Russel Wallace : Alfred Russell Wallace (sic)
Genus Elymnias, Hübner.
I follow Mr. F. Moore in adopting Hübner's name for this genus, in preference to Melanitis of Fabricius, which has been used by most authors down to Westwood and Felder, but which properly belongs to a genus of Satyridæ, of which Leda and Banksia are the types.
It contains a number of remarkable insects differing in style of colouration, but often resembling species of other families, especially Danaidæ and Morphidæ. It is somewhat widely distributed, ranging from West Africa to New Guinea; but the bulk of the species are found in the Malay Archipelago, where they are equally distributed between the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan regions. None, however, are yet known from Australia. In the "Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," twelve species are given as then known, two being from Africa, two from India, and eight from the Malayan Islands. Several species have since been described by Mr. Hewitson and others; to which I now add eight from my own collection and that of the British Museum, making a total of thirty-one Eastern species.
It is interesting to observe, that the species from the Austro-Malayan Islands form a compact group, distinguished by a regular and somewhat rounded outline of wings, and resembling in colouration some of the broad-winged Euplœæ, or the genus Drusilla; while the species of India and the Indo-Malayan Islands, are almost always characterised by a more irregular outline, waved, toothed, or even caudate, and generally coloured like species of Danais, or the more elongate forms of Euplœa.
These are forest-haunting insects, frequenting chiefly damp places where there is a dense herbaceous vegetation. Their flight is slow, resembling that of the Satyridæ and Morphidæ.
[[p. 322]] 1. Elymnias undularis.
♂. Papilio undularis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 127; Cramer, 256. A. B.; Melanitis undularis, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pl. iii. f. 24, pl. viii. f. 8; Biblis undularis, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 326.
♀. Papilio protogenia, Cramer, 189. F. G.; Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 117; Elymnias protogenia, Hübn. Verz. b. Schmett. n. 323; Biblis protogenia, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 327.
Hab.--Singapore, Malacca, Borneo, Java, Lombock, Flores, Timor (Wall.); N. India (B. M.).
The ferruginous band on the hind-wings is often obsolete, and in a specimen from Borneo, in the British Museum, the blue spots have also almost disappeared. Some females nearly resemble the males, but are more dusky; others are rufous, as in protogenia, Cr. Specimens from Ceylon have the rufous band more intense, and in some extending on the margin of the anterior wings, where the blue spots are almost obsolete. This very variable species cannot be separated into its local forms, or races, without much more complete materials than at present exist.
2. Elymnias Esaca.
Melanitis Esaca, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 405; Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pl. li. f. 5.
Hab.--N. W. Borneo (Coll. Wall.).
A species with remarkably rounded wings, but in its type of colouration allied to E. undularis.
3. Elymnias Dusara.
Melanitis Dusara, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. Mus. pl. v. f. 7. ♂.
Female. Like the male, but the pale bands are broader, and somewhat yellower, and contain three or four small pale spots on the hind-wings.
Hab.--Java (Coll. Wall., B. M.).
[[p. 323]] Mr. Butler identifies Dusara of Horsfield with Panthera, Fab. (Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 75). The description, however, does not appear to me sufficiently precise to refer it with certainty to the present species; I therefore retain Horsfield's name, identified by a good figure as well as by typical specimens.
4. Elymnias lutescens.
Elymnias lutescens, Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd Ser. xx. 404, pl. iv. f. 10. ♀.
Hab.--Malacca, Sumatra (Wall.); Borneo (B. M.).
The female from Sumatra has less red on the upper wings, one from Borneo has the pale bands almost obsolete, while another has them more distinct, especially across the apex of the anterior wings. Males from Borneo are much darker than E. Dusara, with the pale band on the hind-wings narrower, and enclosing a row of four or five distinctly ocellate spots.
I was at first disposed to class all these forms as variations of E. Dusara, but as that species seems to be very constant in both sexes, with little difference between them, I have thought it better to keep it distinct; while the great variation that occurs in Bornean specimens, and their close approximation to those from Sumatra and Malacca, render it difficult to separate the forms of these islands.
5. Elymnias Mehida.
Melanitis Mehida, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pl. li. f. 2, 3. (♂.)
Hab.--Singapore (Coll. Wall., type).
6. Elymnias Egialina.
Melanitis Egialina, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 452, pl. lxi. f. 7, 8.
Hab.--Luzon (Coll. Feld.).
7. Elymnias Thycana, n. s.
Near E. Egialina, Felder; rather larger.
[[p. 324]] Male. Above, anterior wings like E. Egialina, but with less white, and the blue tint extending further on the disc; hind-wings with a large ochreish-white patch covering the abdominal region and centre of the wing, the base slightly bluish. Beneath, the anterior wings irregularly blotched, and irrorated with white; hind-wings with a large patch of ochre-yellow, extending to the abdominal margin and continued by paler spots to the inner margin, above and attached to which are two or three dull red spots not extending into the discoidal cell.
Female. Above, paler, with the bluish and white portions more diffused. Beneath, very much whiter, with finer irrorations, and the yellow patch more diffused.
Hab.--India (Coll. B. M., type).
This, and its allies, resemble Pieridæ, of the genus Thyca.
8. Elymnias borneensis, n. s.
Allied to M. Egialina, Felder.
Female. Above, dusky; anterior wings with a slaty transverse band, midway between the end of the discoidal cell and the apex, which is continued by spots to the outer angle; from the lowest spot a stripe goes to the base of the wing, and within the next two spots are shorter yellowish stripes. Hind-wings with a broad yellowish-white band across the centre, from the abdominal margin to the first median nervure; base bluish; a submarginal row of three or four small dusky spots ocellated with bluish.
Beneath, dusky, irrorated with yellowish on the outer half; lower wings with two large reddish spots at the base, the broad central band ochre-yellow, the row of six ocellate spots very distinct, also one towards the base, near the inner margin, and two obscure spots near the apex of the upper wings. Antennæ strongly ringed, dusky, yellow beneath.
Expanse 2 5/8 inches.
[[p. 325]] 9. Elymnias penanga.
Melanitis penanga, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 405. (nec Hewitson).
Hab.--Penang (B. M., type).
10. Elymnias sumatrana.
Melanitis penanga, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pl. li. f. 1, 4. (nec Westwood.)
Hab.--Sumatra (Coll. Wall., type).
This species is remarkably like M. penanga, but as the conspicuous golden-yellow spot on the costal margin of the hind-wings (underside) is entirely absent, and as it also differs in the white patch on the hind-wings above, and in their somewhat more angular outline, I feel compelled to separate it.
11. Elymnias Lais.
Papilio Lais, Cram. 110. A. B.; Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 58; Biblis Lais, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 326; Melanitis Lais, Doub. West. & Hew. Gen. Diurn. Lep.; Elymnias Lais, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 237.
Hab.--Sumatra (Wall. ♂. ♀.), Java, Borneo (B. M. ♂. ♀).
The Java specimens (Cramer's types) agree very closely with those of Sumatra and Borneo in the males. The female is paler and yellower in colour, and rather larger. A female from Sumatra, collected by myself, differs considerably; the markings are much less distinct, of a pale yellowish colour, except at the apex, where they are bluish; and the ground colour is rich brown. This specimen, to some extent, connects this species with E. Casiphone.
12. Elymnias Casiphone.
Elymnias Casiphone, Hübn. Samm. Exot. Schmett. iii. pl. 18?
Hab.--Java (Coll. Wall., B. M. ♂).
A species closely allied to E. Lais, but of very different colouration.
[[p. 326]] 13. Elymnias Timandra, n. s.
Like E. Lais; outline of wings more dentate, especially on the hind-wings.
Male. Above, like E. Lais, but the markings broader, and of a rich verditer blue on the upper-wings; beneath, the base of the wings is much darker.
Female. Wings more elongate; markings pale ochre, tinged with bluish on the upper-wings, the tooth at the outer angle of the hind-wings forming a short tail.
Hab.--Sylhet, Moulmein (Brit. Mus., type).
Very closely allied to E. Lais, but the different outline of the wings, and distinct colouring, render it necessary to separate it.
14. Elymnias Kamara.
Elymnias Kamara, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 239.
Hab.--Java (B. M. ♂.).
15. Elymnias Ceryx.
Melanitis Ceryx, Boisd. Sp. Gen. Lep. pl. 5b. f. 8.
Male. Wings more elongate, with the costa less arched than in E. Lais; whitish ash colour, with the veins and the outer margin of all the wings blackish bordered, in the border is a row of white spots which on the upper-wings are larger, ovate, and disposed in a very sinuate line; the anal angle is tinged with ferruginous. Beneath, ferruginous brown, the whitish portions more restricted than above, and the margins beyond the row of spots with coarse white irrorations.
Female. Paler, and less distinctly marked.
Expanse 3-3 1/2 inches.
The underside of this species is well figured by Boisduval. I obtained specimens in Java, but it appears to be rare.
16. Elymnias leucocyma.
Biblis leucocyma, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 326.
Hab.--North India (B. M., Coll. Wall.).
[[p. 327]] 17. Elymnias patna.
Melanitis patna, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 405.
Hab.--India (B. M.).
A fine species, somewhat like E. leucocyma, but with spots beneath as in E. Hewitsoni.
18. Elymnias Malelas.
Melanitis malelas, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pl. li. f. 6,7.
Hab.--East India (Coll. Saunders and Hewitson).
Allied to E. leucocyma, but differing in the smooth outline of the wings, and the produced outer angle of the hind-wings.
19. Elymnias Vasudeva.
Elymnias Vasudeva, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 238.
Hab.--Darjeeling (E. I. Museum).
20. Elymnias Hewitsoni.
Melanitis leucocyma, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 53, pl. ix. f. 34 (nec Biblis leucocyma, Godt.).
Hab.--Macassar, S. Celebes (Coll. Wall., B. M.).
Female. Brown, with a purple gloss on the upper-wings, and a white band from the middle of the costa towards the outer angle; under-wings with the white submargiual spots small, and above them a white band from the median vein to the abdominal margin. Beneath; with the white bands less distinct, the spots as in Mr. Hewitson's figure, but smaller. The irroration very coarse and whitish.
This species does not at all agree with Godart's description, which is of an insect closely allied to E. undularis. I have therefore named it after Mr. Hewitson, who has so carefully figured it.
21. Elymnias Hicetas, n. s.
Male. Form of M. Hewitsoni; the subcostal vein not so close to its second branch as in that species, and the [[p. 328]] lower disco-cellular circular instead of elliptical. Above, blackish-purple or brown, a curved band across the apex, continued along the costal and outer margins to the anal angle, pale bronzy-blue; the spots on the hind-wing much smaller and nearer to the margin than in M. Hewitsoni, and the two next the outer angle wanting. Beneath, irrorated as in M. Hewitsoni, the submarginal spots of the anterior wings absent; on the hind-wings the costal spot much smaller, and the marginal spots as above.
Hab.--Macassar, S. Celebes (Coll. Wall., type).
This fine species is very closely allied to M. Hewitsoni, and being from the same locality, was at first considered to be a variety, but a more close examination showed that it differed slightly in many important points, and must be considered as perfectly distinct.
22. Elymnias cumæa.
Melanitis cumæa, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 452, pl. lxi. f. 9, 10.
Hab.--Gilolo (Coll. Feld.).
A fine species, very near to M. Hicetas.
23. Elymnias Mimalon.
Melanitis Mimalon, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 52, pl. ix. f. 1, 2 (♂).
Hab.--Menado, N. Celebes (Coll. Wall., B. M.).
24. Elymnias Vitellia.
Papilio Vitellia, Cram. 349. E. F.; Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 397.
Melanitis stellaris, Vollenh. Tijd. Ent. iv. 159, ♀.
Hab.--Amboyna, Ceram (Coll. Wall., B. M.).
25. Elymnias viminalis, n. s.
Male. Form of E. Vitellia; the second branch of the subcostal vein more divergent. Above, uniform brownish-black, a narrow margin on the anterior, a broad one on the posterior wings, earthy- [[p. 329]] brown. Beneath, marked as in E. Vitellia, but the spots have a greenish-yellow tinge, and those on the hind-wings are placed nearer the posterior margin.
Hab.--Bouru (Coll. Wall., type).
Very close to E. Vitellia, of which it may be considered to be a local modification.
26. Elymnias Cybele.
Melanitis Cybele, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 248.
Hab.--Batchian, Kaioa Is., Ternate (Wall.).
27. Elymnias Melias.
Melanitis Melias, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1863, p. 120; Nov. Voy. Lep. tab. lxi. f. 11.
Hab.--Bourias, Locban (Philippines).
A remarkable black and white species, resembling an Euplœa.
28. Elymnias papua, n. s.
Male. Above, dusky purplish-black, the hind-wings paler towards the outer margin, towards the centre of which are a few groups of pale ochreish scales forming indistinct spots. Beneath, dusky, the margins paler, especially on the lower wings, which have also three bluish-white round spots parallel to the inner margin, and two very minute ones near the outer margin.
Expanse 2 5/8 inches.
This species closely resembles an Euplœa.
29. Elymnias Melane.
Melanitis Melane, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 465, pl. lv. f. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Hab.--Aru Islands, Ké Islands (Coll. Wall., B. M.).
Males. Mr. Hewitson's fig. 1, represents a male from the Aru Islands; one from the Ké Islands has the whitish band on the hind-wings much broader, and the black spots without ocelli.
[[p. 330]] Females. Mr. Hewitson's fig. 2, represents one from Ké Islands; another from Aru is much darker, and has the white patch on the anterior wings reduced. Fig. 3 is from the Aru Islands. Fig. 4 is from the Ké Islands.
It is difficult to determine whether the forms from these two islands should be separated. There are some differences in neuration, but a close examination of all my specimens has shown that these are not constant in both sexes. It will, perhaps, be better therefore to leave them together till a more extensive series from both islands may enable us to determine if any constant differences exist.
30. Elymnias Melantho, n. s.
Rather smaller than E. Melane, the second branch of the subcostal vein arising further from the end of the cell in both sexes.
Male. Above, purplish-brown-black, apex of the anterior wings slaty-blue, hind-wings with a bluish border and ocelli, as in the less strongly marked specimens of E. Melane. Beneath, nearly as in the Aru form of E. Melane, but the apex of the upper wings is less distinctly marked.
Female. Dusky, a whitish patch towards the apex of each wing, with an obscure ocellus and one spot on each hind-wing; beneath, as above, with three very dark large ocellate spots on a small patch of rufous-orange.
Hab.--Gagie Is. (West of Waigiou) (Wall., type).
This seems to be an extreme form of E. Melane, the most obvious difference is in the whole basal and central portion of the hind-wings beneath in the female being dark, whereas the disc is white in all the forms of E. Melane which I have seen.
31. Elymnias Agondas.
♂. Dyctis Agondas, Boisd. Voy. Astrol. Ent. p. 138, pl. iii. f. 5.
♀. Dyctis bioculatus, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 354, pl. 54*, f. 4 (nec Morpho bioculatus, Guér.).
Hab.--New Guinea, Mysol (Wall.).
This species may be readily distinguished from E. Melane, by having only one or two ocelli near the anal angle; [[p. 331]] as well as by the form and position of the ocelli in the female. In some males, the pale bronze border is dilated on the hind-wings into a broad whitish band. The Morpho bioculatus of Guérin, with which the female has been confounded, is a Drusilla, which wonderfully resembles it above.
Genus Eurytela, Boisduval.
This essentially African genus is represented in the Malayan Islands by two very well-marked species, both of which appear to be somewhat rare, while it has not yet been found in India, a peculiarity of distribution which is analagous to that of the anthropoid apes.
1. Eurytela Castelnavi.
Eurytela Castelnaui, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 401; Nov. Voy. Lep. tab. lxi. f. 5, 6.
Hab.--Singapore, Borneo (Wall.); Malay Peninsula (Feld.).
A remarkable species, of a deep ultramarine blue, without gloss.
2. Eurytela Horsfieldi.
♂. Eurytela Horsfieldi, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madagasc. p. 54.
♀. E. Stephensi, Boisd. lib. cit. p. 55.
Though so different in colour, there can be little doubt that these two insects are the sexes of one species, since the structure of the feet shows that the blue are males, and the brown females. As Boisduval's descriptions are given in a work where they would not be expected to occur, I repeat them here.
"Eurytela Horsfieldi. Alis dentatis, supra nigro-cyanescentibus, fascia communi discoidali evanescente dilutori; subtus fusco-grisea, lineis 4 undulatis fuscis, posticis rotundatis, anticis apice productis."
"Eurytela Stephensi. Alis dentatis, fusco-ferrugineis, lineis 4 undulatis fuscis, fasciaque discoidali communi, in anticis interrupta, lutea; subtus pallidioribus, posticis rotundatis, anticis apice productis."
[[p. 332]] Genus Ergolis, Boisduval.
This genus has been placed by Mr. Moore among the Nymphalidæ near Precis, some of the species of which are very similar in colouration. Its larva, as figured from Horsfield's drawings, also agrees with the Junonia type, but the perfect insect, in the details of its neuration and other characters, is unmistakeably allied to the rest of the Eurytelidæ. It seems probable, therefore, that as we know sometimes happens, the larva alone has become modified, so as to resemble a group with which it has no direct affinity.
These are smaller insects than Elymnias, and frequent more open situations, fluttering among herbage, and having much the habit of the more active Satyridæ. They range from Africa through India to Timor and the Moluccas, and though tolerably abundant in individuals, do not comprise more than a dozen known species.
1. Ergolis Ariadne.
Papilio Ariadne, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 778; Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 507.
Papilio Coryta, Cram. 86. E. F.; Ariadne Coryta, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pl. vi. f. 2; Ergolis Coryta, Doubl. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 411.
Hab.--Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Flores, Timor, Formosa (Wall.); Sylhet, Mysore (B. M.).
The description of Linnæus, "alis angulatis," and his locality "Java," agrees with this species, rather than with the Merione of Cramer, with which it has sometimes been confounded.
2. Ergolis Merione.
Papilio Merione, Cram. 144. G. H.
Ergolis Ariadne, Doubl. List Lep. B. Mus. pt. 1, p. 145; Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 411 (nec Linn.).
Hab.--North and Central India.
Distinguished from E. Ariadne by its less angular wings, and more zigzag markings. A variety in the British Museum has paler wings, variegated with some yellowish spots.
[[p. 333]] 3. Ergolis luzonia.
Ergolis luzonia, Felder, Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 450.
This species seems to be a local modification of E. Ariadne, rather larger, with slight differences in the markings, and the subapical white spot nearly or quite obsolete.
4. Ergolis Isæus, n. s.
Outline of wings nearly even, with an angular lobe on the upper-wings, waved striæ somewhat as in E. Coryta, but disposed in pairs, no white spot near the apex; on the hind-wings a series of distinct sub-lunulate ring markings, each enclosing an obscure reddish spot.
Beneath, upper wings dusky, the disc reddish-brown, the borders pale, a dusky streak parallel to the outer margin; lower wings pale brown, the markings as above, but the lunulate ring spots smaller, the outer border ashy brown.
The female is like the male, but paler, especially beneath.
Size of E. Coryta.
Hab.--Singapore, Sumatra (Coll. Wall., type).
This species has probably been confounded with E. Coryta, from which the even outline of the wings, and the absence of the white spot, at once distinguish it.
5. Ergolis taprobana.
Ergolis taprobana, Westw. Gen. Diurn. Lep. p. 410, pl. 68, f. 4.
Hab.--Ceylon (B. M.).
A dark rusty-coloured species, with the upper-wings less angular than in E. Isæus.
6. Ergolis timora, n. s.
Male. Above, rich orange-brown.; the outer margins, and the base within a waved line, dusky; the outer edge scallopped, as in E. Coryta, but not marked with white, a submarginal waved line bounding the dusky border within, blackish. Beneath, rich brown, the basal half [[p. 334]] concentrically marked with dusty white bands, which colour appears also in patches on the outer margins; a distinct white spot near the apex of the upper-wings, as in E. Coryta.
Expanse 2 inches.
7. Ergolis tæniata.
Ergolis tæniata, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1861, p. 303; Nov. Toy. Lep. pl. lxi. f. 1,2. ♀.
Hab.--Luzon (B. M.).
A distinct and very handsome species, distinguished by a broad rufous-yellow band on a brown ground-colour.
8. Ergolis adelpha.
Ergolis adelpha, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1861, p. 303.
Closely allied to E. tæniata, but smaller, and the anterior wings more angulate.
2. Ergolis obscura.
Ergolis obscura, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 450, pl. lxi. f. 3,4.
Hab.--"Halmaheira," Gilolo (Felder).
This very distinct species may be at once distinguished from the rest of the genus by its uniformly rounded wings. It is of a dusky colour, and the usual markings are nearly obliterated.
Genus Libythea, Fabricius.
This small group is of world-wide distribution, and like all such, is a frequenter of open grounds, plains, river-banks, and sea-shores, rather than the virgin forest. The species are all small, and in the activity of their motions resemble the lesser Nymphalidæ. Dr. Felder places them between the Erycinidæ and Danaidæ.
[[p. 335]] 1. Libythea Myrrha.
Libythea Myrrha, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 171; Hübn. Zutrage, f. 789, 790; G. R. Gray, Lep. Ins. Nepaul, p. 15, pl. xii. f. 4.
Hab.--N. and S. India; Var. Ceylon and S. India (B. M.); Var. Borneo (Coll. Wall.); Java (Godt.).
Varies much in the width of the bands and the size of the spots; specimens from Ceylon and S. India have these very much reduced and paler, the apical spots being nearly white. Specimens which have recently arrived from Borneo, have the wings somewhat less falcate, and less dentate behind, but as the species varies so much, these can hardly be separated.
2. Libythea Lepita.
Libythea Lepita, Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 240.
"Differs from L. Myrrha in the ferruginous streak from the base of the fore-wings being divided into two portions" (Moore.).
Hab.--N. India, Bootan (E. I. Mus.).
3. Libythea Narina.
Libythea Narina, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 171.
Libythea Neratia, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 313.
Hab.--Ceram, Gilolo (Wall. ♂.).
This resembles the African species L. Labdaca; Godart's locality, "Java," is, probably, erroneous.
4. Libythea Geoffroyi.
Libythea Geoffroyi, Godt. Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii. Lep. pl. 2; Enc. Méth. ix. 813.
Female. Above, blackish-brown, the basal and anal regions reddish-brown. Anterior wings with four white spots, two transverse near the apex, as in the male but larger, a small oval spot at the end of the cell, and a much larger one below it. Hind-wings with the transverse orange band more distinct than in the male.
Beneath; the spots as above, a basal stripe of dull orange, the apex of the anterior wings and the whole surface of the hind-wings of a reddish-ash colour, with a few blackish irrorations, which form a very obscure interrupted band across the disc.
[[p. 336]] Expanse 2.2 inches.
Godart gives "Java" as the locality of his species, but it is more probable that the specimens came from some of the islands east of it.
5. Libythea antipoda.
Libythea antipoda, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 313, pl. xlii. fig. 9, 10.
♂. Var. ?. Apex of fore-wings narrow, and rounded as in L. batchiana, of hind-wings somewhat toothed at the anal angle, as in L. ceramensis and L. Geoffroyi; middle disco-cellular vein curved, lower nearly straight.
Above: fore-wings uniform violet, with four black veins, and a narrow dusky border; hind-wings violet, with a broad posterior and abdominal border.
Beneath: fore-wings ochreish-yellow, slightly irrorated at the apex, and with two subapical pale spots as in the allied species; the lower submarginal spot very faintly indicated; hind-wings earthy-brown, irrorated, the whitish bands not very distinct.
Hab.--Macassar (Wall.), Philippine Is.
My Macassar specimen agrees with one from the Philippines, but differs somewhat from Felder's figure and description.
6. Libythea ceramensis, n. s.
Male. Rather larger than L. Geoffroyi, upper-wings less abruptly notched. Above, the violet-blue tinge extends over the disc of all the wings, leaving only a dusky border, the white spots and rufous band wanting, the nervures rather broadly dusky. On the underside, the fore-wings have the apical spots as in L. Geoffroyi, but the lower spots are replaced by an obscure pale band, and there is no white spot within the cell, which is entirely rufous: the hind-wings are irrorated, blackish-brown, with three curved white bands.
Expanse 2 1/4 inches.
7. Libythea batchiana, n. s.
Male. Very close to L. ceramensis, apex of wing more elongate and rounded, and hind-wings less produced at anal angle; the middle and lower disco-cellular veins are [[p. 337]] more curved. The dusky margins of the wings are much broader, the veins thicker, and the violet colour darker and confined to the basal portion of the wings. Beneath, the colour is rather paler and the bands on the hind-wings better defined. Rather smaller than L. ceramensis.
Hab.--Batchian (Wall., type).
Genus Cethosia, Fabricius.
No less than fourteen species of this genus have been recently described by Felder, many of them discovered by myself. I now add one more, bringing up the number of described species to twenty-four, of which the following is a list. With the exception of three Indian and one Australian species, all are found in the Malay Archipelago, and are pretty equally distributed between the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan divisions.
List of the Species of Cethosia.
[[p. 338]] Cethosia--continued.
Cethosia Cyrene, n. s.
Male. Near C. Cydalina and C. Damasippe; anterior wings rather more elongate.
Above: blue-black, the basal red portion well-defined, as in C. Damasippe, but browner; the anterior wings with the marginal lunules more distinctly marked, the submarginal white spots largest between the first and second median nervules, decreasing towards the apex, the white patch rather smaller than in C. Cydalina, but larger than in C. Damasippe; posterior wings with the marginal white lunules distinctly marked, and an inner band of six white quadrate-lunate spots, divided by fine nervures, and each enclosing a triangular black spot. Beneath: it differs from the allied species nearly as above.
This fine species differs at first sight from all its allies by the conspicuous white band on the hind-wings, which is sometimes faintly tinged with rufous. It is certainly as distinct as any others of the Cydippe and Chrysippe group.
Genus Cirrochroa, Doubleday.
This genus has increased since the date of publication of the "Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera," from three species to sixteen, given in the following list, including three which I now describe as new. Two inhabit India, and fifteen the Malay Archipelago, nine being found in the Indo-Malay region, three in Celebes, and two in the Papuan Islands. They frequent sunny openings in the forests, and resemble in their flight the genus Argynnis.
[[p. 339]] List of Species of Cirrochroa.
Cirrochroa Calypso, n. s.
Male. Like C. malaya, Feld., outline of wings more even, upper-wings not so much elongate.
Above: the nervures not black on the outer half of the wings as in C. malaya, the subapical small yellow spot absent, the inner row of lunules on the hind-wings more distant from the margin and less regular than in C. malaya.
Beneath: on the anterior wings near the apex are four or five bluish-white lunules, on the hind-wings the transverse band is whiter, narrower, and not suddenly narrowed above the cell as in C. malaya; the whole undersurface is of a richer brown, with the lunulate markings yellowish-brown, not dusky edged.
Expanse 2.7 inches.
[[p. 340]] Although very close to C. malaya, this species is sufficiently distinct both in outline and in characteristic markings.
♂. Felder, Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 399.
Female. Differs from the male, above, in being of a more earthy-brown colour, and in the median portion of the upper-wing forming a transverse band of pale brownish-yellow. Beneath, as in the male, but a little paler, and the transverse band on the upper-wings yellowish instead of white.
Hab.--Singapore (Wallace); Malay Peninsula (Feld.).
Cirrochroa ducalis, n. s.
Size and form of C. regina, colouration more like C. Semiramis.
Male. Above: the purple border is narrower than in C. regina, and the basal orange portion of uniform tint as in C. Semiramis.
Beneath: the ground colour is more rufous than in C. regina, the basal half rufous-orange tinged with pearly-violet, the silvery-white band is straighter with more even edges, and the waved submarginal band is rufous-orange on all the wings, and narrower than in C. regina.
Hab.--New Guinea, Waigiou (Wallace).
This is a well-marked local form, which it seems desirable to distinguish from C. regina, a species peculiar to the Aru Islands.
Genus Terinos, Boisduval.
This beautiful genus contained but a single species from its establishment in 1836 to 1862, when Mr. Hewitson described four new ones, two of which were collected by myself. Felder and Butler have since each described a species, and I now add two more, bringing the number up to nine, of which the following is a list:
[[p. 341]] List of the species of Terinos.
The most striking characteristics of these insects are the hairy eyes, and the large plush-like scales which, in the males, form a large patch on both wings, but which are often replaced in the females by blue bands and patches, giving this sex the aspect of a distinct species. Still more remarkable, however, is the great difference of neuration presented by the sexes in some of the species. Mr. Hewitson pointed out the variation in the position of the lower disco-cellular vein in relation to the second branch of the median vein, whereby closely allied species may readily be distinguished. This is undoubtedly the case; but by examination of four species of which I possess both sexes, I find that the difference between the neuration of the sexes is fully as great as between that of the most distant species. I find also by measurement and comparison, that the disco-cellular vein retains a constant position, so that the length of the cell does not vary, and that it is the branches of the median vein that alter their position, being, in some cases, very much further from the base of the wing than in others. In T. Clarissa the sexual difference is perceptible, but slight. In T. Robertsia and T. Taxiles it is very easily seen, as in the male the second median branch springs from the same point as the lower disco-cellular, while in the female it comes almost exactly midway between the first and second branch. In T. Abisares the difference is still more marked, since in the male the disco-cellular arises in advance of the second median branch, while in the female it is nearly midway between them. This is a remarkable illustration of Darwin's law, that when a particular character varies sexually, it also varies specifically. As a rule, differences of neuration are generic, rarely [[p. 342]] varying much from closely-allied species to species. Here we have them as a sexual distinction; and we also find them varying in an unusual degree from species to species. It is also very interesting to remark, that in the two species, T. Robertsia and T. Viola, the Singapore variety is more highly coloured, and has the branches of the median veins more distant from the base of the wing than in the more rufous-tinged Sumatran specimens, showing a remarkable correlation between local modifications of tint, and what are usually important and stable structural characters.
Terinos Nympha, n. s.
Male. Form nearly as in T. Clarissa, but the outer margin of the upper-wings rather less hollowed, and that of the lower-wings considerably less angulate.
Above: colour as in T. Clarissa, but the velvety patch extends higher across the upper discoidal vein, while it does not extend so far towards the base of the wing; position of the lower disco-cellular nervure as in T. Taxiles. The orange-rufous patch on the hind-wings contains no dark lunular markings, but has a bluish submarginal line, most distinct near the anal angle, and the velvety patch at the outer angle extends fully half-way up the inner margin.
Beneath: the markings are very similar to those of T. Clarissa, but there is a broad terminal band of pearly-pinkish-white on the hind-wings.
Expanse 2.9 inches.
Distinct in form, neuration and colouring from the closely-allied T. Clarissa.
Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd Ser. vol. xx. p. 399, pl. viii. figs. 2, 3, 4.
Hab.--Malacca (Roberts); Singapore (Wallace).
In this form the disco-cellular meets the median vein a little nearer the base than the origin of its second branch.
Local form. A.
Browner, with the blue portions more violet, and the white posterior spots replaced by rufous. The disco- [[p. 343]] cellular meets the median vein at the origin of its second branch.
These two forms are so much alike that, notwithstanding the difference of neuration, I hardly like to separate them.
Terinos Viola, n. s.
Male. Form of T. Clarissa, but the apex of the anterior wings rather broader and more angulate, the hind-wings a little more caudate.
Above: violet or violet-brown, the velvety patch extending over the upper discoidal vein on the anterior wings. Hind-wings rich violet-blue, or brown tinged with violet, a velvety patch at the outer angle as in T. Clarissa, a pale white or brownish patch on the outer margin, and a submarginal dusky or bluish waved line.
Beneath: rufous-brown, with waved brown markings on the basal portion of the wings, the hind-wings with a pale submarginal band enclosing a broad zigzag rufous-yellow line, within which are four rufous spots.
Expanse 3.5 inches.
Distinguished at once by its angular form and peculiar colouration. The Sumatra specimen is less deeply coloured than that from Singapore, and the lower disco-cellular meets the median vein a little beyond the origin of its second branch, while in the darker Singapore form the two meet at the same point. The two forms are, in other respects, so much alike, that I hesitate to separate them.
Genus Atella, Doubleday.
I describe one new species of this small and simply-coloured genus, which now contains nine Eastern species, as in the following list:--
[[p. 344]] These insects frequent sunny open places, and resemble in appearance and habits the genus Melitæa.
Atella celebensis, n. s.
Near A. Alcippe; costa rather more curved, and outer edge straighter.
Male. Above: on the anterior wings the submarginal lunules are less defined and thicker, that at the outer angle forming an elongate spot; the inner band of spots is farther from the margin and less regular, and there is a third row of small lunulate marks which is barely indicated or altogether wanting in A. Alcippe; the basal markings are also more distinct. On the hind-wings the black costal margin is divided throughout by a rufous line, the transverse line across the disc and the basal markings are more distinct.
Beneath: the spots and black markings are paler than in A. Alcippe, and the pale submarginal band enclosing the row of spots is a little broader.
Female. The spots and markings rather broader and less defined than in the male, the median band edged with a line of violet-pink, somewhat as in Messaras Mæonides.
Expanse 2.1-2.4 inches.
This species appears sufficiently distinct from A. Alcippe, and the appearance in the female of the fine violet colour of a Celebesian species of the allied genus Messaras, is very remarkable.
Genus Laogona, Boisduval.
I possess two new species of this small genus, which brings up the number to six, ranging from India to New Guinea. Those are strong and active insects, frequenting sunny places on the skirts of the forests.
List of Species.
[[p. 345]] Cramer's type of L. Hippocla is from Amboyna. The specimens from Celebes differ considerably in marking, and may be distinct. The females of these are brown, but paler than the males. The Indian form, with a white female, is probably distinct, and has not yet been named.
Laogona Hylæus, n. s.
Male. Allied to L. Hippocla; outline of wings more even, except the portion between the short tail and the anal angle, which is more regularly scallopped.
Above: nearly as in L. Hippocla, but the apical and upper marginal spot wanting on the anterior wings; on the hind-wings the two transverse rufous bands are confluent, leaving a broad black margin without any submarginal line.
Beneath: the markings are similar to L. Hippocla, but rather more diffused.
Expanse 1.8 inch.
Laogona Hypatia, n. s.
Male. Form of wings nearly as in L. Hippocla, the outline a little more even.
Above: the markings are nearly as in L. Hippocla, but the rufous band and markings are all enlarged, and have a very irregular outline, especially on the anterior wings.
Beneath: quite distinct from L. Hippocla: the ground colour whitish ochre, veined in a complicated net-work with deep rusty brown; near the middle of the outer margin on the upper-wings is an elongate blackish spot with a blue centre, enclosed on its inner side with a horseshoe and a lunule of the ground colour; on the outer margin of the hind-wings is a row of brown spots enclosed by a double row of lunules on each side, the two central spots are violet-ash powdered with black, while the lateral ones consist of a brown ring with a whitish centre.
Expanse 1.9 inch.
On the under side this insect is somewhat intermediate between L. Hippocla and L. Hypselis.
[[p. 346]] Genus Junonia, Hübner.
The Eastern species of this genus are often variable. The common J. Orithyia appears to vary on the islands from the continental form, the females differing much more markedly from the males. An extreme form of the female from the Moluccas is that figured by Vollenhoven as Junonia Royeri. The following species from the island of Timor is very distinct.
Junonia timorensis, n. s.
Ouline of J. Aonis, but the anterior wings a little more sinuate and more prominently dentate.
Male. Above: rich fuscous-brown, the base and outer margins rufous, a narrow band of three ochre-yellow spots across the apex of the anterior wings, the markings in the cell and the submarginal ocelli as in J. Aonis, but much less distinct; hind-wings with a triple ocellus towards the outer angle, the middle one large, next to this a small one, and another of medium size next the anal angle.
Beneath: dark bronzy-brown, the band of four spots and one nearer the apex white, the ocelli nearly as above, but more distinct; on the hind-wing these are placed on a band of a more bronzy colour, beyond which is a pale ash coloured margin with two narrow dusky lines.
Female. Like the male, but paler, and the white band across the apex wanting beneath.
Expanse 2.3 to 2.5 inches.
Genus Cyrestis, Boisduval.
This is one of the most elegant genera of butterflies, and the species are remarkable for their habit of settling frequently on the bare earth and rocks, with the wings spread out flat, so as fully to display their beautifully pencilled markings. I obtained seven new species in the Malay Archipelago, five of which have been already described by Felder and Butler. I now offer descriptions of the other two, one closely allied to C. nivea, and the other to C. Paulinus, but sufficiently distinct. This brings the number of described species to twenty, ranging from India to New Guinea.
[[p. 347]] Cyrestis Nais, n. s.
Very near C. nivea, but distinguished from it by many minute differences of form and marking. On the upper wings the median vein is more abruptly arched beyond its second branch; on the hind-wings, the outer angle is more prominent, and the tails are vertical instead of divergent.
Male. Upper side: the space between the two first cellular strigæ is blue instead of brown, the orange spot at the outer angle is margined on the inner side with blue lunules, and the inner marginal streak coincides on the two wings, forming a regular curved unbroken line, just within which is a streak of slaty-blue, with a metallic gloss.
Beneath: the markings are much darker than in C. nivea, and the ground colour is of a more bluish-pearly tint; a rufous tinge extends more or less along the middle of the marginal band on both wings.
Expanse 2.1 inch.
The continuous marginal strigæ on both wings, and the less divergent tails, at once distinguish this species from its very close ally C. nivea.
Cyrestis Seneca, n. s.
Very near C. Paulinus, compared with a female of which the differences are as follows:
Female. Above: the dusky border is much wider, having a very narrow oblique white band, which is still further reduced by a faint dusky line just within it; all the wings have a very fine submarginal black line, which is finely edged with white on the anterior wings, while on the hind-wings it is placed on a narrow white border, with a dusky edge within the white fringe; there is an interrupted white line, very faint on the upper-wings, just beyond the row of dusky ovate white-ringed spots.
Beneath: the dusky margin is much paler than in C. Paulinus, the black submarginal line is equally defined as above, and the two central lunules of the posterior band are considerably smaller than the others. The tails are longer than in C. Paulinus.
[[p. 348]] Expanse 2.6 inches.
A local form of C. Paulinus, but differs in characters which in that species seem constant in a large number of specimens.
Genus Parthenos, Hübner.
This genus consists of three large and handsome butterflies of the Malay Archipelago, all tolerably abundant in the islands they inhabit, but not easy to obtain in fine condition.
♂. Vollenh. Tijd. Ent. 1866, p. 210, pl. x. fig. 2.
Female. Differs only in having the submarginal lines and longitudinal stripes faintly indicated on the black ground. In one specimen from New Guinea, the pearly white spots are obsolete, while the markings on the outer half of the wings are a little more distinct.
Expanse 3.9 inches.
Genus Euripus, Doubleday.
Euripus robustus, n. s.
Much larger than E. Halitherses, the median tooth of the hind-wings shorter and more oblique, the anal tooth wanting.
Male. Above: brown-black, on the anterior wings a marginal and submarginal row of elongate spots, in pairs, dusky and indistinct, basal and discal spots arranged as in E. Halitherses, but less defined. Hind-wings with the [[p. 349]] basal half white, divided by narrower black veins than in E. Halitherses; a row of very small white spots in pairs close to the margin, and an inner row of linear spots also in pairs.
Beneath; dusky, the markings nearly as in E. Halitherses, a large elongate blackish patch parallel to the inner margin of the anterior wings, the spots on and near which are bluish and violet.
Expanse 3.l inch.
A very distinct species of this curious little genus.
Genus Apatura, Fabricius.
Apatura macar, n. s.
Near A. Parisatis, but larger, and the anal angle less produced.
Male. Above: deep bronzy-brown, paler towards the margin, which is regularly dentate, the intervals white-edged; a brown-black submarginal line, within which is a row of lunulate markings, more distinct on the hind-wings, which have an oval black spot, orange-ringed, near the anal angle; on the anterior wing is a row of five or six white points parallel to the outer margin.
Beneath: bronzy-reddish-brown, spots in the discoidal cells nearly as in A. Parisatis, the median transverse band pale brown, the anal and submarginal spots as above, but the third and sixth white points are enclosed in black spots, the latter the largest.
Female. Dark brown, the outer half paler, more or less tinged with rusty-orange; an irregular band of white spots well-defined on the inner edge, begins about the middle of the costa at the subcostal vein, and forming a broken curve on the anterior wings, passes in a straight line to about the middle of the abdominal margin; the other spots and markings are the same as on the underside of the male.
Beneath, nearly as above, but paler.
Expanse, ♂, 2.4 inches; ♀, 2.5 inches.