Russel Wallace : Alfred Russell Wallace (sic)
The island possesses an active volcano, but otherwise consists only of raised coral-rock and sand. It has therefore, probably, never been connected with any other land, but has been gradually [[p. 349]] raised in the ocean by volcanic agency. While this was going on, it would be peopled by stragglers from the surrounding countries, and an overwhelming proportion of Gilolo species would naturally result from the proximity of that island. The species of Tanysiptera and Tropidorhynchus, which, from being generally very local, we may conclude to be peculiarly subject to modification, are those which have undergone the greatest amount of change, and already present us with well-marked specific characters.
Dark green above, lighter green beneath, middle of the back and under tail-coverts yellowish green; crown of the head, rump, and upper tail-coverts, a spot on the throat, and the outer bend of the wings bright red; quills black, on the upper side with the outer web green, beneath with the inner web blue; tail green above, blue beneath, with a minute yellowish spot at the apex of each feather. The female wants the red on the crown, and has a more brownish tinge between the shoulders.
Bill black; feet light red.
Total length ♂ 4 1/4 in., ♀ 4 3/4 in., wing 2 3/4 in.
Black, slightly tinged with deep blue, which is more distinct on the ear-coverts, nape, and shoulders; crown and lesser wing-coverts verditer blue; a large spot in the middle of the back, rump, throat, breast, and belly white, slightly rufous-tinged; tail white, with the outer web of all the feathers blue above and dusky beneath; two middle feathers entirely blue above, except the spatula-tips and a portion of inner web at the base, which are white; under wing-coverts white, mixed with black at the base and on the shoulder-margins; sides of breast and belly blackish.
Bill deep orange-red; feet dark olive.
[[p. 350]] Total length about 14 inches; wing 4 inches.
Above olive-brown, more rufous on the rump and tail; beneath white, tinged with ash on the neck and breast, and with rufous on the flanks and under tail-coverts; an obscure pale stripe from the nostrils over the eyes and ear-coverts.
Bill dusky; lower mandible and feet pale.
Total length 6 3/4 inches; wing 3 1/4 inches; bill from gape 4/5 inch.
Ashy brown, wings and tail blackish; beneath white, with dusky stripes on the sides of the throat, breast, and flanks; lores white; bill and feet black; base of lower mandible pale yellow; iris black.
Total length 5 1/4 inches; wing 3 1/4 inches.
Above olive-yellow; beneath dusky yellow, rather paler on the throat; quills with the inner margins dusky brown; tail-feathers dull olive beneath and on the inner webs. Bill dusky lead-colour, margins pale; feet lead-colour; iris dark.
[[p. 351]] Total length 8 1/2 inches; wing 4 inches; bill from gape 7/8 inch.
Above dark glossy olive-brown, deepening to blackish olive on the head; beneath earthy brown; under tail-coverts lighter; throat light ash, whitest near the ears, where it has almost a silvery gloss; outer edges of the quills, lower part of the throat, and the breast tinged with olive-yellow, which seems more distinct in the male than the female; orbits and bare part of face flesh-colour; bill, simply keeled at the base, black; feet lead-colour.
Total length 14 inches; wing 6 inches; bill from gape 1.7 inch.
Green; forehead and cheeks blue; sides of neck yellow-tinged; upper tail-coverts, two middle tail-feathers, and margins of the outer ones red; tips of wings dusky; under wing-coverts yellowish buff.
In the female the blue and red colours are duller, and do not extend quite so far.
Bill black; feet pale dusky red; iris dark.
Total length 5 inches; wing 2.4 inches.