Alfred Russel Wallace : Alfred
Wallace : A. R. Wallace :
Russel Wallace : Alfred Russell Wallace (sic)
List of Lepidopterous Insects Collected at Takow,
Formosa, by Mr. Robert Swinhoe (S117: 1866)
Editor Charles H. Smith's Note: A systematic list, read at the Zoological Society of London
meeting of 12 June 1866, and later printed in their Proceedings series for 1866. This is one of
Wallace's few co-authored publications, the second author here being Frederic Moore. Original
pagination indicated within double brackets. To link directly to this page, connect with:
[[p. 355]] This small collection comprises forty-six species of diurnal, and ninety-three of
nocturnal Lepidoptera, and bears internal evidence of having been chiefly formed in a cultivated
district. It cannot, therefore, be taken as furnishing any adequate idea of the productions of the
island of Formosa in this order of insects. The large majority of the species are those which are
widely spread over the Eastern Tropics, and they generally present no striking differences from
specimens collected in India or the Malay islands. There are not wanting indications, however,
that a rich harvest of these beautiful insects could be obtained in the forests of the interior; for
the only two [[p. 356]] species which occur in the collection belonging to the forest-haunting
genera Euplúa and Pontia appear to be quite distinct from any yet described. There is also a
Pieris which exhibits sufficient departure from the allied Indian and Malayan forms to deserve a
separate specific name, and a small Lycæna which seems quite new. It is probable that at least
four times as many species as are here given exist in Formosa; and it is to be hoped that Mr.
Swinhoe may yet have an opportunity of continuing his researches. Some notes on the habits of
the various species sent by the gentleman have been incorporated in the accompanying list; and
the five new species of Butterflies which the collection contains have been described as a first
instalment towards the insect-fauna of a new and most promising region. The new species are
Pontia niobe, Pieris formosana, Terias vagans, Euplúa swinhoei, and Lycæna nisa. Mr. Frederic
Moore, who has paid much attention to the nocturnal Lepidoptera (Heterocera), has furnished
the list of that part of the collection, in which, however, it has not yet been possible to determine
all the obscurer species.
1. PAPILIO DIPHILUS, Esper (polydorus, Bd.).
A common Butterfly in India, the Philippines, and the Malay islands. The Formosan
specimens most nearly resemble the Indian form.
Mr. Swinhoe says, "Found near villages; I have not observed this species in China."
2. PAPILIO ANDROGEUS, Cr.
The Formosan specimens of this very variable species are nearly the same as some from
India and China.
"Very variable; two seldom seem alike. Some females have no tails."--Swinhoe.
3. PAPILIO PAMMON, L.
"Found in gardens; not common."--Swinhoe.
4. PAPILIO ERITHONIUS, Cr.
Agrees with Chinese specimens.
Mr. Swinhoe mentions seeing a tailed species like this, which he supposes to be P. machaon.
It is more likely it would be P. demolion, Cr., or perhaps a new species altogether.
5. PIERIS FORMOSANA, n. s.
Male. Above, exactly as in P. hippo, Cr. (eleonora, Bd.). Beneath, the apical spot on the
upper wings is larger; the disk of the lower wings is white washed with yellow, which is deepest
at the base and outer angle; and the marginal dusky band is narrower.
Female. Above, like P. hippo, Cr., but the hinder wings dusky, [[p. 357]] with diffused
whitish stripes, and powdery yellowish marks between the nervures along the hinder margin.
Beneath, differs from P. hippo in the under wings being white, with dusky nervures and band on
outer margin, and a yellow edging at the base and the outer angle.
This is a local modification of the Indian P. hippo.
Expanse 2 1/2 - 2 3/4 inches.
"Frequents banyan trees."--Swinhoe.
6. PONTIA NIOBE, n. s.
Form and size of P. nina. Wings whiter; the apical patch entirely absent; the discoidal spot
very small, as in some specimens of P. nina. Beneath paler and less irrorated, and the transverse
posterior band interrupted and less distinct than in the allied species. Extreme tip of the antennæ
Expanse 1 5/8 inch.
"Found in the dark shade of groves and lanes. Flies low, with a slow dodging
7. CALLIDRYAS PYRANTHE, L.
"Abundant among rank overgrown herbage."--Swinhoe.
There is one specimen of a very small form of this species (1 3/4 inch expanse), which Mr.
Swinhoe seems to consider distinct. It is, however, identical in form and marking with the larger
8. CALLIDRYAS ALCMEONE, Cramer.
"Scarcer than the last, wilder flight."--Swinhoe.
9. TERIAS HECABE, L.
"Common among grass."--Swinhoe.
A variety occurs much smaller than usual, and in which the black margin of the upper wings
is hardly sinuated, indicating a transition to T. drona, Horsf.
10. TERIAS VAGANS, n. s.
Wings with the anterior angle nearly square, but slightly rounded; hind wings subangular.
Male: pure yellow, with a black border on the uppers, nearly as in T. læta, stopping abruptly
before reaching the outer angle; hind wings with a very faint mark at the outer angle; beneath
yellow, with an indistinct dusky transverse band across the middle of the hind wings. Female:
pale yellow, faintly powdered with dusky scales; dark border as in the male; a very minute dark
mark at the end of the discoidal cell of the uppers, a dusky patch at the outer angle of the lower
wings, and the ends of the nervures between it and the anal angle each with a transverse black
mark; beneath nearly as above in colour, but without markings, except the mark at the end of the
cell of the uppers, a black [[p. 358]] dot near the base between the costal and subcostal nervures
of the hind wings, and a very minute black dot at the end of each nervure on the hind margin.
Expanse 1 1/2 inch.
Hab. Formosa; North India.
A single female specimen of this insect was sent from Formosa, and one male exists in the
British Museum Collection from India, showing it to be a very distinct species, which is probably
widely distributed, but rare and local. It comes very near T. venata, Moore, from Northern India.
11. DANAIS PLEXIPPUS, Godart.
"Scarce in Formosa."--Swinhoe.
12. DANAIS CHRYSIPPUS, Linnæus.
Mr. Swinhoe notices the resemblance of this species in appearance and habits to the female
of Diadema bolina, L.
13. EUPLĆA SWINHOEI, n. s.
Above--brown black, velvety, with a dark purple gloss; hind wings near the anterior margin
and anal angle browner; upper wings with a submarginal row of six white oval spots edged with
blue, the second from the top largest and nearly touching the first; two dead-black stripes parallel
to the lower margin. Hind wings with the anterior margin ashy white; a row of eight small round
white spots close to the hinder margin, not reaching the anal or outer angles, and a submarginal
row of four blue-edged spots, the largest near the outer angle. Beneath--deep brown; upper
wings with three spots on the disk, the two upper ones blue (the smallest in the cell), the lowest
larger and ashy white; a marginal row of eight small round white spots beginning at the outer
angle, and within it a row of five spots, commencing opposite the space between the third and
fourth of the marginal row; the four first very small; the last elongate, situated below the apex.
Hind wings with the marginal row as above, but of nine or eleven spots; the submarginal row of
three small white spots, and four small bluish spots arranged in a curve outside the extremity of
the cell. Wings all finely white-edged between the nervures. The body beneath is white-spotted,
and there are five white spots on the base of the wings, close to it, on each side. Abdomen blue
black, with a group of bluish-white scales at the base of each segment.
Expanse 3 1/4 inches.
A single specimen was taken by Mr. Swinhoe at the foot of a hill a few miles inland. It most
resembles a new species from Celebes, near E. doleschalii, Felder.
14. MESSARIS ERYMANTHUS, Drury.
"A solitary species: frequents flowers."--Swinhoe.
[[p. 359]] 15. JUNONIA LEMONIAS, Linnæus.
This agrees in markings with Indian specimens, but in form makes an approach to the
Malayan species, J. aonis, L.
"Common in grassy places and hedgerows."--Swinhoe.
16. JUNONIA ORYTHIA, L.
This more resembles the Malayan than the Indian form of the species.
"Common where stones abound and the grass is short."--Swinhoe
17. JUNONIA ASTERIA, Linnæus.
"Most abundant in rank and marshy places."--Swinhoe.
18. DIADEMA AUGE, Cramer.
"Suns itself about hedges, and has a stately sailing flight."--Swinhoe.
19. DIADEMA BOLINA, Linnæus.
"The male is a very lively creature, basking on plants and stones, flitting about and taking
long excursions, and fighting with all Butterflies that come near its beat. The female appears to
be much scarcer, or rather perhaps shows herself less. In habit she is quite distinct, lazying all
day about bushes, and seldom flying far. When a female is observed, several males rush at her at
once. Before I learnt the sexes I was sorely scandalized to see a blue-black and a red in copulâ. I
thought I had discovered a libertine among Butterflies. But I have seen the thing so frequently
now that I am convinced the two are merely sexes of the same species. I have never observed the
males on flowers, though I have seen some hundreds."--Swinhoe.
20. HESTINA ASSIMILIS, Cramer.
"Not uncommon, but very local and difficult to capture."--Swinhoe.
A Chinese species.
21. NEPTIS ACERIS, Esper.
A widely distributed species.
"Common about tall grass and sides of grass-grown streams."--Swinhoe.
22. ATHYMA LEUCOTHOË, Linnæus.
"Common on bushes and grassy places, fluttering and sailing through the air. Suck the sap of
wounded trees. Males fight for the females."--Swinhoe.
23. MELANITIS UNDULARIS, Fabricius.
"Loves shaded lanes, sluggish and never flies far."--Swinhoe.
[[p. 360]] 24. ERGOLIS CORYTA, Cramer.
"Frequents hedgerows and places overgrown with rank herbage. Has a slow floating
25. CYLLO LEDA, Linnæus.
"Common; frequents trunks of trees and the ground in dark shady places."--Swinhoe.
26. DEBIS EUROPA, Fabricius.
"Loves to cluster on bamboo joints."--Swinhoe.
27. MYCALESIS DRUSIA, CR. (? mineus, L.).
28. MYCALESIS SAMBA, Moore, Cat. Mus. E. I. C. p. 233 (lalassis, Hew.).
29. MYCALESIS OTREA, Cramer.
This differs from Cramer's figure in having a whitish band on the underside; but these
insects vary so much that it would not be safe to describe it as distinct. Mr. Swinhoe says the
species of Mycalesis are common about grassy places in Formosa.
30. LYCÆNA ELPIS, Godart.
One specimen only of this species was sent by Mr. Swinhoe.
31. LYCÆNA CNEJUS, Fabricius.
32. LYCÆNA KANDARPA, Horsfield.
33. LYCÆNA PLUTO, Fabricius.
"Rather plentiful; very desultory and dodging in flight."--Swinhoe.
34. LYCÆNA PLINIUS, Fabricius.
"About long grass."--Swinhoe.
35. LYCÆNA PARRHASIUS, Fabricius.
36. LYCÆNA VARUNANA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 772, pl. XLI. f. 8.
37. LYCÆNA SANGRA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 772, pl. XLI. f. 6.
38. LYCÆNA KARSANDRA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 505, pl. XXXI. f. 7.
39. LYCÆNA NISA, n. s.
Small; wings rounded; in the male violet-blue, with broad dusky margins; in the female pale
ash-colour, with faint golden and violet iridescence and a few traces of azure scales; the upper
wings with dusky, the lower wings with white ciliated fringe. Beneath, in both [[p. 361]] sexes,
ashy white with a golden gloss; a fine dark line on the edge of the outer margin, and within it an
obscure band of very faint brown lunules; on the lower wings a small round black spot on the
lunulate band between the second and third median nervules. Antennæ black-and-white ringed.
Expanse 10 lines.
A pair only of this species was sent by Mr. Swinhoe.
40. PTERYGOSPIDEA FOLUS, Cramer (cicero, Fab.).
41. ISMENE LADON, Cramer.
42. HESPERIA DIVODASA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 791.
43. HESPERIA AGNA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 791.
44. HESPERIA CINNARA, Moore, MS.
This species will, I believe, shortly be described by Mr. Moore. It is closely allied to the last,
but has larger and more numerous transparent spots, eight on the upper and three on the lower
wing. Like all the other Hesperidæ in this list, it is a common Indian species.
45. PAMPHILA AUGIAS, Linnæus.
46. PAMPHILA MÆSA, Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 509.
This section is represented in the collection by examples pertaining to 72 genera, all the
species of which that have been determined being found also either in China, North-eastern
India, or Ceylon. The total number of species is 93, these occurring in the several tribes as
|Bombycites||9 "||13 "|
|Noctuites||23 "||31 "|
|Pyralites||15 "||22 "|
|Geometrites||9 "||10 "|
|Crambites||2 "||3 "|
|Tortricites||7 "||7 "|
|Tineites||4 "||7 "|
1. LOPHURA HYAS, Walker, List. Lep. B. M. Het. pt. viii. p. 107.
2. ACHERONTIA SATANAS, Boisd. Spéc. Gén. Lep. i. pl. 16. f. 1 (Acherontia lethe, West.
Cab. Orient. pl. 42. f. 2.)
[[p. 362]] 3. CHÆROCAMPA SWINHOEI, Moore, n. sp.
Male. Ochreous brown: fore wing suffused with greenish ochreous, and slightly black-speckled, with a greyish-brown exterior band, which is minutely black-speckled and with an
inner speckled border and a slight posterior black spot, an indistinct small black discal spot; cilia
alternate ochreous and black. Hind wing dull cupreous black, slightly ochreous along the exterior
border; cilia ochreous. Abdomen ochreous at the sides, and with a series of subdorsal paler short
streaks. Underside of the wings reddish testaceous, minutely black-speckled; base and exterior
band of fore wing dusky brown.
Exp. 2 1/4 inches.
4. HYPSA ALCIPHON, Cram. t. 133. f. E.
5. HYPSA EGENS, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. ii. p. 453.
6. HYPSA PLANA, Walk. ib. p. 450.
7. HYPSA INTACTA, Walk. ib. p. 451.
8. UTETHESIA PULCHELLA, Linn. (Cram. t. 109. f. E).
9. CLELEA SAPPHIRINA, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. Suppl. p. 465.
10. PHALANNA POLYMENA, Linn. (Cram. t. 13. f. D).
11. SYNTOMIS ATEREUS, Cram. t. 400. f. A.
12. NYCTEMERA VARIANS, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. ii. p. 400.
13. Gen. undetermined.
14. LYMANTRIA, sp.
15. ALOA LACTINEA, Cram. t. 133. f. D.
16. ALOA BIFRONS, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. iii. p. 705.
17. CHASMINA CYGNUS, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. ix. p. 147.
18. PRODENIA RETINA, Guen. Noct. i. 163.
[[p. 363]] Fam. HELIOTHIDÆ.
19. HELIOTHIS ARMIGERA, Hübn. Noct. pl. 79. f. 370.
20. XANTHODES TRANSVERSA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 211.
21. XANTHODES INTERSEPTA, Guen. ib. p. 212.
22. ACONTIA MACULOSA, Walk. Cat. Lep. Het. B. M. xii. p. 795.
23. ANTHOPHILA ROSEIFASCIA, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. Suppl. p. 803.
24. PLUSIA VERTICILLATA, Guen. Noct. ii. 344.
25. PLUSIA FURCIFERA, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xii. p. 927.
26. ORESIA EMARGINATA, Fabr. (Guen. Noct. ii. 363).
27. ORESIA RECTISTRIA, Guen. Noct. ii. p. 363.
28. ANOMIS FULVIDA, Guen. ii. p. 397.
29. TOXOCAMPA METASPILA, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xiii. p. 1032.
30. HOMOPTERA INFLIGENS, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xiii. p. 1068.
31. ANOPHIA ACRONYCTOIDES, Guen. Noct. iii. 47.
32. OPHIDERES FULLONICA, Linn. (Cram. t. 77. f. C).
33. OPHIDERES CAJETA, Cram. t. 30. f. A.
34. OPHIDERES SALAMINIA, Cram. t. 174. f. A.
35. OPHIODES TRIPHÆNOIDES, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xiv. 1358.
36. OPHIUSA ARCTOTÆNIA, Guen. Noct. iii. 272.
37. OPHIUSA STUPOSA, Fabr. (Cram. t. 273. f. E).
[[p. 364]] 38. ACHÆA MELICERTA, Drury, Ins. i. pl. 23. f. 1.
39. GRAMMODES AMMONIA, Cram. t. 250. f. D.
40. GRAMMODES MYGDON, Cram. t. 156. f. G.
41. TRIGONODES HYPPASIA, Cram. t. 250. f. E.
42. REMIGIA ARCHESIA, Cram. t. 273. f. F, G.
43. REMIGIA GREGALIS, Guen. Noct. iii. p. 320.
44-47. Four species undetermined.
48. HYPENA, sp.
49. HYMENIA RECURVALIS, Fabr. (Guen. Delt. et Pyral. 225).
50. OLIGOSTIGMA ORBITALIS, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xvii. p. 432.
51. LEPYRODES GEOMETRALIS, Guen. Delt. et Pyral. 278.
52. ZEBRONIA PERSPICUALIS, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. Suppl. 1347.
53. ZEBRONIA ABDICALIS, Walk. ib. xvii. p. 480.
54. GLYPHODES BIVITRALIS, Guen. Delt. et Pyral. p. 293.
55. GLYPHODES ZELINCALIS, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. Suppl.
56. MARGARONIA PSITTACALIS, Hübn. Samml. exot. Schmett. iii. f. 523.
57. BOTYS SELLALIS, Guen. Delt. et Pyral. 330.
58. BOTYS THYASALIS, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xvii. p. 734.
59. BOTYS DAMASALIS, Walk. ib. p. 668, ♂.
Botys adhæsalis, Walk. ib. p. 664, ♀.
60. BOTYS ILLISALIS, Walk. ib. p. 653.
61. BOTYS ADMENSALIS, Walk. ib. p. 652.
62. BOTYS DAMOALIS, Walk. ib. p. 656.
63-69. Seven species undetermined.
70. DREPANODES SCITARIA, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xxv. p. 1488.
Syn. Anisodes pyriniata, Walk. ib. p. 1582.
71. EUMELIA AURELIATA, Guen. Phal. i. p. 394, pl. 22. f. 6.
72. EPHYRA MONOCHROMATA, Walk. Catal. Lep. B. M. xxvi. p. 1754.
73. TIMANDRA AVENTIARIA, Guen. Phal. ii. p. 3.
74. ACIDALIA ATTENTATA, Walk. Catal. Lep. B. M. xxii. p. 754.
75. ACIDALIA LIGATARIA, Walk. ib. p. 748.
76. MICRONIA ACULEATA, Guen. Phal. ii. p. 26, pl. 13. f. 8.
77. MACARIA DIVISARIA, Walk. Catal. Lep. B. M. xxiii. p. 927.
78. ORSONOBA RAJACA, Walk. ib. xx. p. 219.
79. SAURIS REMODESARIA, Walk. Cat. Lep. B. M. xxii. p. 1253.
80. CHILO, sp.
81, 82. CRAMBUS, two species.
83-89. Seven species undetermined.
90. ATTEVA NIVEIGUTTELLA.
Corinea niveiguttella, Walk. Catal. Lep. B. M. xxviii. p. 542.
91. AZINIS HILARELLA, Walk. ib.
92, 93. Two species undetermined.
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