Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists and Ecologists:
de (France 1873-1955)
Martonne was one of the leading physical geographers of the twentieth
century. He was essentially an old-style regional geographer who became
enamored with the landscape evolution approach of American geographer
William M. Davis, extending it in both scientific and educational directions.
Topically, he concentrated on geomorphology, especially the processes
of mountain glaciation, peneplain development, and hydrography. As a regional
geographer, he contributed numerous studies: on districts in France, Rumania,
the Alps, Central Europe, etc. But his most important legacy overall was
his nearly lifelong project, the Traité de Géographie
Physique. This first appeared in two volumes in 1909, and had expanded
to three volumes (including a separate one for biogeography) by the fourth
edition of 1925-1927, and eventually reached a tenth edition by the time
of Martonne's death.
--born in Chabris, France, on 1 April 1873.
--1892: enters the École Normale Supérieure
--1895: graduates with degree in history and
geography; thereafter works with Richthofen in Berlin and Penck in Vienna
--1899: joins geography department at the University
--1904: accompanies William M. Davis on expedition
to the American West and Mexico
--1905: joins the Faculty of Arts at the University
--1909: made department head of geography in
the Faculty of Letters at the Sorbonne
--1909: publishes the first edition of his Traité
de Géographie Physique
--1916: visiting professor, Columbia University
--1920s: studies regions of high aridity with
--1921: publishes study on the geographical
regions of France
--1926: publishes regional study of the Alps
--1927-1944: serves as director of the Institut
de Géographie, Paris
--1931-1938: serves as secretary general of
the International Geographical Union
--1939: receives the American Geographical Society's
--1942: elected a member of the Académie
--1942: publishes his Géographie
Physique de la France
--1944: retires from the Sorbonne
--1949: made president of life of the International
--1950: receives the Victoria Medal of the Royal
Geographical Society, London
--dies at Sceaux, France, on 24 July 1955.
--Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol.
--Bulletin de la Société Géologique
de France, Vol. 6(6) (1956): 623-642. [in French]
Vol. 46(2) (1956): 277-279.
Vol. 121(4) (1955): 547-549.
Copyright 2005 by Charles H. Smith. All rights
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