [1810-1888], 1856, 1857. Statistics of the flora of the Northern United States. American Journal of Science and Arts 22 (2nd ser.): 204-232; 23 (2nd ser.): 62-84, 369-403. A.T.: regional floras; Europe; phytogeography; floristic comparisons

_____, 1859. Diagnostic characters of new species of phaenogamous plants, collected in Japan by Charles Wright, Botanist of the U. S. North Pacific Exploring Expedition. With observations upon the relations of the Japanese flora to that of North America, and of other parts of the Northern Temperate Zone. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 6, Pt. II (new ser.): 377-452. A.T.: floristic comparisons

*_____, 1878. Forest geography and archaeology: a lecture delivered before the Harvard University Natural History Society, April 18, 1878. American Journal of Science and Arts 16 (3rd ser.): 85-94, 183-196. A.T.: refugia; phytogeography; regional biogeography; precipitation

*Gray, Asa, & William S. Sullivant [1803-1873], 1848. A Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States . . . Boston: J. Monroe. 710 pp. A.T.: regional floras; phytogeography

Griggs, Robert F. [1881-1962], 1914. Observations on the behavior of some species at the edges of their ranges. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 41(1): 25-49. A.T.: range limits; phytogeography

_____, 1934. The edge of the forest in Alaska and the reasons for its position. Ecology 15(2): 80-96. A.T.: ecotones; coniferous forest; plant succession

_____, 1940. The ecology of rare plants. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 67(7): 575–594. A.T.: rarity; phytogeography; climatic factors; environmental factors; refugia

_____, 1946. The timberlines of northern America and their interpretation. Ecology 27(4): 275–289. A.T.: treelines; climatic factors; Mt. Washington, NH

Grinnell, Joseph [1877-1939], 1914. Barriers to distribution as regards birds and mammals. American Naturalist 48(568): 248-254. A.T.: geographical range; range limits

*_____, 1914. An account of the mammals and birds of the Lower Colorado Valley with especial reference to the distributional problems presented. Univ. of California Publications in Zoology 12(4): 51-294. A.T.: range barriers; dispersal

_____, 1922. The role of the "accidental." Auk 39(3): 373-380. A.T.: extralimital records; range barriers

_____, 1924. Geography and evolution. Ecology 5(3): 225-229. A.T.: adaptation; environmental factors

_____, 1928. Presence and absence of animals. Univ. of California Chronicle 30: 429-450.

Grisebach, August [1814-1879], 1859-1864. Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London: L. Reeve & Co. 789 pp. A.T.: regional floras

_____, 1872. Die Vegetation der Erde nach Ihrer Klimatischen Anordnung. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 2 vols. (French transl.: La Végétation du Globe, d'après sa Disposition suivant les Climats Esquisse d'une Géographie Comparée des Plantes. Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1877-1878. 2 vols.) A.T.: phytogeography; climate

Gulick, Addison [1882-1969], 1932. Biological peculiarities of oceanic islands. Quarterly Review of Biology 7(4): 405-427. A.T.: island biogeography; island life; dispersal; evolution; adaptive radiation

Gulick, John T. [1832-1923], 1872. On the variation of species as related to their geographical distribution, illustrated by the Achatinellinæ. Nature 6: 222-224. A.T.: Hawaiian Islands; land shells; land snails

_____, 1873. On diversity of evolution under one set of external conditions. Journal of the Linnean Society: Zoology 11: 496-505. A.T.: Hawaiian Islands; land shells

Günther, Albert C. L. G. [1830-1914], 1858. On the geographical distribution of reptiles. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 26: 373-398. A.T.: regional biogeography; zoogeography

_____, 1880. An Introduction to the Study of Fishes. Edinburgh: A. & C. Black. 720 pp. A.T.: ichthyology; natural history

Guppy, Henry B. [1854-1926], 1903, 1906. Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific Between 1896 and 1899. London: Macmillan. 2 vols. [Vol. 1; Vol. 2] A.T.: natural history

_____, 1917. Plants, Seeds and Currents in the West Indies and Azores. London: Williams and Norgate. 531 pp. A.T.: dispersal; colonization


*Haeckel, Ernst [1834-1919], 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Berlin: G. Reimer. 2 vols. A.T.: ecology; recapitulation; ontogeny; phylogeny

_____, 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte . . . Berlin: Reimer. 568 pp. (English transl.: The History of Creation . . . London: H. S. King & Co., 1876. 2 vols.) A.T.: evolution; Darwinism

*Haldane, J. B. S. [1892-1964], 1948. The theory of a cline. Journal of Genetics 48(3): 277-284. A.T.: natural selection; genetics; populations

Halliday, William E. D., 1937. A Forest Classification for Canada. Ottawa: Dept. of Mines and Resources, Canada Forest Service Bull. No. 89. 50 pp.

Hansen, Henry P. [1907-1989], 1947. Postglacial Forest Succession, Climate, and Chronology in the Pacific Northwest. American Philosophical Society, Transactions Vol. 37(1) (new ser.). 130 pp.

Hardy, Alister C. [1896-1985], & P. S. Milne, 1938. Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial currents. Experiments in aerial tow-netting from kites. Journal of Animal Ecology 7(2): 199-229. A.T.: wind dispersal

*Hardy, Alister C., & Eugene R. Gunther [1902-1940], 1935. The Plankton of the South Georgia Whaling Grounds and Adjacent Waters, 1926-1927. Cambridge, U.K.: University Press. Discovery Reports, Vol. XI. 456 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

*Harper, Francis [1886-1972], 1945. Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World. Cambridge, MA: American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Special Publication No. 12. 850 pp. A.T.: endangered species

Harper, Roland M. [1878-1966], 1911. The relation of climax vegetation to islands and peninsulas. Bull. of the Torrey Botanical Club 38(11): 515-525. A.T.: fire; Florida; hammocks; pine forests

_____, 1914. Geography and vegetation of northern Florida. Tallahassee: Sixth Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey: 163-451.

Harrison, Launcelot [1880-1928], 1924. The migration route of the Australian marsupial fauna. Australian Zoologist 3: 247-263. A.T.: dispersal; W. D. Matthew; paleobiogeography

_____, 1928. The composition and origins of the Australian fauna, with special reference to the Wegener hypothesis. Report of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science 18: 332-396.

Harshberger, John W. [1869-1929], 1911. Phytogeographic Survey of North America. A Consideration of the Phytogeography of the North American Continent, Including Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, Together with the Evolution of North American Plant Distribution. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co.; Leipzig: W. Engelmann. 790 pp.

_____, 1916. The Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-barrens; An Ecologic Investigation. Philadelphia: Christopher Sower Co. 329 pp. A.T.: community ecology; phytogeography; environmental factors

Hatt, Robert T. [b. 1902], J. Van Tyne, L. C. Stuart, C. H. Pope, & A. B. Grobman, 1948. Island Life: A Study of the Land Vertebrates of the Islands of Eastern Lake Michigan. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bull. 27. 179 pp. A.T.: island biogeography

Hay, Oliver P. [1846-1930], 1908. The Fossil Turtles of North America. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 75. 568 pp. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1923. The Pleistocene of North America and Its Vertebrated Animals from the States East of the Mississippi River and from the Canadian Provinces East of Longitude 95 Degrees. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 322. 499 pp. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1924. The Pleistocene of the Middle Region of North America and Its Vertebrated Animals. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 322A. 385 pp. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1927. The Pleistocene of the Western Region of North America and Its Vertebrated Animals. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 322B. 346 pp. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1929, 1930. Second Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 390. 2 vols. A.T.: paleontology

Hays, William Jacob [1830-1875], 1871. Notes on the range of some of the animals in America at the time of the arrival of the white man. American Naturalist 5(7): 387-392. A.T.: cultural biogeography; range change; extirpated species; introduced species

Hedley, Charles [1862-1926], 1893. On the relation of the fauna and flora of Australia to those of New Zealand. Natural Science 3: 187-191. A.T.: paleobiogeography; paleogeography

_____, 1912. The palæogeographical relations of Antarctica. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 124: 80-90. A.T.: land bridge theory; paleogeography

Heer, Oswald [1809-1883], 1855-1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetiae. Die Tertiäre Flora der Schweiz. Winterthur: J. Würster. 3 vols. A.T.: Tertiary; Switzerland; paleobotany

Heer, Oswald, Karl Eduard Cramer [1831-1901], Adolf E. Nordenskjöld [1832-1901], & Carl Schröter [1855-1939], 1868-1883. Flora Fossilis Arctica. Die Fossile Flora der Polarländer . . . Zürich: J. Würster. 7 vols. A.T.: paleobotany; Arctic

Hehn, Victor [1813-1890], 1870. Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere in Ihrem Übergang aus Asien nach Griechenland und Italien Sowie in das Übrige Europa: Historisch-linguistische Skizzen. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger. 456 pp. (English transl.: The Wanderings of Plants and Animals from Their First Home. London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1885. 523 pp.) A.T.: cultural biogeography

Heilprin, Angelo [1853-1907], 1883. On the value of the "Nearctic" as one of the primary zoological regions. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1882 (Vol. 34): 316-334. A.T.: regional zoogeography

_____, 1887. The Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 435 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

Heim de Balsac, Henri [1899-1979], 1936. Biogéographie des Mammifères et des Oiseaux de l'Afrique du Nord. Paris: Bull. Biologique de France et de Belgique, Supplément 21. 446 pp. A.T.: Sahara; North Africa; zoogeography

*Henderson, Lawrence J. [1878-1942], 1913. The Fitness of the Environment; An Inquiry into the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter. New York: Macmillan. 317 pp. A.T.: environmental factors; chemical factors

*Hennig, Willi [1913-1976], 1950. Grundzüge einer Theorie der Phylogenetischen Systematik. Berlin: Deutscher Zentralverlag. 370 pp. A.T.: phylogenetic systematics; cladistics

Herbertson, Andrew J. [1865-1915], 1905. The major natural regions: An essay in systematic geography. Geographical Journal 25(3): 300-312. A.T.: regional geography

Hesse, Richard [1868-1944], 1924. Tiergeographie auf Ökologischer Grundlage. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 613 pp. A.T.: zoogeography; ecology

*Hesse, Richard, W. C. Allee [1885-1955], & Karl P. Schmidt [1890-1957], 1937. Ecological Animal Geography. New York: John Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall. 597 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

Hewitt, C. Gordon [1885-1920], 1921. The Conservation of the Wild Life of Canada. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. 334 pp.

Hildebrand, Samuel F. [1883-1949], 1939. The Panama Canal as a passageway for fishes, with lists and remarks on the fishes and invertebrates observed. Zoologica (New York) 24(3): 15-45. A.T.: dispersal

Hilgard, Eugene W. [1833-1916], 1906. Soils; Their Formation, Properties, Composition, and Relations to Climate and Plant Growth in the Humid and Arid Regions. New York & London: Macmillan. 593 pp.

*Hjort, Johan [1869-1948], 1914. Fluctuations in the Great Fisheries of Northern Europe, Viewed in the Light of Biological Research. Copenhagen: Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, Vol. 20. 228 pp.

*Holdridge, Leslie R. [1907-1999], 1947. Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science 105(2727): 367-368. A.T.: climatic factors; altitudinal factors; ecozones; life zones

*Hooker, Joseph D. [1817-1911], 1844-1860. The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of HMS Discovery Ships "Erebus" and "Terror" in the Years 1839-1843, Under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross. London: Reeve Brothers. 3 parts (I. Flora Antarctica II. Flora Novae-Zelandiae III. Flora Tasmaniae) in 6 vols. A.T.: natural history

_____, 1859. On the Flora of Australia: Its Origin, Affinities, and Distribution, Being an Introductory Essay to the Flora of Tasmania. London: Lovell Reeve. 128 pp. A.T.: regional floras

_____, 1861. Outlines of the distribution of Arctic plants. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23(17): 251-348. A.T.: phytogeography

_____, 1866. Lecture on insular floras [delivered before the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Nottingham, August 27, 1866; subsequently reprinted in four issues of the Gardeners' Chronicle in Jan. 1867, and in various pamphlets]. A.T.: phytogeography; island biogeography; Atlantic Ocean; evolution

_____, 1881. . . . Address to the Geographical Section of the British Association: On Geographical Distribution. Spottiswood and Co. 12 pp.

Hooper, Emmet T., Jr. [1911-1992], 1949. Faunal Relationships of Recent North American Rodents. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, Univ. of Michigan, Miscellaneous Publication No. 72. 28 pp.

Howell, A. Brazier [1886-1961], 1922. Agencies which govern the distribution of life. American Naturalist 56 (646): 428-438. A.T.: barriers; enemies; climatic factors; temperature

_____, 1924. Theories of distribution--a critique. Ecology 5(1): 51-53. A.T.: multi-causality

Hubbs, Carl L. [1894-1979], 1940. Speciation of fishes. American Naturalist 74(752): 198-211. A.T.: geographical distribution; adaptation to environment; hybrid formation

*Hubbs, Carl L., & Robert R. Miller [1916-2003], 1948. The zoological evidence: correlation between fish distribution and hydrographic history in the desert basins of western United States. In The Great Basin; With Emphasis on Glacial and Postglacial Times (Bull. of the Univ. of Utah, Biological Series 10(7)): 17-166. A.T.: stream basins; zoogeography

Hulme, F. Edward [1841-1909], 1895. Natural History, Lore and Legend. London: Bernard Quaritch. 350 pp. A.T.: folklore

*Hultén, Eric [1894-1981], 1937. Outline of the History of Arctic and Boreal Biota During the Quaternary Period; Their Evolution During and After the Glacial Period as Indicated by the Equiformal Progressive Areas of Present Plant Species. Stockholm: Bokförlags Aktiebolaget Thule. 168 pp. A.T.: Pleistocene; refugia

*_____, 1950. Atlas Över Växternas Utbredning i Norden. Fanerogamer och Ormbunksväxter. Atlas of the Distribution of Vascular Plants in Northwestern Europe. Stockholm: Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalt. 119, 512 pp.

*Humboldt, Alexander von [1769-1859], & Aimé J. A. Bonpland [1773-1858], 1805. Essai sur la Géographie des Plantes: Accompagné d'un Tableau Physique des Régions Équinoxiales . . . Paris: Levrault, Schoell et Compagnie. 155 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; biogeography

_____, 1808-1809. Plantes Équinoxiales: Recueillies au Mexique . . . Paris: Chez F. Schoell. 2 vols. A.T.: Andes; Ecuador; Amazon; Cuba; Venezuela; Mexico; Peru

**_____, 1814. Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent During the Years 1799-1804. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. 7 vols. in 6.

Huntington, Ellsworth [1876-1947], 1914. The Climatic Factor as Illustrated in Arid America. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 192. 341 pp. A.T.: environmental factors; environmental determinism; climatic factors

_____, 1915. Civilization and Climate. New Haven: Yale University Press. 333 pp. A.T.: environmental determinism; climatic factors; environmental factors

*Hutchins, Louis W. [b. 1916], 1947. The bases for temperature zonation in geographical distribution. Ecological Monographs 17(3): 325-335. A.T.: marine ecology; seasonal variation; invertebrates

*Hutchinson, George Evelyn [1903-1991], 1948. Teleological mechanisms: circular causal systems in ecology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 50(4): 221-246. A.T.: biogeochemical cycles; systems theory; population biology

Hutton, Frederick W. [1836-1905], 1873. On the geographical relations of the New Zealand fauna. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 5: 227-256.

_____, 1896. Theoretical explanations of the distribution of southern faunas. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21(1): 36-47. A.T.: Mesozoic South Pacific continent; paleogeography

Huxley, Thomas H. [1825-1895], 1868. On the classification and distribution of the Alectoromorphae and Heteromorphae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1868: 294-319. A.T.: birds; ornithogeography


Ihering, Hermann von [1850-1930], 1891. On the ancient relations between New Zealand and South America. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 24: 431-445. A.T.: land bridge theory

_____, 1907. Archhelenis und Archinotis: Gesammelte Beiträge zur Geschichte der Neotropischen Region. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. 350 pp. A.T.: land bridge theory

_____, 1927. Die Geschichte des Atlantischen Ozeans. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 237 pp. A.T.: zoogeography; paleontology; Atlantic Ocean; paleogeography

Illichevsky, S., 1933. The river as a factor of plant distribution. Journal of Ecology 21(2): 436-441. A.T.: seasonal inundation; Eastern Europe; microenvironmental factors


*Jaccard, Paul [1868-1944], 1901. Étude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion des Alpes et du Jura. Bull. de la Societé Vaudoise de la Science Naturelle 37(142) (4th ser.): 547-579.

_____, 1902. Lois de distribution florale dans la zone alpine. Bull. de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 38 (4th ser.): 69-130.

**_____, 1908. Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull. de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44 (4th ser.): 223-270. A.T.: Jaccard index; Jaccard similarity index; Jaccard coefficient; coefficients of association

*_____, 1912. The distribution of the flora in the alpine zone. New Phytologist 11(2): 37-50. A.T.: coefficient of community; rarity; phytogeography; coefficients of association

Johnston, Alexander K. [1804-1871], 1856. The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood. 137 pp.

_____, 1856. Zoological geography. In Alexander K. Johnston, The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena (Edinburgh: W. Blackwood): 79-98.

Joleaud, Léonce [1880-1938], 1924. L'histoire biogéographique de l'Amérique et la théorie de Wegener. Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris 16: 325-360. A.T.: continental drift; paleobiogeography

_____, 1939. Atlas de Paléobiogéographie. Paris: Paul Lechevalier. 99 maps. A.T.: paleobiogeography

Jordan, David Starr [1851-1931], 1905. The origin of species through isolation. Science 22(566) (new ser.): 545-562. A.T.: barriers; fishes; birds; speciation

Just, Theodor [1904-1960], 1947. Geology and plant distribution. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 127-137. A.T.: angiosperms; centers of origin; arctic


Kalela, Olavi [1908-1974], 1949. Changes in geographic ranges in the avifauna of northern and central Europe in relation to recent changes in climate. Bird-Banding 20(2): 77-103. A.T.: range limits; environmental factors; climatic factors; range change

Kampen, Pieter N. van [1878-1937], 1911. The zoogeography of the East Indian Archipelago (translated from the Dutch by Thomas Barbour). American Naturalist 45(537): 537-560. A.T.: Indonesia; New Guinea

Keller, Otto [1838-1927], 1909, 1913. Die Antike Tierwelt. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. 2 vols. A.T.: cultural biogeography; folklore

Kellogg, Vernon L. [1867-1937], 1913. Distribution and species-forming of ecto-parasites. American Naturalist 47(555): 129-158. A.T.: birds; host-parasite dispersal; Mallophaga

Kendeigh, S. Charles [1904-1986], 1934. The rôle of environment in the life of birds. Ecological Monographs 4(3): 299-417. A.T.: environmental factors; temperature; migration; biotic communities; passerines; deciduous forest

_____, 1949. Effect of temperature and season on energy resources of the English sparrow. Auk 66(2): 113-127. A.T.: animal behavior; energy balance; environmental factors; physiological ecology

*Kerner von Marilaun, Anton [1831-1898], 1895-1896. The Natural History of Plants; Their Forms, Growth, Reproduction, and Distribution (translated and edited by F. W. Oliver). New York: H. Holt and Co. 2 vols. in 4 parts. (original German ed.: Pflanzenleben. Leipzig: Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1887-1891. 2 vols.)

Kew, Harry Wallis [b. 1868], 1893. The Dispersal of Shells, an Inquiry into the Means of Dispersal Possessed by Fresh-water and Land Mollusca. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. 291 pp.

Kinsey, Alfred C. [1894-1956], 1937. An evolutionary analysis of insular and continental species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 23(1): 5-11. A.T.: gall wasps; Cynipidae; island life; hybridization

Klages, Karl H. W. [b. 1898], 1942. Ecological Crop Geography. New York: Macmillan. 615 pp. A.T.: bioclimatology; physiological ecology; geographical distribution

Kobelt, Wilhelm [1840-1916], 1897, 1898. Studien zur Zoogeographie. Wiesbaden: C. W. Kreidel. 2 vols.

Köppen, Wladimir P. [1846-1940], 1936. Das Geographische System der Klimate. In Wladimir P. Köppen & Rudolf Geiger, eds., Handbuch der Klimatologie, Band 1 (Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger), Teil C. 44 pp. A.T.: climatology; bioclimatology

Krogh, August [1874-1949], 1934. Conditions of life in the ocean. Ecological Monographs 4(4): 421-429. A.T.: physiological ecology; primary productivity; phytoplankton; nutrients

_____, 1934. Conditions of life at great depths in the ocean. Ecological Monographs 4(4): 430-439. A.T.: physiological ecology; light; pressure; nutrients

Kryshtofovich, Afrikan N. [1885-1953], 1929. Evolution of the Tertiary flora in Asia. New Phytologist 28(4): 303-312. A.T.: Northern Asia; paleobotany; climatic change

Küchler, August W. [1907-1999], 1947. A geographic system of vegetation. Geographical Review 37(2): 233-240. A.T.: vegetative form; classification; phytogeography

_____, 1949. A physiognomic classification of vegetation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 39(3): 201-210. A.T.: vegetative form; phytogeography


Lack, David [1910-1973], 1937. The psychological factor in bird distribution. British Birds 31: 130-136. A.T.: animal behavior; habitat distribution

*_____, 1947. Darwin's Finches. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 208 pp. A.T.: birds; island life; evolution; island biogeography

*Leopold, Aldo [1887-1948], 1933. Game Management. New York & London: C. Scribner's Sons. 481 pp. A.T.: conservation; wildlife biology

_____, 1933. The conservation ethic. Journal of Forestry 31(6): 634-643. A.T.: ethics; wildlife; anthropogenic factors

**_____, 1949. A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. 226 pp. A.T.: natural history; conservation

Leopold, A. Starker [1913-1983], 1950. Vegetation zones of Mexico. Ecology 31(4): 507-518. A.T.: classification; regional biogeography; phytogeography

*Liebig, Justus [1803-1873], 1840. Die Organische Chemie in Ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg und Sohn. 342 pp. A.T.: agricultural chemistry; limiting factors; Law of the Minimum

Livingston, Burton E. [1875-1948], & Grace J. Livingston, 1913. Temperature coefficients in plant geography and climatology. Botanical Gazette 56(5): 349-375. A.T.: climatic factors; United States

Livingston, Burton E., & Forrest Shreve [1878-1950], 1921. The Distribution of Vegetation in the United States, as Related to Climatic Conditions. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 284. 590 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; climatic factors

Longwell, Chester R. [1887-1975], 1944. Some thoughts on the evidence for continental drift. American Journal of Science 242(4): 218-231. A.T.: Du Toit; Wegener; paleobiogeography

Lönnberg, Einar [1865-1942], 1927. Some Speculations on the Origin of the North American Ornithic Fauna. Stockholm: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 4(6) (3rd ser.). 24 pp. A.T.: ornithogeography; birds

*Lotka, Alfred J. [1880-1949], 1925. Elements of Physical Biology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 460 pp. A.T.: Lotka-Volterra model

Lydekker, Richard [1849-1915], 1896. A Geographical History of Mammals. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 400 pp.

_____, 1916. Wild Life of the World; A Descriptive Survey of the Geographical Distribution of Animals. London & New York: Frederick Warne. 3 vols.

**Lyell, Charles [1797-1875], 1830, 1832, 1833. Principles of Geology, Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to Causes Now in Operation. London: John Murray. 3 vols. A.T.: uniformitarianism


MacDougal, Daniel T. [1865-1958], and E. S. Spalding, 1910. The Water-Balance of Succulent Plants. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 141. 77 pp. A.T.: bioclimatology; physiological ecology; Sonoran Desert

Marie-Victorin, Frère [1885-1944], 1938. Phytogeographical problems of eastern Canada. American Midland Naturalist 19(3): 489-558. A.T.: regional floras; floristic evolution; land bridge theory; paleogeography

*Marsh, George Perkins [1801-1882], 1864. Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. New York: C. Scribner. 560 pp. A.T.: conservation; anthropogenic factors

Marshall, Sheina M. [1896-1977], & Andrew P. Orr, 1927. The relation of the plankton to some chemical and physical factors in the Clyde Sea area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 14(4) (new ser.): 837-869. A.T.: environmental factors; diatoms

Martius, Karl F. P. von [1794-1868], 1831. Die Pflanzen und Thiere des Tropischen America: Ein Naturgemälde. München: Verfasser; Leipzig: F. Fleischer. 48 pp. A.T.: natural history

Martonne, Emmanuel de [1873-1955], 1909. Traité de Géographie Physique. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin. 2 vols. A.T.: physical geography; phytogeography

Martonne, Emmanuel de, Auguste Chevalier, & Lucien Cuénot, 1950. Traité de Géographie Physique (6e ed.). Tome Troisième. Biogéographie. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin. A.T.: phytogeography

Mason, Herbert L. [1896-1994], 1946. The edaphic factor in narrow endemism. I. The nature of environmental influences. Madroño 8(7): 209-226. A.T.: environmental factors; soil

_____, 1946. The edaphic factor in narrow endemism. II. The geographic occurrence of plants of highly restricted patterns of distribution. Madroño 8(8): 241-257. A.T.: soil; California

_____, 1947. Evolution of certain floristic associations in western North America. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 201-210. A.T.: plant communities; floristic evolution; redwood forest; Tertiary

Matthew, William Diller [1871-1930], 1908. Mammalian migrations between Europe and North America. American Journal of Science 25 (4th ser.): 68-70. A.T.: dispersal; paleobiogeography; faunal exchange

_____, 1913. Certain theoretical considerations affecting phylogeny and correlation. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 24(2): 283-292. A.T.: centers of dispersal

**_____, 1915. Climate and evolution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 24: 171-318. (2nd ed., revised & enlarged: New York Academy of Sciences, Special Publications Vol. 1, 1939. 223 pp.) A.T.: climatic factors; paleobiogeography; evolution; dispersal; dispersalism

_____, 1918. Affinities and origin of the Antillean mammals. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 29(4): 657-666. A.T.: paleobiogeography; West Indies

_____, 1919. Recent discoveries of fossil vertebrates in the West Indies and their bearing on the origin of the Antillean fauna. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 58(3): 161-181. A.T.: paleobiogeography; paleontology; mammals

_____, 1930. The dispersal of land animals. Scientia (Bologna) 48: 33-42. A.T.: mammals; climatic factors; paleobiogeography

Matthews, James R., 1937. Geographical relationships of the British flora. Journal of Ecology 25(1): 1-90. A.T.: phytogeography; historical review; floristic elements

*Mayr, Ernst [1904-2005], 1940. Speciation phenomena in birds. American Naturalist 74(752): 249-278. A.T.: evolution; isolation; geographical factors

_____, 1941. The origin and the history of the bird fauna of Polynesia. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association (Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press), Vol. 4: 197-216. A.T.: ornithogeography; island biogeography

*_____, 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species, From the Viewpoint of a Zoologist. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. 334 pp. A.T.: evolution

_____, 1943. The zoogeographic position of the Hawaiian Islands. Condor 45(2): 45-48. A.T.: birds; island biogeography

_____, 1944. Wallace's Line in the light of recent zoogeographic studies. Quarterly Review of Biology 19(1): 1-14. A.T.: zoogeographic boundaries; faunal regions; Indonesia

_____, 1946. History of the North American bird fauna. Wilson Bull. 58(1): 3-41. A.T.: regional biogeography; ornithogeography

_____, 1946. The number of species of birds. Auk 63(1): 64-69. A.T.: species diversity

*_____, 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1(4): 263-288. A.T.: geographical isolation; sympatry; allopatry

McAtee, Waldo L. [1883-1962], 1947. Distribution of seeds by birds. American Midland Naturalist 38(1): 214-223. A.T.: seed dispersal

Merriam, C. Hart [1855-1942], 1892. The geographic distribution of life in North America, with special reference to the Mammalia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 7: 1-64. A.T.: life zones

*_____, 1894. Laws of temperature control of the geographic distribution of terrestrial animals and plants. National Geographic Magazine 6: 229-238. A.T.: life zones

_____, 1895. The geographic distribution of animals and plants in North America. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture 1894: 203-214. A.T.: life zones

*_____, 1898. Life Zones and Crop Zones of the United States. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey, Bull. No. 10. 79 pp.

*Merriam, C. Hart, & Leonhard H. Stejneger [1851-1943], 1890. Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region and Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona. Washington, D.C.: North American Fauna No. 3. 136 pp. A.T.: life zones; altitudinal zonation

Merrill, Elmer D. [1876-1956], 1945. Plant Life of the Pacific World. New York: Macmillan. 295 pp. A.T.: regional floras

Mertens, Robert [1894-1975], 1934. Die Insel-Reptilien, Ihre Ausbreitung, Variation, und Artbildung. Zoologica (Stuttgart), Heft 84. 209 pp. A.T.: reptiles; island life

Metcalf, Maynard M. [1868-1940], 1923. The origin and distribution of the Anura. American Naturalist 57(652): 385-411. A.T.: land bridge theory; host-parasite dispersal; frogs

_____, 1929. Parasites and the Aid They Give in Problems of Taxonomy, Geographical Distribution, and Paleogeography. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 81, No. 8. 36 pp. A.T.: host-parasite dispersal; zoogeography

Meusel, Hermann [1909-1997], 1943. Vergleichende Arealkunde. Berlin-Zehlendorf: Borntraeger. 2 vols. A.T.: phytogeography

Meyen, Franz J. F. [1804-1840], 1836. Grundriss der Pflanzengeographie . . . Berlin: Haude und Spenersche. 478 pp. (English transl.: Outlines of the Geography of Plants . . . London: Ray Society, 1846. 422 pp.) A.T.: phytogeography

Michaelsen, Johann W. [1860-1937], 1903. Die Geographische Verbreitung der Oligochaeten. Berlin: R. Friedländer. 186 pp.

Miller, Robert Rush [1916-2003], 1948. The Cyprinodont Fishes of the Death Valley System of Eastern California and Southwestern Nevada. Ann Arbor: Museum of Zoology, Univ. of Michigan, Miscellaneous Publication No. 68. 155 pp. A.T.: desert fishes

Miranda, Faustino, & Aaron J. Sharp [1904-1997], 1950. Characteristics of the vegetation in certain temperate regions of eastern Mexico. Ecology 31(3): 313-333. A.T.: regional floras; phytogeography; South Carolina

Misra, R. D., 1938. Edaphic factors in the distribution of aquatic plants in the English lakes. Journal of Ecology 26(2): 411-451. A.T.: substratum variation; chemical factors; muds

Moore, John Alexander [1915-2002], 1942. The role of temperature in speciation of frogs. Biological Symposia 6: 189-213.

Moreau, Reginald E. [1897-1970], 1948. Ecological isolation in a rich tropical avifauna. Journal of Animal Ecology 17(2): 113-126. A.T.: Usambara; ecological biogeography; ecological overlap

Moyle, John B. [1909-1977], 1945. Some chemical factors influencing the distribution of aquatic plants in Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 34(2): 402-420. A.T.: lakes; pH; acidity; water chemistry

Muir, John [1838-1914], 1901. Our National Parks. Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 370 pp. A.T.: conservation; protected lands

____, 1912. The Yosemite. New York: Century. 284 pp. A.T.: conservation; natural history; California

Müller, Peter E. [1840-1926], 1887. Studien über die Natürlichen Humusformen und deren Einwirkung auf Vegetation und Boden. Berlin: J. Springer. 324 pp. A.T.: humus; forest soils; plant ecology

Munro, George C. [1866-1963], 1944. Birds of Hawaii. Honolulu: Tongg Publ. Co. 189 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

*Murphy, Robert Cushman [1887-1973], 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America; A Study of Species of the Related Coasts and Seas, Including the American Quadrant of Antarctica, Based Upon the Brewster-Sanford Collection in the American Museum of Natural History. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 2 vols. A.T.: regional faunas

Murray, Andrew [1812-1878], 1866. The Geographical Distribution of Mammals. London: Day & Son. 420 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

Murray, John [1841-1914], 1908. The distribution of organisms in the hydrosphere as affected by varying chemical and physical conditions. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 1(1-2): 10-17. A.T.: physical factors; marine biology; limiting factors

Murray, John, & Johan Hjort [1869-1948], 1912. The Depths of the Ocean, A General Account of the Modern Science of Oceanography . . . London: Macmillan. 821 pp. A.T.: North Atlantic Ocean; marine life

*Myers, George S. [1905-1985], 1938. Fresh-water fishes and West Indian zoogeography. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 92: 339-364. A.T.: land bridge theory; paleogeography; island biogeography

_____, 1940. An American cyprinodont fish, Jordanella floridae, reported from Borneo, with notes on the possible widespread introduction of foreign aquarium fishes. Copeia (4): 267-268. A.T.: introduced species

_____, 1949. Salt-tolerance of fresh-water fish groups in relation to zoogeographical problems. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 28: 315-322. A.T.: environmental factors; salinity

Myers, John Golding, 1934. The arthropod fauna of a rice-ship, trading from Burma to the West Indies. Journal of Animal Ecology 3(2): 146-149. A.T.: anthropogenic factors; introduced species


Neumayr, Melchior [1845-1890], 1883. Über klimatische Zonen während der Jura- und Kreidezeit. Denkschriften der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 47: 277-310. A.T.: climatic factors

Newbigin, Marion I. [1869-1934], 1913. Animal Geography; The Faunas of the Natural Regions of the Globe. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press. 238 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

_____, 1936. Plant and Animal Geography. London: Methuen. 298 pp. A.T.: biogeography

*Nicholson, A. J. [1895-1969], 1933. The balance of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 2(1): 132-178. A.T.: competition; population density; predator-prey relations; environmental change

*Nicholson, A. J., & Victor A. Bailey [1895-1964], 1935. The balance of animal populations. Part 1. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1935: 551-598. A.T.: host-parasite relation; population biology; density-dependent

Noble, Gladwyn K. [1894-1940], 1925. The evolution and dispersal of the frogs. American Naturalist 59(662): 265-271. A.T.: systematics; Metcalf; host-parasite dispersal

_____, 1926. An Analysis of the Remarkable Cases of Distribution Among the Amphibia, With Descriptions of New Genera. New York: American Museum of Natural History Novitates No. 212. 24 pp. A.T.: centers of dispersal; disjunct distribution patterns; morphology

Norman, John R. [1898-1944], 1931. A History of Fishes. London: Ernest Benn; New York: Frederick A. Stokes. 463 pp. A.T.: ichthyology; natural history


Odum, Eugene P. [1913-2002], 1950. Bird populations of the Highlands (North Carolina) Plateau in relation to plant succession and avian invasion. Ecology 31(4): 587-605. A.T.: ecological biogeography

Oliver, Walter R. B. [1883-1957], 1930. New Zealand Birds. Wellington: Fine Arts (N. Z.). 541 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

_____, 1949. The Moas of New Zealand and Australia. Wellington: Dominion Museum Bull. No. 15. 205 pp. A.T.: extinct animals

Oosting, Henry J. [1903-1968], 1948. The Study of Plant Communities; An Introduction to Plant Ecology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. 389 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; community ecology

*Oosting, Henry J., & W. Dwight Billings [1910-1997], 1942. Factors effecting vegetational zonation on coastal dunes. Ecology 23(2): 131-142. A.T.: ecological biogeography; phytogeography; plant ecology; North Carolina

Ortmann, Arnold E. [1863-1927], 1896. Grundzüge der Marinen Tiergeographie. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 96 pp. A.T.: marine biogeography

_____, 1902. The geographical distribution of freshwater decapods and its bearing upon ancient geography. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 41: 267-400. A.T.: paleogeography

_____, 1910. Tertiary Archhelenis. American Naturalist 44(520): 237-242. A.T.: land bridge theory; von Ihering; South America

Osborn, Fairfield [1887-1969], 1948. Our Plundered Planet. Boston: Little, Brown. 217 pp. A.T.: conservation; anthropogenic factors

Osborn, Henry Fairfield [1857-1935], 1910. The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America. New York: Macmillan. 635 pp. A.T.: paleobiology; paleontology

_____, 1936-1942. Proboscidea. A Monograph of the Discovery, Evolution, Migration and Extinction of the Mastodonts and Elephants of the World (edited by Mabel Rice Percy). New York: American Museum of Natural History. 2 vols.

Owen, Richard [1804-1892], 1859. On the Classification and Geographical Distribution of the Mammalia. London: John W. Parker & Son. 103 pp.


*Pearsall, William H. [1891-1964], 1920. The aquatic vegetation of the English lakes. Journal of Ecology 8(3): 163-201. A.T.: Lake District; ecological biogeography; phytogeography; environmental factors

_____, 1921. The development of vegetation in the English Lakes, considered in relation to the general evolution of glacial lakes and rock basins. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Ser. B 92(647): 259-284. A.T.: geomorphology; landscape evolution; ecological biogeography; environmental factors

_____, 1922. A suggestion as to factors influencing the distribution of free-floating vegetation. Journal of Ecology 9(2): 241-253. A.T.: dispersal; currents

*_____, 1932. Phytoplankton in the English Lakes II. The composition of the phytoplankton in relation to dissolved substances. Journal of Ecology 20(2): 241–262. A.T.: water chemistry; nutrients; plant ecology; algae

_____, 1950. Mountains and Moorlands. London: Collins. 312 pp. A.T.: moors; alpine plants; alpine ecology; alpine floras

Pearson, Gustaf A. [1880-1949], 1920. Factors controlling the distribution of forest types. Ecology 1: 139-159, 289-308. A.T.: environmental factors; temperature; soils; moisture; San Francisco Mountains

Perrier de la Bâthie, Henri [1873-1958], 1936. Biogéographie des Plantes de Madagascar. Paris: Société d'Éditions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales. 156 pp. A.T.: regional floras

Phillips, John C. [1876-1938], 1928. Wild Birds Introduced or Transplanted in North America. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bull. No. 61. 64 pp. A.T.: introduced species; acclimatization; bioinvasions; anthropogenic factors

Pickering, Charles [1805-1878], 1863. The Geographical Distribution of Animals and Plants. United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. XV. Boston: Gould and Lincoln; London: Trübner & Co. 168 pp. A.T.: natural history

*Pilgrim, Guy E. [1875-1943], 1913. The correlation of the Siwaliks with mammal horizons of Europe. Records of the Geological Survey of India 43: 264-325. A.T.: paleogeography; vertebrate paleontology, zoogeography

_____, 1941. The dispersal of the Artiodactyla. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 16(2): 134-163. A.T.: paleobiogeography; paleontology; centers of origin

Pilsbry, Henry Augustus [1862-1957], 1901. The genesis of mid-Pacific faunas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1900 (Vol. 52): 568-581. A.T.: dispersal; island biogeography; paleogeography; land-snails; Polynesia

Pilsbry, Henry A., & Joseph C. Bequaert [1886-1982], 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 53(2): 69-602. A.T.: regional faunas; regional biogeography

Pinchot, Gifford [1865-1946], 1910. The Fight for Conservation. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. 152 pp.

Pitelka, Frank A. [1916-2003], 1941. Distribution of birds in relation to major biotic communities. American Midland Naturalist 25(1): 113-137. A.T.: biomes; deciduous forest species; coniferous forest species

Praeger, Robert Lloyd [1865-1953], 1901. Irish Topographical Botany. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings Vol. 7 (3rd ser.). 410 pp.

**Preston, Frank W. [1896-1989], 1948. The commonness, and rarity, of species. Ecology 29(3): 254-283. A.T.: Raunkiaer; C.B. Williams; lognormal distribution; population biology; mathematical models


Rand, Austin L. [1905-1982], 1936. The distribution and habits of Madagascar birds: Summary of the field notes of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine à Madagascar. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 72(5): 143-499.

_____, 1948. Glaciation, an isolating factor in speciation. Evolution 2(4): 314-321. A.T.: North America; birds; geographical isolation; glacial epoch

Ratzel, Friedrich [1844-1904], 1901. Der Lebensraum: Eine Biogeographische Studie. Tübingen: H. Laupp. 87 pp. A.T.: geopolitics; anthropogeography; biogeography; living space

_____, 1901, 1902. Die Erde und das Leben: Eine Vergleichende Erdkunde. Leipzig & Wien: Bibliographisches Institut. 2 vols. A.T.: cultural biogeography; physical geography; biogeography

*Raunkiær, Christen [1860-1938], 1934. The Life Forms of Plants and Statistical Plant Geography. Oxford, U.K.: The Clarendon Press. 632 pp. A.T.: plant morphology

Raup, Hugh M. [1901-1995], 1941. Botanical problems in boreal America. Botanical Review 7(3 & 4): 147-248. A.T.: plant communities; subarctic; phytogeography; glacial refugia; Quaternary

_____, 1942. Trends in the development of geographic botany. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 32(4): 319-354. A.T.: history of phytogeography; methodology; phytogeography

_____, 1947. Some natural floristic areas in boreal America. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 221-234. A.T.: Canada; glacial refugia; equiformal progressive areas; subarctic

Raven, Henry C. [1889-1944], 1935. Wallace's Line and the distribution of Indo-Australian mammals. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 68(4): 179-293. A.T.: zoogeographic boundaries; regional zoogeography

Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de [1683-1757], 1738. Observations du thermometre, faites à Paris pendant l'année M. DCCXXXV. Comparées avec celles qui ont été faites sous la Ligne, à l'Isle de France, à Alger, & en quelques-unes de nos Isles de l'Amérique. Histoire de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, Année M. DCCXXXV, Avec les Mémoires de Mathématique & de Physique, pour la même Année: 545-576.

Reid, Clement [1853-1916], 1899. The Origin of the British Flora. London: Dulau & Co. 191 pp. A.T.: paleobotany

Reinig, William F. [b. 1904], 1937. Die Holarktis; Ein Beitrag zur Diluvialen und Alluvialen Geschichte der Zirkumpolaren Faunen- und Florengebiete. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 124 pp. A.T.: Holarctic; regional biogeography

*Rensch, Bernhard [1900-1990], 1929. Das Prinzip Geographischer Rassenkreise und das Problem der Artbildung. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger. 206 pp. A.T.: biogeography; evolution

*_____, 1947. Neuere Probleme der Abstammungslehre: Die Transspezifische Evolution. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. 407 pp. A.T.: macroevolution

Richardson, John [1787-1865], William Swainson [1789-1855], & William Kirby [1759-1850], 1829-1837. Fauna Boreali-Americana; Or the Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America . . . London: John Murray. 4 vols. A.T.: natural history; Arctic; regional faunas

**Ridley, Henry N. [1855-1956], 1930. The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. Ashford, Kent, U.K.: L. Reeve & Co. 744 pp. A.T.: phytogeography

Ripley, S. Dillon II [1913-2001], 1949. Avian relicts and double invasions in peninsular India and Ceylon. Evolution 3(2): 150-159. A.T.: isolation; range overlap; glacial epoch; climatic change

Ritchie, James [1882-1958], 1920. The Influence of Man on Animal Life in Scotland: A Study in Faunal Evolution. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 550 pp. A.T.: cultural biogeography; anthropogenic factors

Robin, Percy Ansell, 1932. Animal Lore in English Literature. London: John Murray, London. 196 pp. A.T.: folklore

Romer, Alfred S. [1894-1973], 1933. Vertebrate Paleontology. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 491 pp.

Rosa, Daniele [1857-1944], 1931. L'Ologénèse; Nouvelle Théorie de l'Évolution et de la Distribution Géographique des Êtres Vivants (rev. & expanded transl. by the author from his original 1918 Italian ed.). Felix Alcan, Paris. 368 pp. A.T.: hologenesis

Rübel, Eduard A. [1876-1960], 1927. Ecology, plant geography, and geobotany: their history and aim. Botanical Gazette 84(4): 428-439. A.T.: philosophy of ecology; Grisebach

_____, 1930. Pflanzengesellschaften der Erde. Bern-Berlin: H. Huber. 464 pp. A.T.: plant ecology; phytogeography

Rutsch, Rolf F. [b. 1902], 1940. Evolution of tropical American Tertiary faunas and theory of continental drift. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association (Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press), Vol. 2: 619-626.

Rydberg, Per Axel [1860-1931], 1917. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and Adjacent Plains. New York: the author. 1110 pp. A.T.: regional biogeography

_____, 1932. Flora of the Prairies and Plains of Central North America. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 969 pp. A.T.: regional floras


Salisbury, Edward J. [1886-1978], 1926. The geographical distribution of plants in relation to climatic factors. Geographical Journal 67(4): 312-342.

Salomonsen, Finn [1909-1983], 1948. The distribution of birds and the recent climatic change in the North Atlantic area. Dansk Ornithologisk Forenings Tidsskrift 42(2): 85-99. A.T.: breeding birds; accidentals

Scharff, Robert F. [1858-1934], 1895. Études sur les mammifères de la région holarctique et leurs relations avec ceux des régions voisines. Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France 8: 436-474. A.T.: zoogeography

_____, 1899. The History of the European Fauna. London: Walter Scott; New York: C. Scribner's Sons. 364 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

_____, 1907. European Animals: Their Geological History and Geographical Distribution. London: Archibald Constable & Co. 258 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

_____, 1909. On the Evidences of a Former Land-bridge Between Northern Europe and North America. Dublin & London: Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings Vol. 28, Section B, No. 1. 28 pp. A.T.: paleogeography

_____, 1911. Distribution and Origin of Life in America. London: Constable & Co. 497 pp. A.T.: zoogeography

*Schimper, Andreas F. W. [1856-1901], 1898. Pflanzen-geographie auf Physiologischer Grundlage. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 876 pp. (English transl.: Plant-geography Upon a Physiological Basis. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1903. 839 pp.) A.T.: environmental factors; climate; plant formations; floristic regions

Schmarda, Ludwig K. [1819-1908], 1853. Die Geographische Verbreitung der Thiere. Wien: Carl Gerold & Sohn. 3 vols. A.T.: zoogeography

Schmidt, Karl P. [1890-1957], 1938. Herpetological evidence for the postglacial eastward extension of the steppe in North America. Ecology 19(3): 396-407. A.T.: postglacial dispersal; zoogeography; range change

_____, 1943. Corollary and commentary for "Climate and Evolution." American Midland Naturalist 30(1): 241-253. A.T.: zoogeography; centers of origin; dispersalism; history of biogeography

_____, 1945. Evolution, succession, and dispersal. American Midland Naturalist 33(3): 788-790. A.T.: evolution and ecology

_____, 1946. On the zoogeography of the Holarctic Region. Copeia (3): 144-152. A.T.: Eurasia; North America; dispersal; faunal relations

_____, 1950. The concept of geographic range, with illustrations from amphibians and reptiles. Texas Journal of Science 2(3): 326-334. A.T.: evolution and ecology; biogeography; terminology

*Scholander, Per Fredrik [1905-1980], Raymond Hock, Vladimir Walters, & Laurence Irving [1895-1979], 1950. Adaptation to cold in arctic and tropical mammals and birds in relation to body temperature, insulation, and basal metabolism rate. Biological Bull. 99(2): 259-271. A.T.: physiological ecology; climatic factors

*Scholander, Per Fredrik, Raymond Hock, Vladimir Walters, Fred Johnson, & Laurence Irving, 1950. Heat regulation in some arctic and tropical mammals and birds. Biological Bull. 99(2): 237-258. A.T.: temperature; physiological ecology; climatic factors

Schouw, Joakim F. [1789-1852], 1823. Grundzüge einer Allgemeinen Pflanzengeographie. Berlin: G. Reimer. 524 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; Germany

Schuchert, Charles [1858-1942], 1932. Gondwana land bridges. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 43(4): 875-915. A.T.: land bridge theory; paleobiogeography; larval dispersal

*_____, 1935. Historical Geology of the Antillean-Caribbean Region, or the Lands Bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. New York: John Wiley & Sons; London: Chapman & Hall. 811 pp. A.T.: paleogeography

**Sclater, Philip Lutley [1829-1913], 1858. On the general geographical distribution of the members of the class Aves. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society: Zoology 2: 130-145. A.T.: faunal regions; faunal realms; birds; systematic zoogeography; ornithogeography

_____, 1878. Some difficulties in zoological distribution. Nineteenth Century 4: 1037-1052. A.T.: disjunct distribution patterns

_____, 1897. On the distribution of marine mammals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1897: 349-359.

Sclater, William Lutley [1863-1944], 1894-1897. The geography of mammals. Geographical Journal 3(2): 95-105; 4(1): 35-52; 5(5): 471-483; 7(3): 282-296; 8(4): 378-389; 9(1): 67-76; 10(1): 84-91. A.T.: zoogeographic regions

Sclater, William L., & Philip L. Sclater [1829-1913], 1899. The Geography of Mammals. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. 335 pp.

Scott, William Berryman [1858-1947], 1913. A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere. New York: Macmillan. 693 pp. A.T.: paleontology; paleobiogeography

Scrivenor, John B. [1876-1950], I. H. Burkill, M. A. Smith, A. S. Corbet, H. K. Airy Shaw, P. W. Richards, & F. E. Zeuner, 1943. A discussion on the biogeographic division of the Indo-Australian archipelago, with criticism of the Wallace and Weber lines and of any other dividing lines and with an attempt to obtain uniformity in the names used for the divisions. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 154: 120-165. A.T.: zoogeographic boundaries; Indonesia; faunal regions

Sears, Paul Bigelow [1891-1990], 1935. Deserts on the March. Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press. 231 pp. A.T.: desertification; anthropogenic factors

_____, 1935. Glacial and postglacial vegetation. Botanical Review 1(2): 37-51. A.T.: Pleistocene; Holocene

Semper, Carl G. [1832-1893], 1881. Animal Life as Affected by the Natural Conditions of Existence. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 472 pp. A.T.: physiological ecology; environmental factors

Setchell, William A. [1864-1943], 1917. Geographical distribution of the marine algae. Science 45(1157): 197-204.

_____, 1920. The temperature interval in the geographical distribution of marine algae. Science 52(1339): 187-190. A.T.: isotheres; North Atlantic

_____, 1935. Geographic elements of the marine flora of the North Pacific Ocean. American Naturalist 69(725): 560-577. A.T.: environmental factors; geographical distribution; phytogeography; algae; sea grasses

Seton, Ernest Thompson [1860-1946], 1925-1928. Lives of Game Animals. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co. 4 vols. A.T.: animal behavior; North America; wildlife biology

Seward, Albert C. [1863-1941], 1926. The Cretaceous plant-bearing rocks of western Greenland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 215: 57-175. A.T.: paleobotany

_____, 1931. Plant Life Through the Ages; A Geological and Botanical Retrospect. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press; New York: Macmillan. 601 pp. A.T.: paleobotany

Shantz, Homer L. [1876-1958], & Lydia N. Piemeisel, 1927. The water requirement of plants at Akron, Colo. Journal of Agricultural Research 34(12): 1093-1190. A.T.: evaporation; transpiration; physiological ecology

Shelford, Victor E. [1877-1968], 1911. Physiological animal geography. Journal of Morphology 22(3): 551-618. A.T.: environmental factors; autecology

_____, 1911. Ecological succession. I. Stream fishes and the method of physiographic analysis. Biological Bull. 21(1): 9-35.

*_____, 1913. Animal Communities in Temperate America, as Illustrated in the Chicago Region. Chicago: Geographic Society of Chicago, Bull. No. 5. 362 pp. (2nd ed.: 1937. 368 pp.) A.T.: community ecology; animal ecology; environmental factors

Shelford, Victor E., & Warder C. Allee [1885-1955], 1913. The reactions of fishes to gradients of dissolved atmospheric gases. Journal of Experimental Zoology 14(2): 207-266. A.T.: physiological ecology

Shelford, Victor E., et al., 1935. Some marine biotic communities of the Pacific Coast of North America. Part I. General survey of the communities. Ecological Monographs 5(3): 251-332. A.T.: physiological ecology; marine invertebrates; tidal communities

Shreve, Forrest [1878-1950], 1911. The influence of low temperatures on the distribution of the giant cactus. Plant World 14: 136-146. A.T.: desert plants; limiting factors

_____, 1914. The role of winter temperatures in determining the distribution of plants. American Journal of Botany 1(4): 194-202. A.T.: physiological ecology; limiting factors; phytogeography; desert plants

_____, 1914. A Montane Rain-forest; A Contribution to the Physiological Plant Geography of Jamaica. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 199. 110 pp. A.T.: ecological biogeography; transpiration; environmental factors

_____, 1915. The Vegetation of a Desert Mountain Range as Conditioned by Climatic Factors. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 217. 112 pp. A.T.: desert plants; Arizona

_____, 1922. Conditions indirectly affecting vertical distribution on desert mountains. Ecology 3(4): 269-274. A.T.: altitudinal factors; Arizona; vertical zonation; plant associations

*_____, 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical Review 8(4): 195-246. A.T.: life-forms; regional biogeography; phytogeography; climatic factors

**Simpson, E. H., 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688. A.T.: diversity indices

Simpson, George Gaylord [1902-1984], 1936. Data on the relationships of local and continental mammalian faunas. Journal of Paleontology 10(5): 410-414. A.T.: Florida; New Mexico; zoogeography

_____, 1940. Antarctica as a faunal migration route. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association (Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press), Vol. 2: 755-768. A.T.: dispersal

*_____, 1940. Mammals and land bridges. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 30(4): 137-163. A.T.: zoogeography; sweepstakes dispersal; corridor dispersal; waif dispersal; filter-bridges

_____, 1940. Review of the mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 83(5): 649-709. A.T.: paleontology

*_____, 1943. Mammals and the nature of continents. American Journal of Science 241(1): 1-31. A.T.: continental drift; land bridge theory; paleogeography

_____, 1943. Turtles and the origin of the fauna of Latin America. American Journal of Science 241(7): 413-429. A.T.: paleogeography; Cenozoic; dispersal

*_____, 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. 237 pp.

*_____, 1945. The Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals. New York: American Museum of Natural History, Bull. Vol. 85. 350 pp. A.T.: systematics

_____, 1946. Tertiary land bridges. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 8(8) (2nd ser.): 255-258. A.T.: mammals; Cenozoic; paleogeography

_____, 1947. Evolution, interchange, and resemblance of the North American and Eurasian Cenozoic mammalian faunas. Evolution 1(3): 218-220. A.T.: paleontology; dispersal; faunal resemblance

*_____, 1947. Holarctic mammalian faunas and continental relationships during the Cenozoic. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 58(7): 613-687. A.T.: paleobiogeography; paleogeography; regional zoogeography

*_____, 1948. The beginning of the Age of Mammals in South America. Part 1, introduction, systematics. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 91(1): 1-232. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1950. History of the fauna of Latin America. American Scientist 38(3): 361-389. A.T.: paleobiogeography; regional faunas; mammals

Sinnott, Edmund W. [1888-1968], 1917. The 'age and area' hypothesis and the problem of endemism. Annals of Botany 31: 209-216. A.T.: relicts; plants; rarity

*Skottsberg, Carl J. F. [1880-1963], ed., 1920-1956. The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells. 3 vols. A.T.: island life

_____, 1925. Juan Fernandez and Hawaii: A Phytogeographical Discussion. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bull. 16. 47 pp. A.T.: island biogeography; age and area; dispersal

Smith, Hugh M. [1865-1941], 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific States. Bull. of the United States Fish Commission Vol. 15, for 1895: 379-472. A.T.: anthropogenic factors; acclimatization; introduced species

Smith, Lyman B. [1904-1997], 1934. Geographical evidence on the lines of evolution in the Bromeliaceae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 66(4): 446-468. A.T.: Andes; historical biogeography

Smith, Marion R. [b. 1894], 1936. Distribution of the Argentine Ant in the United States and Suggestions for Its Control or Eradication. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Circular No. 387. 40 pp. A.T.: bioinvasions; economic entomology; anthropogenic factors; dispersion

Spalding, Volney M. [1849-1918], 1909. Distribution and Movements of Desert Plants. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 113. 144 pp. A.T.: ecological biogeography; plant associations

Stebbins, George Ledyard, Jr. [1906-2000], 1947. Evidence on rates of evolution from the distribution of existing and fossil plant species. Ecological Monographs 17(2): 149-158. A.T.: Tertiary; trees; California

*_____, 1950. Variation and Evolution in Plants. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. 643 pp. A.T.: speciation; genetics; isolation

Steenis, Cornelis G. G. J. van [1901-1986], 1934-1936. On the origin of the Malaysian mountain flora. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 13 (sér. III): 135-262, 289-417. A.T.: regional floras

_____, ed., 1948-. Flora Malesiana, Being an Illustrated Systematic Account of the Malaysian Flora . . . Djakarta: Noordhoff. in multiple series and parts. A.T.: regional floras

Stegmann [Shtegman], Boris K. [1898-1975], 1938. Principes Généraux des Subdivisions Ornithogéographiques de la Région Paléarctique [text in Russian]. Moskva & Leningrad: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR. 156 pp. A.T.: faunal regions

_____, 1938. Das Problem der atlantischen Landverbindung in ornithgeographischer Beleuchtung. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Ornithological Congress, Oxford July 1934 (Oxford, U.K.: Univ. Press): 476-500. A.T.: land bridge theory

Stejneger, Leonhard H. [1851-1943], 1887. How the Great Northern Sea-Cow (Rytina) became exterminated. American Naturalist 21(12): 1047-1054. A.T.: extinction; anthropogenic factors

_____, 1907. Herpetology of Japan and Adjacent Territory. Washington, D.C.: Bull. of the United States National Museum No. 58. 577 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

Stewart, Alban [b. 1875], 1911. A botanical survey of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 1(2) (4th ser.): 7-288. A.T.: regional floras

Sukachev, Vladimir N. [1880-1967], 1928. Principles of classification of the spruce communities of European Russia. Journal of Ecology 16(1): 1-18. A.T.: taiga; environmental factors; plant associations

Swainson, William [1789-1855], 1835. A Treatise on the Geography and Classification of Animals. London: Longman et al. 367 pp. A.T.: natural history

Swarth, Harry S. [1878-1935], 1931. The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, Occasional Papers Vol. 18. 299 pp. A.T.: regional faunas

_____, 1936. Origins of the fauna of the Sitkan district, Alaska. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 23(3) (4th ser.): 59-78. A.T.: vertebrates; postglacial dispersal; regional faunas


Tansley, Arthur G. [1871-1955], 1920. The classification of vegetation and the concept of development. Journal of Ecology 8(2): 118-149. A.T.: plant communities; ecological climax; plant associations; terminology; plant formations

**_____, 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16(3): 284-307. A.T.: ecosystem concept; terminology; ecological climax; plant succession

Tate, George H. H. [1894-1953], 1935. Rodents of the genus Rattus and Mus from the Pacific islands, collected by the Whitney South Sea Expedition, with a discussion of the origin and races of the Pacific island rat. Bull. of the American Museum of Natural History 68(3): 145-178. A.T.: island life; anthropogenic factors; introduced species

Tate, Ralph [1840-1901], 1889. On the influence of physiographic changes in the distribution of life in Australia. Report of the Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science 1: 312-325. A.T.: paleobiogeography

Taylor, Walter P. [1888-1972], 1934. Significance of extreme or intermittent conditions in distribution of species and management of natural resources, with a restatement of Liebig's law of minimum. Ecology 15(4): 374-379. A.T.: environmental factors; climatic factors

Taylor, William Randolph [1895-1990], 1950. Plants of Bikini and Other Northern Marshall Islands. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. University of Michigan Studies, Scientific Series Vol. 18. 227 pp. A.T.: nuclear tests; atolls

*Thienemann, August F. [1882-1960], 1918. Lebensgemeinschaft und Lebensraum. Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift 33(17): 281-290, 297-303.

_____, 1950. Verbreitungsgeschichte der Süswassertierwelt Europas; Versuch einer Historischen Tiergeographie der Europäischen Binnengewässer. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart. 809 pp. A.T.: freshwater animals; limnology

*Thompson, D'Arcy W. [1860-1948], 1917. On Growth and Form. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 793 pp. A.T.: morphology

Thomson, C. Wyville [1830-1882], William B. Carpenter [1813-1885], & J. Gwyn Jeffreys [1809-1885], 1873. The Depths of the Sea: An Account of the General Results of the Dredging Cruises of H.M.S.S. 'Porcupine' and 'Lightning' During the Summers of 1868, 1869, and 1870 . . . New York and London: Macmillan and Co., 1873. 527 pp.

Thomson, C. Wyville, John Murray [1841-1914], et al., 1880-1895. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873-76 Under the Command of Captain George S. Nares . . . and the Late Captain Frank Tourle Thomson, R.N. Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Office. 40 vols. in 44. A.T.: natural history

*Thomson, George M. [1848-1933], 1922. The Naturalisation of Animals and Plants in New Zealand. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 607 pp. A.T.: introduced species; anthropogenic factors; acclimatization

**Thornthwaite, C. Warren [1889-1963], 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review 38(1): 55-94. A.T.: evapotranspiration; climatic factors; Thornthwaite moisture index; thermal efficiency; bioclimatology

Torrey, John [1796-1873], & Asa Gray [1810-1888], 1838-1843. A Flora of North America: Containing Abridged Descriptions of All the Known Indigenous and Naturalized Plants Growing North of Mexico; Arranged According to the Natural System. New York & London: Wiley & Putnam. 2 vols. A.T.: regional floras

Transeau, Edgar N. [1875-1960], 1903. On the geographic distribution and ecological relations of the bog plant societies of northern North America. Botanical Gazette 36(6): 401-420. A.T.: glacial epoch; relictual distribution; phytogeography

*_____, 1935. The prairie peninsula. Ecology 16(3): 423-437. A.T.: anthropogenic factors; climatic change; Midwest

Troll, Carl [1899-1975], 1939. Luftbildplan und ökologische Bodenforschung. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 1939: 241-298. A.T.: landscape ecology

*Turesson, Göte V. [1892-1970], 1922. The species and the variety as ecological units. Hereditas 3(1): 100-113. A.T.: environmental factors; ecotypes

*_____, 1922. The genotypical response of the plant species to the habitat. Hereditas 3: 211-350. A.T.: environmental factors; ecotypes

*_____, 1925. The plant species in relation to habitat and climate. Hereditas 6: 147-236. A.T.: environmental factors; ecotypes

Turnage, William V., & Arthur L. Hinckley, 1938. Freezing weather in relation to plant distribution in the Sonoran Desert. Ecological Monographs 8(4): 529-550. A.T.: cold temperature; limiting factors; range boundaries

Turrill, William B. [1890-1961], 1929. The Plant-life of the Balkan Peninsula. A Phytogeographical Study. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press. 490 pp. A.T.: regional floras; Southeastern Europe


Van Denburgh, John [1872-1924], 1914. The gigantic land tortoises of the Galapagos Archipelago. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 2(1) (4th ser.): 203-372. A.T.: island life

Van Dyke, Edwin C. [1869-1952], 1940. The origin and distribution of the coleopterous insect fauna of North America. In Proceedings of the Sixth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association (Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press), Vol. 4: 255-268.

*Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich [1887-1943], 1926. Studies on the origin of cultivated plants. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii (Bull. of Applied Botany, of Genetics and Plant-Breeding) 16: 1-248. A.T.: grain; hemp

*Vernadsky, Vladimir I. [1863-1945], 1929. La Biosphère (French transl. of the 1926 Russian ed., Biosfera). Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan. 231 pp. A.T.: biosphere; noosphere; evolution; philosophy of biology

_____, 1945. The biosphere and the noösphere. American Scientist 33(1): 1-12. A.T.: evolution; philosophy of biology; philosophy of geology

Visher, Stephen S. [1887-1967], 1916. The biogeography of the northern Great Plains. Geographical Review 2(2): 89-115.

_____, 1925. Tropical cyclones and the dispersal of life from island to island in the Pacific. American Naturalist 59(660): 70-78. A.T.: wind dispersal; ocean currents


Wadley, Francis M., & Daniel O. Wolfenbarger [1904-1995], 1944. Regression of insect density on distance from center of dispersion as shown by a study of the smaller European elm bark beetle. Journal of Agricultural Research 69(7): 299-308. A.T.: economic entomology; distance-decay relationship

Wagner, Johann Andreas [1797-1861], 1844-1846. Die geographische Verbreitung der Säugethiere dargestellt. Abhandlungen, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse 4(1): 1-146; 4(2): 37-108; 4(3): 1-114. A.T.: zoogeography

Wagner, Moritz [1813-1887], 1868. Die Darwin'sche Theorie und das Migrationsgesetz der Organismen. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. 62 pp. A.T.: geographical isolation; dispersal; Darwinism

_____, ed., 1889. Die Entstehung der Arten durch Raumliche Sonderung. Basel: B. Schwabe. 667 pp. A.T.: origin of species; evolution

*Wallace, Alfred Russel [1823-1913], 1852. On the monkeys of the Amazon. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 20: 107-110. A.T.: riverine barriers hypothesis; speciation

**_____, 1855. On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 16 (2nd ser.): 184-196. A.T.: evolution; Sarawak Law; historical biogeography

_____, 1857. On the natural history of the Aru Islands. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 20 (2nd ser., Supplement): 473-485. A.T.: Indonesia; historical biogeography; Sarawak Law

_____, 1859. Letter from Mr. Wallace concerning the geographical distribution of birds. Ibis 1 (No. 4, 1st ser.): 449-454. A.T.: ornithogeography; faunal regions; faunal realms; Sclater

*_____, 1860. On the zoological geography of the Malay Archipelago. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society: Zoology 4: 172-184. A.T.: Wallace's Line; zoogeography; faunal boundaries; Indonesia

_____, 1863. On the physical geography of the Malay Archipelago. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 33: 217-234. A.T.: Indonesia; paleogeography; regional biogeography

_____, 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidae of the Malayan region. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25, pt. 1: 1-71. A.T.: mimicry; polymorphism; protective coloration; natural selection; butterflies

*_____, 1869. The Malay Archipelago. London: Macmillan. 2 vols. A.T.: Indonesia; natural history; ethnography; biogeography

**_____, 1876. The Geographical Distribution of Animals; With a Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth's Surface. London: Macmillan; New York: Harper & Brothers. 2 vols. A.T.: zoogeography; zoological geography; geographical zoology; systematic biogeography; paleobiogeography

_____, 1877. The comparative antiquity of continents, as indicated by the distribution of living and extinct animals. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 21(6): 505-534. A.T.: continental permanence hypothesis; paleogeography; paleobiogeography

*_____, 1878. Tropical Nature and Other Essays. London: Macmillan. 356 pp. A.T.: tropical regions; natural history

*_____, 1880. Island Life: Or, The Phenomena and Causes of Insular Faunas and Floras, Including a Revision and Attempted Solution of the Problem of Geological Climates. London: Macmillan; New York: Harper & Brothers (1881). 526 pp. A.T.: glacial epoch; Ice Age causation; island biogeography; island classification; evolution

_____, 1894. What are zoological regions? Nature 49: 610-613. A.T.: faunal regions; faunal realms; systematic biogeography

*Warming, Eugenius [1841-1924], 1909. Oecology of Plants; An Introduction to the Study of Plant-Communities. (transl. of the original 1895 Danish ed., Plantesamfund) Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 422 pp. A.T.: plant ecology

Waterschoot van der Gracht, Willem A. J. M. van [1873-1943], ed., 1928. Theory of Continental Drift; A Symposium on the Origin and Movement of Land Masses Both Inter-continental and Intra-continental, as Proposed by Alfred Wegener. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists; London: Thomas Murby & Co. 240 pp.

Watson, Hewett Cottrell [1804-1881], 1835. Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of British Plants: Chiefly in Connection with Latitude, Elevation, and Climate. London: Longman et al. 288 pp. A.T.: phytogeography

_____, 1873-1874. Topographical Botany; Being Local and Personal Records Towards Shewing the Distribution of British Plants . . . London: Thames Ditton. 2 vols. A.T.: phytogeography

**Watt, Alexander S. [1892-1985], 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35(1-2): 1-22. A.T.: patchiness; dynamic ecology

Weaver, Harold, 1943. Fire as an ecological and silvicultural factor in the ponderosa-pine region of the Pacific slope. Journal of Forestry 41(1): 7-15. A.T.: community ecology; environmental factors

*Weaver, John E. [1884-1966], and Frederic E. Clements, 1929. Plant Ecology. New York: McGraw-Hill. 520 pp. A.T.: phytogeography; ecological biogeography; plant succession

Webb, William L. [b. 1913], 1950. Biogeographic regions of Texas and Oklahoma. Ecology 31(3): 426-433. A.T.: similarity values; mammals; snakes; climatic factors

Weber, Max W. C. [1852-1937], 1902. Der Indo-Australische Archipel und die Geschichte Seiner Tierwelt. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 46 pp. A.T.: Weber's Line

**Wegener, Alfred [1880-1930], 1915. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane. Braunschweig: Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn. 94 pp. (1924 transl. of the 3rd German ed.: The Origin of Continents and Oceans. London: Methuen & Co.; New York: Dutton. 212 pp. 1929 German ed.) A.T.: continental drift; paleogeography

Went, Frits W. [1903-1990], 1948. Ecology of desert plants. I. Observations on germination in the Joshua Tree National Monument, California. Ecology 29(3): 242-253.

*_____, 1949. Ecology of desert plants. II. The effect of rain and temperature on germination and growth. Ecology 30(1): 1–13. A.T.: climatic factors; seeds; soil; California

White, Gilbert [1720-1793], 1789. The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, in the County of Southampton. London: B. White and Son. 468 pp.

Whitford, Philip B. [b. 1920], 1949. Distribution of woodland plants in relation to succession and clonal growth. Ecology 30(2): 199-208. A.T.: quadrat sampling; abundance-frequency ratios; Wisconsin; relative dispersion

Whitley, Gilbert P. [1903-1975], 1932. Marine zoogeographical regions of Australasia. Australian Naturalist 8(8): 166-167.

Willdenow, Karl Ludwig [1765-1812], 1792. Grundriss der Kräuterkunde zu Vorlesungen. Berlin: Haude und Spener. 486 pp. A.T.: historical biogeography; phytogeography; botany

Williams, C. B. [1889-1981], 1930. The Migration of Butterflies. Edinburgh & London: Oliver and Boyd. 473 pp. A.T.: animal behavior

*_____, 1943. Area and number of species. Nature 152: 264-267. A.T.: statistical methods; species-area relation

_____, 1944. Some applications of the logarithmic series and the Index of Diversity to ecological problems. Journal of Ecology 32(1): 1-44. A.T.: theoretical ecology; mathematical ecology

_____, 1947. The logarithmic series and its application to biological problems. Journal of Ecology 34(2): 253-272. A.T.: theoretical ecology; mathematical ecology; Index of Diversity

Willis, Bailey [1857-1949], 1932. Isthmian links. Bull. of the Geological Society of America 43(4): 917-952. A.T.: paleogeography; West Indies; land bridge theory

Willis, John C. [1868-1958], 1915. The endemic flora of Ceylon, with reference to geographical distribution and evolution in general. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 206: 307-342. A.T.: age and area; regional floras

**_____, 1922. Age and Area; A Study in Geographical Distribution and Origin of Species. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press. 259 pp. A.T.: historical biogeography

Wilson, Alexander [1766-1813], & Charles Lucien Bonaparte [1803-1857], 1831. American Ornithology; Or the Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Edinburgh: Constable and Co. 4 vols. A.T.: regional faunas

*Wodzicki, Kazimierz A. [1900-1987], 1950. Introduced Mammals of New Zealand; An Ecological and Economic Survey. Wellington: Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Research Bull. No. 98. 255 pp. A.T.: anthropogenic factors; economic biology

Wolfenbarger, Daniel O. [1904-1995], 1946. Dispersion of small organisms; distance dispersion rates of bacteria, spores, seeds, pollen, and insects; incidence rates of diseases and injuries. American Midland Naturalist 35(1): 1-152. A.T.: horizontal dispersion; vertical dispersion; distance-decay relationship

Wollaston, Thomas V. [1822-1878], 1854. Insecta Maderensia; Being an Account of the Insects of the Islands of the Madeiran Group. London: J. Van Voorst. 634 pp. A.T.: island life

_____, 1878. Testacea Atlantica, or the Land and Freshwater Shells of the Azores, Madeiras, Salvages, Canaries, Cape Verdes, and Saint Helena. London: L. Reeve & Co. 588 pp. A.T.: molluscs; island life

Wood, Albert E. [1910-2002], 1950. Porcupines, paleogeography, and parallelism. Evolution 4(1): 87-98. A.T.: hystricomorphs; Rodentia; dispersal; paleobiogeography; paleontology

Wright, Sewall [1889-1988], 1940. Breeding structure of populations in relation to speciation. American Naturalist 74(752): 232-248. A.T.: genetics; evolution; isolation

_____, 1941. The "Age and Area" concept extended (review of The Course of Evolution by Differentiation or Divergent Mutation rather than by Selection by J. C. Willis). Ecology 22(3): 345-347. A.T.: evolution; historical biogeography

*_____, 1943. Isolation by distance. Genetics 28: 114-138.

*Wulff [Vul'f], Evgenii V. [1885-1941], 1943. An Introduction to Historical Plant Geography (English transl. of the 1932 Russian ed.). Waltham, MA: Chronica Botanica Co. 223 pp. A.T.: historical biogeography; phytogeography

Wynne-Edwards, Vero C. [1906-1997], 1935. On the habits and distribution of birds on the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 40(4): 233-346. A.T.: behavior

_____, 1937. Isolated arctic-alpine floras in eastern North America: a discussion of their glacial and recent history. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 31 (3rd Series, Section V): 33-58. A.T.: nunataks; relictual species distribution


*Zeuner, Frederick E. [1905-1963], 1945. The Pleistocene Period, Its Climate, Chronology and Faunal Successions. London: Ray Society. 322 pp. A.T.: paleontology

_____, 1946. Dating the Past; An Introduction to Geochronology. London: Methuen. 444 pp.

Zimmerman, Elwood C. [1912-2004], 1942. Distribution and origin of some Eastern oceanic insects. American Naturalist 76(764): 280-307. A.T.: waif dispersal; ocean currents; wind dispersal; island biogeography; Pacific Ocean

*_____, 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol. 1. Introduction. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press. A.T.: regional faunas; island life

Early Classics in Biogeography, Distribution, and Diversity Studies: To 1950 has been reviewed, profiled or catalogued in the following online and/or print venues: Science, Journal of Biogeography, Against the Grain, Choice, Endeavour, Texas Association of Biology Teachers (website), echo (George Mason Univ. Center for History and New Media website), Scott's Botanical Links (website), Earth Science Sites of the Week (website), The Scout Report (website), Geotimes: On the Web, Humbul Humanities Hub (website), Intute: Arts and Humanities (website), BUBL Link / 5:15 (website), History of Science Society (website), The Open Directory Project (website), Biogate (website),, BES Bulletin (website), GEM (website), WorldCat (OCLC database), and NetFirst (OCLC database).

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