Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists:
Chrono-Biographical Sketches

Hardy, Alister Clavering (England 1896-1985)
marine biology

Hardy was a zoologist who made his most lasting contributions to the interdisciplinary science of oceanography, including inventing the Hardy Plankton Continuous Recorder, a device that revolutionized the collection of plankton and plankton incidence data. Retiring from the world of natural science in 1963, he embarked upon a second career in which he became a leading student of the religious experience and the author of a number of works that explored the biological basis of spiritual belief, including its relation to scientific theories of evolution. He is further remembered for his rather strange "aquatic ape theory" of the origin of humankind.

Life Chronology

--born in Nottingham, England, on 10 February 1896.
--1915-1919: serves in the British military
--1921: M.A., Oxford University
--1921-1924: assistant naturalist, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Laboratory in Lowestoft
--1924-1928: chief zoologist, Discovery expedition, Antarctica
--1928-1942: professor of zoology and oceanography, University College, Hull
--1938: D.Sc., Oxford University
--1940: made a fellow of the Royal Society
--1942-1945: Regius professor of natural history, University of Aberdeen
--1946-1961: Linacre professor of zoology, Oxford University
--1956-1959: publishes his The Open Sea: Its Natural History, 2 vols.
--1957: knighted
--1961: retires from Oxford University
--1962: honorary LL.D., University of Aberdeen
--1963: honorary D.Sc., Hull University
--1965: publishes his The Living Stream; a Restatement of Evolution Theory
--1968: founds the Religious Experience Research Unit at Manchester College, Oxford
--1985: awarded the Templeton Prize
--dies at Oxford, England, 23 May 1985.

For Additional Information, See:

--Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 25 (2004).
--Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 32 (1986).
--Nutrition and Health, Vol. 9(3) (1993): 161-164.
--Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 56(1) (1987): 365-367.
--Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 58(2-4) (2003): 117-173.

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Copyright 2005 by Charles H. Smith. All rights reserved.

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