Alfred Russel Wallace : Alfred Wallace : A. R. Wallace :
Russel Wallace : Alfred Russell Wallace (sic)

 
 
The "Double Drift" Theory of Star Motions
(S642: 1907)

 
Editor Charles H. Smith's Note: A letter to the Editor printed on page 293 of the 25 July 1907 issue of Nature. To link directly to this page, connect with: http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/wallace/S642.htm


     I have been greatly interested in Mr. Eddington's account in Nature of July 11 (p. 248) of Prof. J. C. Kapteyn's investigations of this subject. Although I do not quite follow his argument for the existence of two overlapping systems of stars (more dramatically termed "two Universes" by Prof. Turner), I yet venture to suggest an explanation of the apparently (perhaps really) opposite "drifts," which seems to me to agree sufficiently with the observed facts.

     If we adopt Lord Kelvin's postulate of a single vast stellar universe very slowly condensing towards its common centre of gravity, we might expect that the component stars would move for the most part in ellipses or spirals of very varying degrees of eccentricity and of inclination to the mean orbit--perhaps indicated by the Milky Way. If we further postulate (what is very generally admitted) that our sun is situated towards the central rather than towards the outer portion of the whole system, then, just as the planets, through differential angular motions as regards the earth, appear sometimes to move in a retrograde direction or to be quite stationary, so a certain proportion of the stars might be expected, at any given period, to exhibit the same phenomena.

     But further, considering the enormous distances that are known to separate the stars and star-groups from each other and the extreme slowness of their angular motions, there seems no reason why their respective orbits should not be almost as frequently in a right-hand as in a left-hand direction in regard to the central plane of general motion.

     Our knowledge of the actual motions of the stars may not inaptly be compared to what astronomers would possess of the solar system supposing the whole of their observations had been limited to a period of about twenty-four hours, and that the sun was invisible. The motions of the planets and their satellites thus determined would seem as strange and incomprehensible as do those of the stars at the present time, our accurate observations of which have been limited to a few centuries.

     It will probably be of interest to many of your readers (as it certainly will be to myself) if some of your mathematical correspondents will explain why, and in what way, some such system as is here suggested is incompatible with the facts set forth by Prof. Kapteyn and others.


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