Alfred Russel Wallace : Alfred Wallace : A. R. Wallace :
Russel Wallace : Alfred Russell Wallace (sic)
Note on Corvus senex, Garn. & Less., and Corvus
fuscicapillus, G. R. Gray (S73: 1863)
Editor Charles H. Smith's Note: A note published in the fifth volume of the journal Ibis in 1863.
Original pagination indicated within double brackets. To link directly to this page, connect with:
[[p. 100]] On looking over Schlegel's 'Notice sur le genre Corvus,' and comparing his
figures and descriptions with my specimens from the Malay Archipelago, I was surprised to find
that his Corvus senex was not Lesson's species, but a quite different bird, obtained by me at the
Aru Islands, which Mr. G. R. Gray inserted in his list (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858) as C. orru, but
afterwards (on receiving the true C. orru from Dorey) named C. fuscicapillus. Schlegel's
specimen appears to have been an immature female. It agrees exactly with mine in the high-arched bill, which is very much compressed, and in all the principal dimensions; but the adult
birds have the plumage in both sexes purple-black, glossy above, except the head and neck,
which are of a deep sooty brown. The face is thickly plumed; but in a young specimen which I
[[p. 101]] possess, the feathers are, as Schlegel describes it, "très-clair semées." The bill, in the
male, is entirely black; in the female and young birds, reddish white, with a black tip. The feet, in
both sexes, are black.
The true Corvus senex is a very different bird. The bill and feet are yellowish white in both
sexes, and a large space round the eye quite bare and of a white colour. The bill resembles in
form that of C. ossifragus, figured by Schlegel, but is more elongated, and the upper mandible
extends a quarter of an inch beyond the lower one; the base of the lower mandible is wider than
in the much longer bill of C. fuscicapillus. The hairy plumes which cover the nostrils spread
upwards, so as to rise and almost meet above the culmen at more than half an inch from its base,
whereas in most other species of Corvus (and in C. fuscicapillus in particular) they are depressed
over the nostrils only, leaving the culmen, except at its base, perfectly free. But the most
characteristic feature of C. senex is its long graduated tail, which differs from that of every other
Crow: Lesson gives it as from nine to ten inches in length, which exactly agrees with my
specimens. In the colour of C. senex there is much individual variation, and though most
frequently the head is of a dull dirty white, and the rest of the body dusky, yet I have one
specimen in which the wings and tail show purple glosses, and I should not be surprised if others
had the full corvine hues.
In the following comparative dimensions of the two birds, it will be seen that those of
Schlegel's specimens, allowing for the French inches (1/12th more than English), exactly agree
with my own.
| C. senex, Less.||23 in.||13 in.||9-10 in.||2 1/2 in.||1 in.|
| C. fuscicapillus||21-23||13-13 1/2||7||2 9/10||1 1/8|
| (C. senex, Schlegel)||20||12 7/12||6 1/2||2 2/3||1|
The synonyms and references to C. fuscicapillus will therefore stand thus:--
Corvus orru, G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 180.
[[p. 102]] Corvus senex, Schlegel, 'Notice sur le genre Corvus,' 1860, p. 10 (female juv.).
Corvus fuscicapillus, G. R. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, in Table of New Guinea Birds.
Hab. Aru Islands and Waigiou.
British Museum, Coll. Wallace, and Mus. Leyden.