Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists:
Fraenkel, Gottfried Samuel (Germany-United
Fraenkel's life was split fairly evenly between the
Old World and the United States, where he worked for many years in the
Department of Entomology at the University of Illinois. His best known
monographic publication was later translated into English in 1940 as The
Orientation of Animals; it featured conclusions based on his early
studies on insect physiology. But Fraenkel's research embraced a variety
of subjects (e.g., the vitamin carnitine, the insect hormones ecdysone
and bursicon, human nutrition, plant host selection, insect pests) and
organisms (e.g., flies, fleas, snails, silkworms, marine invertebrates),
and in several of these studies he made important discoveries whose full
implications were only understood many years later.
--born in Munich, Germany, on 23 April 1901.
--1925: Ph.D. in zoology, University of Munich
--1928-1930: zoological assistant, Hebrew University,
--1932: publishes "Die Wanderungen der Insekten"
in the Ergebnisse der Biologie
--1932-1933: privatdozent, University of Frankfurt,
--1933-1948: associated as researcher and lecturer
with the University of London
--1940: publishes his The Orientation of
--1947: makes first visit to the United
--1948-1972: professor of entomology, University
--1953: becomes a naturalized American citizen
--1959: publishes "The
Raison d'Être of Secondary Plant Substances" in Science
--1961: receives a Research Career Award
from the U. S. Public Health Service
--1965: publishes "Bursicon, a Hormone which
Mediates Tanning of the Cuticle in the Adult Fly and Other Insects" in
the Journal of Insect Physiology, with C. Hsaio
--1968: elected to National Academy of Sciences
--1972: retires from teaching
--dies on 26 October 1984.
--Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.),
Vol. 59 (1990): 169-195.
Copyright 2005 by Charles H. Smith. All rights
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