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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Lalande [Delalande], Michel-Richard de (1657-1726) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque
Best Known For:  sacred motets ('grand motets')---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  M-A Charpentier; F Couperin?; Lully; French & Italian music
Has Influenced:  -M-A Charpentier?; -F Couperin


Lalo, Edouard (1823-92) French; Paris-based from 1839
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic
Genre Profile:  222---1300---1122---100---22---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  works for featured string instr. w/orch.---chamber music---Le Roi d'Ys (opera)
Notable Works:  . . . Symphonie Espagnole in D minor [vln & orch.] Op.21 (1873) . . . Cello Conc. in D minor (1877) . . . Le Roi d'Ys [opera] (1888)
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Liszt; Mendelssohn; +Sarasate; Schubert; R Schumann; Wagner; Weber; Spanish music; folk music
Has Influenced:  Debussy; Dukas; Indy?


Lambert, (Leonard) Constant (1905-51) British; London-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical (American Vernacularist)
Best Known For:  ballets---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . The Rio Grande [solo v, pf, chorus & orch.] (1927) 
Musical Influences:  -Chabrier; -Liszt; Satie; Stravinsky; [B Van Dieren]; Walton; Warlock; RAGTIME; JAZZ; French music; Medieval music
Has Influenced:  Arnold


Langlais, Jean (1907-91) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Mystical (French organ school)
Best Known For:  solo organ---masses
Notable Works:  . . . Hymne d'Actions de Grâce (Te Deum) [org] Op.5 no.3 (1933-4) . . . Messe Solennelle [4 vv, chorus & 2 org or brass & org] (1951) 
Musical Influences:  Dukas; Dupré; +Messiaen; Tournemire; Vierne; Gregorian chant


Lara, Agustín (1897-1970) Mexican; mainly Veracruz- & Mexico City-based
Style/Period:  Mexican Nationalist
Best Known For:  songs (habaneras, boleros, tangos, waltzes, etc.)
Notable Work:  . . . Granada [song] (1932) 
Musical Influences:  Latin American popular music forms; Spanish music; jazz; Cuban music


Larsen, Libby (1950-) American; Minneapolis-based
Style/Period:  from the New Grove Dictionary: "Her style is noted for its energy, optimism, rhythmic diversity, colourful orchestration, liberated tonality without harsh dissonance, and pervading lyricism."
Best Known For:  vocal & choral works---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  Argento; JAZZ


Larsson, Lars-Erik (1908-86) Swedish
Style/Period:  highly varied (w/eclectic Neoclassical & Neoromantic elements)
Best Known For:  syms.---concs. & concertinos---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . 12 Concertinos [solo instr. & orch.] Op.45 (1953-7) 
Musical Influences:  Berg; Hindemith; ---Mozart; Nielsen; Schoenberg?; Shostakovich; Sibelius


La Rue, Pierre de (c1452-1518) Flemish
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  motets---masses---secular songs (chansons)
Notable Work:  . . . Missa pro defunctis [4 vv] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Binchois?; Isaac?; Josquin?; Ockeghem; Franco-Flemish school; plainchant


77. Lasso, Orlando di [Orlandus Lassus, etc.] (1532-94) Franco-Flemish; Munich-based from 1556
Style/Period:  Late Renaissance (w/eclectic Franco-Flemish, French & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (motets, masses, magnificats)---secular vocal music (madrigals, chansons, lieder)
Notable Works:  . . . Tristis est anima mea [motet/part song for 5 vv] (p1565) . . . Seven Penitential Psalms of David [motets for 5 vv] (p1584) . . . madrigals [3-10 vv] . . . masses [4-8 vv] . . . songs [chansons & lieder for 3-8 vv, many with instrumental acc.] 
Musical Influences:  Clemens; +A Gabrieli?; Gombert; +Marenzio; [P de Monte]?; Palestrina; Rore; Willaert; Italian madrigals; Franco-Flemish polyphony; English music
Has Influenced:  Byrd; ++M-A Charpentier; [J ECCARD]; [A Ferrabosco I]; A GABRIELI; G GABRIELI; Hassler; [L LECHNER]; Marenzio; Monteverdi?; Philips; Praetorius; +++Schuman


Lauro, Antonio (1917-86) Venezuelan; mainly Caracas-based
Style/Period:  Venezuelan Nationalist
Best Known For:  solo guitar
Notable Works:  . . . Natalia/Criolia in E minor/E [guitar] (1963) . . . El Marabino [guitar] (1968) 
Musical Influences:  Barrios; --Chopin?; waltzes; VENEZUELAN FOLK MUSIC


Lawes, William (1602-45) British; London-based
Style/Period:  Early English Baroque
Best Known For:  consort/chamber music---secular songs---anthems
Musical Influences:  [J Coprario]; Marenzio?; Monteverdi; Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  +Blow?; Locke; +Purcell


Leclair, Jean-Marie (1697-1764) French; mainly Paris-based from 1723
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque (w/eclectic French & Italian elements)
Best Known For:  violin (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . 4 sets of sonatas for violin (or flute) & continuo Opp. 1/2/5/9 (p c1723-43) 
Musical Influences:  CORELLI; F Couperin; Geminiani?; Handel?; Locatelli; -Lully; Rameau; Tartini?; Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  French school of violin playing


Legrenzi, Giovanni (1626-90) Italian; from c1670 Venice-based
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  instrumental sonatas---sacred vocal/choral music---operas
Musical Influences:  [T Merula]
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; Caldara; Handel; Lotti; A Scarlatti; Torelli; Vivaldi


104. Lehár, Franz (1870-1948) Hungarian-Austrian; mainly Vienna-based from 1899
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Genre Profile:  022---1100---000?---200---03---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operettas & other stage works---waltzes
Notable Works:  . . . Gold und Silber [waltz for orch.] Op.79 (1902) . . . The Merry Widow [operetta] (1905) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Offenbach; Puccini; J Strauss Jr.; R Strauss; Wagner; Hungarian music
Has Influenced:  Hahn?; -Puccini?


Leighton, Kenneth (1929-88) British; Edinburgh-based from 1970
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (Serial)
Best Known For:  concs.---syms.---sacred vocal/choral music
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Berg; --Brahms; Britten; Dallapiccola; -Debussy; Vaughan Williams; Walton


Leoncavallo, Ruggero (1857-1919) Italian
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (verismo)
Genre Profile:  001---0000---0001---100---13---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---songs---as librettist for other composers' works
Notable Works:  . . . I Pagliacci [opera verismo] (1892) . . . La Bohème [opera] (1897) . . . Mattinata (L'Aurora di Bianco Vestita) [song for solo v & pf] (1904) 
Musical Influences:  Bizet; +Mascagni; Massenet; Meyerbeer; VerdiWagner
Has Influenced:  Giordano?; Wolf-Ferrari


95. Ligeti, György Sándor (1923-2006) Hungarian-Austrian
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (texture music; Minimalist after c1975)
Genre Profile:  002---1212---2222---222---02---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---solo keyboard---magnetic tape-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . 6 Bagatelles for Wind Quintet (1953) . . . String Quartet #1 'Métamorphoses Nocturnes' (1953-4) . . . Atmosphères [orch.] (1961) . . . Volumina [org] (1961-2, r1966) . . . Lontano [orch.] (1967) . . . String Quartet #2 (1968) . . . Chamber Conc. [13 players] (1969-70) . . . Etudes [3 books of pf pcs] (1983-95) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; BARTÓK; Berg; +Boulez; Cage?; --Chopin; -Debussy; Kodály; --Liszt; ---Monteverdi?; Nancarrow; ---Ockeghem; Partch; +Reich; +Riley; ---D Scarlatti; --R Schumann; +Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Webern; jazz; world folk music; East Asian music; electronic music; Medieval & Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  Schnittke?


12. Liszt, Franz (1811-86) Hungarian-French-German; had strong connections with Paris, Rome, Weimar, Budapest & Bayreuth
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (Paris virtuoso school to c1850; New German school thereafter)
Genre Profile:  203---3000---2112---330---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch., transcriptions of other composers' works)---symphonic poems & other orchestral pcs---solo organ---songs---sacred choral music
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1839-83) . . . Années de Pèlerinage (3 sets) [pf] S160, S161 & S163 (1837-54, 1867-77) . . . 6 Transcendental Etudes after Paganini [pf] S140 (1838) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in A S125 (1839, r1849-61) . . . 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies [pf] S244 (1846-85; orch. arrs. S359 (d?)) . . . Concert Study 'La Leggierezza' [pf] S144 no.2 (c1848) . . . Symphonic Poem #1 'Les Préludes' S97 (1848, r1854 or before) . . . Consolation 'Lento placido' [pf] S172 no.3 (1849-50) . . . Symphonic Poem #2 'Tasso: Lament & Triumph' S96 (1849, r1850-1 & 1854) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in E flat S124 (1849, r1853 & 1856) . . . Totentanz [folksong settings for pf & orch.] S126 (1849, r1853 & 1859) . . . Fantasia & Fugue [org] S259 (1850) . . . 3 Liebesträume [pf] S541 (c1850) . . . Piano Sonata in B minor S178 (1852-3) . . . Faust Symphony S108 (1854-7) . . . Prelude & Fugue on B-A-C-H [org] S260 (1855, r1870) . . . Christus [sacred oratorio for 5 solo vv, chorus & orch.] S3 (1862-7) . . . First Mephisto Waltz [pf] S110 (1863) . . . Second Mephisto Waltz [orch.] S111 (1881) . . . Valse Oubliée #1 [pf] S215 no.1 (c1881) 
Musical Influences:  ---Allegri; --JS Bach; Beethoven; Bellini?; Berlioz; Chopin; Czerny; Field; Hummel; Meyerbeer; -Mozart; PAGANINI; ---Palestrina; Reicha; Salieri; Schubert; R Schumann; +Wagner; Weber; gypsy music
Has Influenced:  ALBÉNIZ; Alkan; +Alwyn; Balakirev; Beach; Bartók; Bax; Borodin; Bruckner; BUSONI; Chaminade; Cui; Debussy; Dohnányi; Duparc; Dvorák; Fauré; Fibich; FRANCK; Gade; Glazunov; Glière; Goldmark; Gottschalk; Granados; Grieg; Guilmant; -JPE Hartmann?; Herbert; Indy; Kodály; Lalo; +Lambert; ++Ligeti; MacDowell; Mahler; +Messiaen?; Moszkowski; Mussorgsky; Novák; Paderewski; [JK Paine]; Parry; +Prokofiev; Rachmaninov; Raff; Ravel; Reger; Rheinberger; Rimsky-Korsakov; Rubinstein; SAINT-SAËNS; Scriabin; ++Shchedrin; Sibelius; SINDING; SMETANA; Stenhammar; J Strauss Jr.; Jos Strauss; R Strauss; Sullivan; Svendsen; Tchaikovsky; Wagner; Widor; Wolf


Locatelli, Pietro Antonio (1695-1764) Italian; Amsterdam-based from 1729
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  violin (chamber combs.)---concs. & concerti grossi
Musical Influences:  Corelli; Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  +[R Kreutzer]; Leclair; +Paganini


Locke, Matthew (1621/2 - 1677) British
Style/Period:  Middle English Baroque
Best Known For:  consort/chamber music---stage works---anthems
Notable Work:  . . . Musick for His Majesty's Cornetts & Sackbutts [brass ensemble] (1661) 
Musical Influences:  Lawes; +Lully
Has Influenced:  Blow; PURCELL


Loeffler, Charles Martin (1861-1935) German-AmericanBoston area-based from 1882
Style/Period:  Impressionist
Best Known For:  chamber music---orchestral pcs---string instrs. (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Musical Influences:  Chausson?; +Debussy; Franck?; +Gershwin; jazz; Gregorian chant


Loewe, (Johann) C[K]arl (1796-1869) German; Stettin (Szczecin)-based 1820-65
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic (Biedermeier)
Best Known For:  lieder, espec. narrative ballads
Notable Works:  . . . Erlkönig [ballad for solo v & pf] Op.1 no.3 (1818) . . . Odins Meeresritt [ballad for solo v & pf] Op.118 (1851) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven; --Handel; +Mendelssohn; +R Schumann; Protestant religious music; German music
Has Influenced:  Wagner; Wolf


Lortzing, (Gustav) Albert (1801-51) German; worked in Detmold, Leipzig, Vienna, Berlin, etc.
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Work:  . . . Zar und Zimmerman [opera] (1837) 
Musical Influences:  -MOZART; Spohr; Weber; folk music
Has Influenced:  J Strauss Jr.; Wagner


Lotti, Antonio (1667-1740) Italian; Venice-based after c1683
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque / Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music---cantatas---operas & oratorios
Notable Work:  . . . Crucifixus a 8 [sacred motet for 8 vv] (d?)
Musical Influences:  Legrenzi
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; Galuppi; Handel; Hasse?; Marcello; Zelenka


Luening, Otto (1900-96) American-German (born in Wisconsin, to Germany at age 12, back to the U.S. in 1924
Style/Period:  eclectic & at various times Avant-garde, Neoclassical, etc.
Best Known For:  chamber music (espec. w/flute)---magnetic tape-based music---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  BUSONI; Reger?; Schoenberg; --R Schumann; R Strauss?
Has Influenced:  Corigliano; Davidovsky; Wuorinen


Lully, Jean-Baptiste (1632-87) Italian-French; Florence-based to 1646, Paris-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Middle French Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas (tragédies)---ballets---incidental music---sacred motets
Notable Works:  . . . Cadmus et Hermione [opera] (1673) . . . Alceste [opera] (1674) 
Musical Influences:  Carissimi; Cavalli; Monteverdi?; Italian opera; French ballet
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; Blow?; -Cavalli?; M-A Charpentier; Corelli; F Couperin; ++Gluck; Handel; Lalande; +Leclair; -Locke; MARAIS; +++Martin; MUFFAT; Purcell; RAMEAU; Telemann


Lutoslawski, Witold (1913-94) Polish; mainly Warsaw-based
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (Neoromantic) to c1955; European Avant-garde (texture music) thereafter
Genre Profile:  222---2202---2212---201---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  concs.---orchestral pcs---chamber music---aleatory music
Notable Works:  . . . Variations on a Theme of Paganini [2 pf (also in pf & orch. arr.)] (1941) . . . Conc. for Orch. (1954) . . . 5 Dance Preludes [orch.] (1955) . . . 3 Poèmes d'Henri Michaux [chorus & orch.] (1963) . . . String Quartet (1964) . . . Conc. for Cello & Orch. (1970) . . . Chain 2 [vln & orch.] (1985) 
Musical Influences:  BARTÓK; Cage; --Chopin; Debussy; Hindemith?; Prokofiev; Ravel; Roussel; Stravinsky; Szymanowski; Varèse; Polish folk music
Has Influenced:  -[E Bergman]; Brouwer


Lyadov [Liadov], Anatoly [Anatol] (1855-1914) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Baba-Yaga [orch.] Op.56 (1891?-1904) . . . A Musical Snuffbox [pf] Op.32 (p1893) . . . The Enchanted Lake [orch.] Op.62 (1909) 
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; Mussorgsky; Rimsky-Korsakov; R Schumann; Wagner; folk music
Has Influenced:  Miaskovsky?


MacDowell, Edward (1860-1908) American; Europe-based 1877-88, New York- & New England-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Genre Profile:  002---2100---0001---200---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)---songs---symphonic poems
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. #2 in D minor Op.23 (1884-6) . . . To a Wild Rose (from 'Ten Woodland Sketches') [pf] Op.51 no.1 (1896) . . . Piano Sonata #4 in E minor 'Keltic' Op.59 (1900) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms?; Gottschalk?; Grieg; Liszt; -Mendelssohn?; Raff; Rubinstein?; -R Schumann; Wagner; folk music
Has Influenced:  Beach; Hanson?


Machaut, Guillaume de (c1300-77) French
Style/Period:  Medieval (Ars nova)
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . Messe de Nostre Dame [4 vv] (1364?) . . . secular songs (chansons) [mainly for 2-4 vv, incl. instrs.] . . . sacred motets [3-4 vv] 
Musical Influences:  [P de Vitry]; plainchant
Has Influenced:  +++Hindemith; +++Stravinsky


Maderna, Bruno (1920-73) Italian-German; born near Venice, became a naturalized citizen of Germany in 1963
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde
Best Known For:  magnetic tape-based pcs---stage works---instrumental ensemble pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Satyricon [opera] (1973) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Busoni?; Cage; Dallapiccola; Malipiero; +Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Webern; Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  Boulez; Nono


19. Mahler, Gustav (1860-1911) Austrian; successively based in Budapest (1888-91), Hamburg (1891-7), Vienna (1897-1907) & New York (1908-11)
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) German Romantic
Genre Profile:  302---0000---0200---000---00---030
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  syms.---songs & song cycles---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . Songs of a Wayfarer [song cycle for solo v & orch./pf] (1883-5, r1891?-6) . . . Sym. #1 in D 'Titan' (1884-8, r1893-6) . . . Sym. #2 in C minor-E flat 'Resurrection' [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1888-94, r1903) . . . The Youth's Magic Horn [song cycle for solo v & orch./pf] (1892-8) . . . Sym. #3 in D minor-D [solo v, choruses & orch.] (1893-6, r1906) . . . Sym. #4 in G major-E 'Ode to Heavenly Joy' [solo v & orch.] (1892, 1899-1900, r1901-10) . . . Ruckert Lieder [5 songs for solo v & orch./pf] (1899-1902) . . . Sym. #5 in C sharp minor-D 'Giant' (1901-2, r1902-10) . . . Songs on the Death of Children [song cycle for solo v & orch.] (1901-4) . . . Sym. #6 in A minor 'Tragic' (1903-4, r1906-10) . . . Sym. #7 in E minor-C (1904-5, r1905-10) . . . Sym. #8 in E flat 'Symphony of a Thousand' [8 solo vv, choruses & orch.] (1906) . . . Song of the Earth [symphonic song cycle for 2 solo vv & orch.] (1908-9) . . . Sym. #9 in D-D flat (1908-9) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; Berlioz; Brahms; Bruckner; Liszt; --Mozart; +Pfitzner?; --Schubert; -R Schumann; Tchaikovsky?; WAGNER; --Weber; folk music
Has Influenced:  +Arnold; BERG; +Berio; +Bernstein; +Britten; Casella; +Crumb; +Davies; Eisler; +Foss?; KA Hartmann; +Henze; -Humperdinck?; Korngold; Krenek; ++Rihm; +Rochberg; +Schnittke; Schoenberg; Schreker; +Sculthorpe?; SHOSTAKOVICH; R Strauss; Suk?; Szymanowski; Toch?; Tournemire?; Webern; Weill; [E Wellesz]; ZEMLINSKY


Malipiero, Gian Francesco (1882-1973) Italian; Asolo-based from 1921
Style/Period:  Impressionist (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  chamber music---operas---sinfonias
Musical Influences:  Busoni?; +Casella; Debussy; ---Monteverdi; Stravinsky; ---Vivaldi; ---Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Dallapiccola; Maderna; Nono; Thompson


Marais, Marin (1656-1728) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  chamber music featuring viola da gamba, espec. 5 collections of 'pièces de viole' p1686-1725---operas (tragédies)
Notable Work:  . . . Variations on Les Folies d'Espagne [viola da gamba & continuo] (p1701) 
Musical Influences:  LULLY; Italian music
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; F Couperin


Marcello, Benedetto Giacomo (1686-1739) Italian; mainly Venice-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  oratorios---secular cantatas---sacred vocal music---chamber music & instrumental sonatas
Musical Influences:  [F Gasparini]; Lotti; Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  Martini


Marenzio, Luca (1553/54 - 1599) Italian; mainly Rome-based from c1574
Style/Period:  Late Italian Renaissance
Best Known For:  madrigals
Musical Influences:  A Gabrieli; [M'A Ingegneri]; Lasso; Rore; [G de Wert]
Has Influenced:  Dowland; Gesualdo; Gibbons?; Hassler; -Lasso; +Lawes?; -[L Luzzaschi]?; Monteverdi; Morley; Philips; Praetorius; Schein; Schütz; Sweelinck; -Victoria; Weelkes; [J Wilbye]; ++Zelenka


Martin, Frank (1890-1974) Swiss; Netherlands-based from 1946
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical (Serial)
Genre Profile:  122---2222---2122---212---22---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  works for featured instr(s). w/orch.---chamber music---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Le Vin Herbé [secular oratorio for 12 solo vv, pf & 7 string instrs.] (1938-41) . . . Ballade [fl & pf (also in fl, pf & string orch. arr.)] (1939) . . . 6 Monologe aus Jedermann [v & pf] (1943) . . . Petite Symphonie Concertante [harp, pf, hpschd & string orch.] (1945) . . . Golgotha [oratorio] (1945-8) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS BACH; Bartók; --Chopin; Debussy; Fauré; Franck; [E Jaques-Dalcroze]; ---Lully; Ravel; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; -Wagner?
Has Influenced:  Stockhausen


Martini, Padre Giovanni Battista (1708-84) Italian; Bologna-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music---sinfonias & concs.---keyboard sonatas
Musical Influences:  Marcello
Has Influenced:  JC Bach; Jommelli; Mozart?


93. Martinu, Bohuslav (1890-1959) Bohemian; U.S.-based 1941-53
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical (Czech Nationalist)
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---220---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---concs. for solo & multiple instrs.---orchestral pcs---chamber music, espec. cello w/piano---operas---madrigal-form works
Notable Works:  . . . Double Conc. [pf, tympani & 2 string orchs.] (1938) . . . 3 sonatas for cello & piano (1939/1941/1952) . . . Memorial to Lidice [orch.] (1943) . . . Trio for Flute, Cello & Piano in F (1944) . . . Sonata for Flute & Piano (1945) . . . Sym. #5 (1946) . . . Sym. #6 'Fantaisies Symphoniques' (1951-3) . . . Variations on a Slovak Folksong [vc & pf] (1959) . . . Nonet [double-bass, string trio & wind quintet] (1959) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; ---Corelli; DEBUSSY; Dukas?; Dvorák; --J Haydn; Ravel; Roussel; -Smetana?; STRAVINSKY; Suk; jazz; English madrigalists; Czech/Moravian folk music
Has Influenced:  Hovhaness?


90. Mascagni, Pietro (1863-1945) Italian
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (verismo)
Genre Profile:  111---0000---0011---101---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Serenata [canzona] (1883) . . . Cavalleria Rusticana [opera verismo] (1890), incl. 'Intermezzo' [orch.] 
Musical Influences:  --Bellini?; Debussy; Mercadante; --Mozart?; Ponchielli; Verdi; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Giordano; -Leoncavallo; Menotti; -Puccini; Rachmaninov; Wolf-Ferrari


57. Massenet, Jules (1842-1912) French; Paris-based from 1847
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic
Genre Profile:  022---1100---0001---210---23---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---songs---orchestral suites
Notable Works:  . . . Élégie [song] (c1869) . . . Hérodiade [opera] (1881) . . . Manon [opera] (1884) . . . Le Cid [opera] (1885) . . . Werther [opera] (1892) . . . Thaïs [opera] (1894), incl. 'Méditation' [vln & orch.] 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; Bizet; GOUNOD; Meyerbeer; R Schumann; Tchaikovsky; Thomas; Wagner; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  G Charpentier; Chausson; Cilea; Debussy; Duparc?; Enescu; Giordano; Hahn; Koechlin; Leoncavallo; Pierné; Puccini; Ravel; Schmitt; R Strauss?; -Tchaikovsky


Mayr, (Johannes) Simon (1763-1845) German; mainly Italy-based
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  operas
Musical Influences:  +Beethoven; Cimarosa; Gluck; Mozart; Paisiello
Has Influenced:  Beethoven?; Bellini; DONIZETTI; Rossini; Verdi?


Medtner [Metner], Nicolas [Nikolay] (1880-1951) Russian; mainly Paris-, & then London-, based from c1925
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., concs.)---songs
Notable Works:  . . . 3 piano concs. (1914-18, 1920-27, 1940-43) . . . 14 piano sonatas (1902-37)  
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Brahms; Rachmaninov; -R Schumann; Scriabin; Taneyev


Méhul, Étienne-Nicolas (1763-1817) French; Paris-based from c1778
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  comic operas---syms.
Musical Influences:  +Beethoven; Cherubini; GLUCK; Grétry; J Haydn; Mozart
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; Berlioz; -Cherubini; Spontini?; Wagner?; Weber


17. Mendelssohn(-Bartholdy), Felix (1809-47) German; Leipzig-based from 1835
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic (Biedermeier; Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  333---3302---3222---220---01---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  important contributor to all main genres except ballet & opera
Notable Works:  . . . choral songs [unacc. chorus] (1820-47) . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1820-47) . . . Rondo Capriccioso in E [pf] Op.14 (1824) . . . Octet for Strings in E flat Op.20 (1825) . . . Over. to (the Shakespeare play) A Midsummer Night's Dream [orch.] Op.21 (1826) . . . String Quartet #2 in A minor Op.13 (1827) . . . Calm Sea & Prosperous Voyage [concert over.] Op.27 (1828) . . . Songs without Words (8 vols.) [pf] (1829-45) . . . Hebrides ('Fingal's Cave') Over. Op.26 [concert over.] (1830) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in G minor Op.25 (1831) . . . Sym. #5 in D 'Reformation' Op.107 (1832) . . . Sym. #4 in A 'Italian' Op.90 (1833) . . . 3 Preludes & Fugues [org] Op.37 (1837) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in D minor Op.40 (1837) . . . Piano Trio #1 in D minor Op.49 (1839) . . . Hark! the Herald Angels Sing [carol for male chorus] (1840) . . . Variations Sérieuses in D minor [pf] Op.54 (1841) . . . Incidental Music to (the Shakespeare play) A Midsummer Night's Dream [orch.] Op.61 (1842) . . . Sym. #3 in A minor 'Scottish' Op.56 (1842) . . . Violin Conc. in E minor Op.64 (1844) . . . 6 Sonatas [org] Op.65 (1844-5) . . . Piano Trio #2 in C minor Op.66 (1845) . . . Elijah [sacred oratorio for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.70 (1846) 
Musical Influences:  -CPE Bach; --JS BACH; Beethoven; Cherubini; -Dittersdorf?; Dussek?; Field; --Handel; -J Haydn; Hummel; Mendelssohn-Hensel; -Mozart; ---Palestrina; Schubert?; Spohr; WEBER; [CF Zelter]
Has Influenced:  +Alfvén; Alkan; +Arensky; [WS BENNETT]; -Berwald; Borodin; Bottesini; Brahms; Bruch; Bruckner; +Chadwick; +Elgar; Fauré; +Fibich; +Foote; GADE; Goldmark; Gounod; Grieg; -JPE Hartmann; Lalo; -Loewe; +MacDowell?; -Mendelssohn-Hensel; Nicolai; +Novák; [JK Paine]; +Parry; Raff; ++Reger; REINECKE; Rheinberger; RUBINSTEIN; Saint-Saëns; C Schumann?; R Schumann; Smetana; +Stanford; +Stenhammar?; +R Strauss; Sullivan; Svendsen; Vieuxtemps?; Wagner; [SS Wesley]; Widor?


Mendelssohn-Hensel, Fanny (1805-47) German; Berlin-based
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic
Genre Profile:  001---0000---0120---210---00---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  lieder---piano (solo, chamber combs.)
Notable Work:  . . . Piano Trio in G minor Op.11 (1846) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven; Field; --Handel; J Haydn?; +Mendelssohn; -Mozart?; [CF Zelter]
Has Influenced:  Mendelssohn


Menotti, Gian Carlo (1911-2007) Italian-American
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  121---2202---1120---110---23---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  popular idiom operas
Notable Works:  . . . The Medium [opera] (1945) . . . The Consul [opera] (1949) . . . Amahl & the Night Visitors [opera] (1951) 
Musical Influences:  Barber; Mascagni; --Mussorgsky; PUCCINI; -Verdi; Wolf-Ferrari?; opera verismo
Has Influenced:  -Barber; Rochberg?


Mercadante, (Giuseppe) Saverio (1795-1870) Italian; mainly Naples-based from c1806
Style/Period:  Early Italian Romantic (bel canto)
Best Known For:  wind concs.---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Flute Conc. #2 in E minor Op.57 (1814) . . . Clarinet Conc. in B flat Op.101 (1819?) 
Musical Influences:  +Bellini; +Halévy; Meyerbeer; Rossini; +Verdi?
Has Influenced:  Mascagni; [G Pacini]?; Verdi


63. Messiaen, Olivier (1908-92) French; mainly Paris-based from c1920
Style/Period:  Mystical (Exoticist; Impressionist through 1930s)
Genre Profile:  002---2002---1202---231---02---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo organ---orchestral pcs---solo piano---chamber music---vocal- & choral-orchestral music---music simulating birdsong---music on religious subjects
Notable Works:  . . . Apparition de l'Église Éternelle [org] (1932) . . . L'Ascension [4 meditations for orch.] (1933; org arr. 1934) . . . Quartet for the End of Time [vln, cl, vc & pf] (1940) . . . Visions de l'Amen [2 pf] (1943) . . . 20 Regards sur l'Enfant Jésus [pf] (1944) . . . Turangalila Symphony [pf, ondes martenot & orch.] (1946-8) . . . 4 Études de Rythme [pf] (1949) . . . Livre d'Orgue [7 pcs for organ] (1951) . . . Oiseaux Exotiques [pf & small orch.] (1955-6) . . . Chronochromie [orch.] (1960) . . . Et Exspecto Resurrectionem Mortuorum [winds, brass & perc] (1964) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Bartók; Berg?; +Cage; DEBUSSY; Dukas; Dupré; Jolivet; -Liszt?; ---Mozart?; --Mussorgsky?; ---Rameau; ---D Scarlatti; Scriabin; Stravinsky; Tournemire; Varèse; Villa-Lobos; -Wagner?; Webern; Serialism?; music of India; plainchant; Medieval & ancient music; birdsong; East & Southeast Asian music, incl. gamelan music; music & color (synesthesia)
Has Influenced:  Alain; Andriessen?; Birtwistle; Bolcom; BOULEZ; Brouwer; Davies; Górecki; -Jolivet; Kurtág; -Langlais; Montsalvatge; Schuller?; Sculthorpe; Stockhausen; TAKEMITSU; Tavener; Tower; Xenakis


99. Meyerbeer, Giacomo (1791-1864) German-French
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic (bel canto) w/eclectic French, German & Italian elements
Genre Profile:  121---1001---1000---110---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas, espec. French 'grand opera'
Notable Works:  . . . Robert le Diable [opera] (1831) . . . Les Huguenots [opera] (1836) . . . Le Prophète [opera] (1849) . . . L'Africaine [opera] (1865) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; +Bellini?; Clementi?; -Gluck; -Mozart; Reicha?; +ROSSINI; Spontini; [G Vogler]; Weber
Has Influenced:  Bellini; Berlioz?; Bizet; Boito; Chopin?; Cui; Dargomïzhsky; Donizetti; Delibes; Elgar?; Flotow; Gounod; Halévy; Leoncavallo; Liszt; Massenet; Mercadante; Mussorgsky; Ponchielli; Puccini; Rubinstein; Tchaikovsky; Thomas; Verdi; WAGNER


Miaskovsky [Myaskovsky], Nikolai [Nikolay] (1881-1950) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg- & Moscow-based
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  syms.---piano sonatas---string quartets
Notable Works:  . . . Conc. for Cello & Orch. in C minor Op.66 (1944-5) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano #2 in A minor Op.81 (1948-9) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy?; Glazunov; Glière; Grieg?; Lyadov?; Mussorgsky; +Prokofiev; Rimsky-Korsakov; Scriabin; R Strauss?; Taneyev?; Tchaikovsky; Wagner
Has Influenced:  KABALEVSKY; KHACHATURIAN; Prokofiev; Shchedrin; [V SHEBALIN]


Milán, Luis de [Luys] (c1500 - c1561) Spanish; flourished at Valencia
Style/Period:  Middle Spanish Renaissance
Best Known For:  music for vihuela---songs
Notable Work:  . . . El Maestro [pavanas & fantasias for vihuela] (p1536)


81. Milhaud, Darius (1892-1974) French; mainly U.S.-based 1940-71
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---222---22---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  ballets---operas---chamber music---orchestral pcs---syms. & chamber syms.---concs.---songs---polytonal music
Notable Works:  . . . Le Boeuf sur le Toit [pantomime ballet] Op.58 (1919) . . . La Création du Monde [ballet] Op.81 (1923) . . . Christophe Colomb [opera] Op.102 (1928) . . . Pastorale [oboe, cl & bassoon] Op.147 (1935) . . . Suite Provençale [orch.] Op.152b (1936) . . . Scaramouche [suite for 2 pf] Op.165b (1937) . . . La Cheminée du Roi René [suite for wind quintet] Op.205 (1939) . . . Suite Française [in band & orch. arrs.] Op.248 (1944) . . . David [opera] Op.320 (1952) . . . Duo Concertante [cl & pf] Op.351 (1956) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Fauré; Koechlin; -Mussorgsky; Satie; Stravinsky; Villa-Lobos; JAZZ & folk & popular music; Brazilian music
Has Influenced:  [G Antheil]; Badings; Blacher; -Bliss; Bolcom; [D Brubeck]; Copland; Gershwin; Honegger; Kurtág; Montsalvatge; Rorem; Thomson; -Villa-Lobos; Xenakis?; [BA Zimmermann]


Moeran, E. [Ernest] J. [John] (1894-1950) British
Style/Period:  English Nationalist (Neoromantic)
Best Known For:  concs.---orchestral pcs---vocal & choral music---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Sym. in G minor (1934-7) 
Musical Influences:  Bax; Delius; Holst; IRELAND; Sibelius; Stanford?; Stravinsky?; Vaughan Williams; Warlock; British & Irish folksong


Mompou (y Dencausse), Federico (1893-1987) Spanish (Catalan); Barcelona- & Paris-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist
Best Known For:  solo piano---songs
Musical Influences:  --Chopin; Debussy; Fauré; Ravel; SATIE; Scriabin


Monk, Meredith Jane (1942-) American; New York-based
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Best Known For:  vocal music---operas & other stage works
Musical Influences:  Bartók; ---Pérotin; -Satie; Stravinsky; rock music; eurhythmics


53. Monteverdi, Claudio (1567-1643) Italian; Venice-based from 1613
Style/Period:  Early Italian Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  madrigals---operas---masses & other church music
Notable Works:  . . . madrigals (9 books) [1-8 vv, unacc. or w/basso-continuo; some w/additional instrs.] (p1587-1651) . . . L'Orfeo [opera] (1607) . . . Lament from (the opera) L'Arianna (1608) . . . Vespro della Beata Vergine [6 vv & 6 instrs.] (1610) . . . The Coronation of Poppea [opera] (1642) 
Musical Influences:  G Gabrieli; -Gombert; [M'A Ingegneri]; Lasso?; [L Luzzaschi]; Marenzio; Palestrina; [J Peri]; -Rore; [G DE WERT]
Has Influenced:  Buxtehude; Carissimi; CAVALLI; [A Cesti]; +++Dallapiccola; +++Davies; Frescobaldi; -G Gabrieli; [A GRANDI]; ++M Haydn?; +++Henze; +++Kagel; +++Kurtág; Lawes; +++Ligeti?; Lully?; -[L Luzzaschi]; +++Malipiero; +++ORFF; +++Pizzetti; Praetorius; +Purcell; +++Respighi; +++Rubbra; +A Scarlatti; Schein; SCHÜTZ; Weelkes


Montsalvatge, Xavier (1912-2002) Catalan; mainly Barcelona-based
Style/Period:  evolved through several major stylistic stages toward a final Avant-garde one
Best Known For:  solo piano---vocal music---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . 5 Canciones Negras [songs for solo v & pf] (1945) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Messiaen; Milhaud; --Mussorgsky?; Ravel; Satie; Stravinsky; Serialism; West Indian music; dance


Moore, Douglas (1893-1969) American; Long Island-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (w/Vernacularist elements)
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Works:  . . . The Devil and Daniel Webster [folk opera] (1939) . . . The Ballad of Baby Doe [opera] (1956) 
Musical Influences:  Indy; R Strauss?; folk music; popular music & jazz


Morales, Cristóbal de (c1500-53) Spanish; Italy-based from c1533-1545
Style/Period:  Middle Spanish Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred motets---masses
Musical Influences:  Gombert; Josquin; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  GUERRERO; Palestrina; Victoria; +++Zelenka


Moreno Torróba, Federico (1891-1982) Spanish
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist (Neoromantic)
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs.)---stage works (especially zarzuelas)
Notable Works:  . . . Madroños [guitar] (1954) . . . Sonatina in A [guitar] (1965) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; -Borodin; Debussy; -Mussorgsky; Ravel; Rimsky-Korsakov; Stravinsky; Spanish folk & gypsy music


Morley, Thomas (1557/58 - 1602) British; London-based from c1588
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  madrigals---ayres---anthems---consort music
Notable Work:  . . . The First Book of Ayres [solo v, lute & bass viol] (p1600) 
Musical Influences:  BYRD; +Dowland; [A Ferrabosco]?; Marenzio; +Philips; ITALIAN MADRIGALISTS
Has Influenced:  Gibbons; Tomkins; Weelkes; [J Wilbye]; British madrigal school


Moszkowski, Moritz (1854-1925) German; mainly Berlin- & Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Best Known For:  piano (solo, 2 players, w/orch.)---Spanish themes---arrs. of other composers' works
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; Liszt; R Schumann; Spanish music


2. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-91) Austrian; mainly Vienna-based, with significant stays in Salzburg, Milan, Paris, Munich & Prague
Style/Period:  Classical (Viennese Classical)
Genre Profile:  333---3333---3333---322---23---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  important contributor to all main genres
Notable Works:  . . . Exsultate, Jubilate in F [sacred motet for solo v & orch.] K165/158a (1773) . . . Bassoon Conc. in B flat K191/186e (1774) . . . Sym. #29 in A K201/186a (1774) . . . Violin Conc. #3 in G K216 (1775) . . . Violin Conc. #4 in D K218 (1775) . . . Violin Conc. #5 in A K219 (1775) . . . Conc. for Flute, Harp & Orch. in C K299/297c (1778) . . . Sonata for Violin & Keyboard in E minor K304/300c (1778) . . . Flute Conc. #1 in G K313/285c (1778) . . . Oboe Conc. in C K314/285d/271k (1778) . . . Mass #16 in C 'Coronation' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] K317 (1779) . . . Sinfonia Concertante in E flat [vln, va & orch.] K364/320d (1779) . . . Conc. for 2 Pianos & Orch. in E flat K365/316a (1779) . . . Sonata for Violin & Keyboard in B flat K378/317d (1779 or 1781) . . . Piano Sonata in A K331/300i (1781-3), incl. 'Turkish Rondo' . . . Serenade in B flat 'Gran Partita' [13 wind instrs.] K361/370a (1781 or 1781-4) . . . Quartet for Oboe & Strings in F K370/368b (1781) . . . The Abduction from the Seraglio [opera] K384 (1782) . . . Sym. #35 in D 'Haffner' K385 (1782) . . . String Quartet #14 in G K387 (1782) . . . Fantasia in D minor [pf] K397/385g (1782 or 1786-7) . . . Mass #18 in C minor 'Great' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] K427/417a (1782-3) . . . Horn Conc. #2 in E flat K417 (1783) . . . Sym. #36 in C 'Linz' K425 (1783) . . . Horn Conc. #3 in E flat K447 (1784?-7) . . . Quintet for Piano & Winds in E flat K452 (1784) . . . Piano Conc. #17 in G K453 (1784) . . . Piano Sonata in C minor K457 (1784) . . . String Quartet #17 in B flat 'Hunt' K458 (1784) . . . String Quartet #19 in C 'Dissonance' K465 (1785) . . . Piano Conc. #20 in D minor K466 (1785) . . . Piano Conc. #21 in C K467 (1785) . . . Fantasia in C minor [pf] K475 (1785) . . . Piano Conc. #23 in A K488 (1786) . . . Piano Conc. #24 in C minor K491 (1786) . . . The Marriage of Figaro [opera] K492 (1786) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Marriage of Figaro [orch.] K492 (1786) . . . Piano Quartet in E flat K493 (1786) . . . Horn Conc. #4 in E flat K495 (1786) . . . Trio for Clarinet, Viola & Piano in E flat K498 (1786) . . . Piano Conc. #25 in C K503 (1786) . . . Sym. #38 in D 'Prague' K504 (1786) . . . String Quintet #3 in C K515 (1787) . . . String Quintet #4 in G minor K516 (1787) . . . Serenade in G 'Eine Kleine Nachtmusik' [string orch.] K525 (1787) . . . Don Giovanni [opera] K527 (1787) . . . Over. to (the opera) Don Giovanni [orch.] K527 (1787) . . . Piano Conc. #26 in D 'Coronation' K537 (1788) . . . Sym. #39 in E flat K543 (1788) . . . Piano Sonata in C K545 (1788) . . . Sym. #40 in G minor K550 (1788) . . . Sym. #41 in C 'Jupiter' K551 (1788) . . . Divertimento for String Trio in E flat K563 (1788) . . . String Quartet #21 in D 'Prussian' K575 (1789) . . . Quintet for Clarinet & Strings in A K581 (1789) . . . Cosi Fan Tutte [opera] K588 (1790) . . . Piano Conc. #27 in B flat K595 (1788?-91) . . . Horn Conc. #1 in D K412/386b (1791) . . . Ave Verum Corpus in D [sacred motet for chorus & string orch.] K618 (1791) . . . The Magic Flute [opera] K620 (1791) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Magic Flute [orch.] K620 (1791) . . . Clarinet Conc. in A K622 (1791) . . . Mass #19 in D minor 'Requiem' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] K626 (1791) 
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach; JC BACH; -JS Bach; Boccherini; Cimarosa?; -Fux; Gluck; Grétry; Handel; Hasse; J Haydn; M Haydn; Martini?; [L Mozart]; Paisiello; -Pergolesi; Sammartini; J Stamitz; Tartini; Viotti?
Has Influenced:  +++Adams; +++Argento; Auber; Beethoven; +Bellini; +++Berkeley; +Berlioz; +Berwald; ++Bizet; Boieldieu; ++Brahms; ++Bruckner; ++Busoni; Carulli; Cherubini; +Chopin; -Cimarosa; -Clementi; +++Corigliano; +++Dallapiccola?; Danzi; -Dittersdorf; +Donizetti; Dussek; ++Dvorák; +Glinka; ++Gounod; ++Hahn; -J Haydn; -M Haydn?; +++Henze; +++Hindemith?; HUMMEL; +++Kokkonen; Krommer; Kuhlau; +++Larsson; +Liszt; +LORTZING; ++Mahler; ++Mascagni?; Mayr; Méhul; +Mendelssohn; +Mendelssohn-Hensel?; +++Messiaen?; +Meyerbeer; +Nicolai; ++Nielsen; +++Nyman; ++Offenbach; +++Poulenc; ++Prokofiev; ++Puccini; ++Ravel; ++Reger; Reicha; ++Reinecke; ++Rimsky-Korsakov?; +++Rochberg; +ROSSINI; ++Saint-Saëns; -Salieri; +++Schnittke; ++Schoenberg; +Schubert; ++Smetana; Sor; SPOHR; Spontini; ++R Strauss; ++Stravinsky; ++Sullivan?; ++Taneyev; ++TCHAIKOVSKY; ++Toch; -Viotti; +Wagner; Weber; +++Weill; ++Wolf-Ferrari; +++[BA Zimmermann]


Muffat, Georg (1653-1704) German; born in France & worked/studied in Paris, Molsheim, Ingolstadt, Salzburg, Rome & Passau
Style/Period:  Middle Austrian Baroque
Best Known For:  concerti grossi---orchestral suites
Musical Influences:  Biber; CORELLI; +F Couperin?; -Frescobaldi?; LULLY; [B Pasquini]; French & Italian music
Has Influenced:  Geminiani?; Handel


Musgrave, Thea (1928-) Scottish-American; U.S.-based from 1972
Style/Period:  Serial, w/Experimentalist elements
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---operas
Musical Influences:  Babbitt; Britten; Copland; Ives


49. Mussorgsky [Musorgsky, etc.], Modest (1835-81) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based from c1849
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  003---0000---0001---200---03---130
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---songs & song cycles---orchestral pcs---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1857-79) . . . St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain [sym. poem] (1867) . . . Boris Godunov [opera] (1868-72, r1873) . . . Khovanshchina [opera] (1872-80) . . . Prelude to (the opera) Khovanshchina [orch.] (1872-80) . . . Pictures at an Exhibition [pf suite] (1874; various later orch. arrs. 1874-) . . . Songs & Dances of Death [song cycle for solo v & pf] (1875-7) 
Musical Influences:  +Balakirev; Berlioz; Dargomïzhsky; GLINKA; Liszt; Meyerbeer; -Schubert; R Schumann; Verdi; Wagner; Russian folk music
Has Influenced:  ++Argento?; +Bartók; Bloch; -Borodin?; +Copland; Debussy; +Griffes; +Hanson?; Janácek; +Kabalevsky; Lyadov; ++Menotti; ++Messiaen?; Miaskovsky; +Milhaud; ++Montsalvatge?; +Moreno Torróba; Pizzetti; +Prokofiev; Rachmaninov?; ++Rautavaara?; Ravel; Rimsky-Korsakov?; ++Shchedrin; ++Shostakovich; +Tcherepnin


Nancarrow, Conlon (1912-97) American-Mexican; Mexico City-based from 1940
Style/Period:  Experimentalist (American Vernacularist)
Best Known For:  canonic player-piano roll-based music
Notable Work:   . . . 37 Studies for Player Piano (1950-68) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Cowell; Stravinsky; Varèse?; jazz; world music
Has Influenced:  Adams; -Carter; Ligeti


Nicolai, (Carl) Otto (1810-49) German; Vienna-based 1841-7, also lived in Rome & Berlin
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic (Biedermeier)
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Work:  . . . The Merry Wives of Windsor [opera] (1849) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Bellini; Donizetti?; Mendelssohn; -Mozart; ---Palestrina; Rossini; R Schumann?; Weber


84. Nielsen, Carl (1865-1931) Danish; mainly Copenhagen-based from 1884
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic (Danish Nationalist) to c1913; with increasing Neoclassical elements thereafter
Genre Profile:  322---0230---2212---221---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---songs & choral songs---chamber music---incidental music suites---operas---solo piano & solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Little Suite in A minor [string orch.] Op.1 (1888, r1889) . . . Sym. #1 in G minor Op.7 (1890-2) . . . secular songs [solo v & pf] (1891-1927) . . . Sym. #2 'Four Temperaments' Op.16 (1901-2) . . . Over. to (the opera) Maskarade [orch.] (1904-6) . . . Sym. #3 'Sinfonia Espansiva' Op.27 (1910-1) . . . Violin Conc. Op.33 (1911) . . . Sym. #4 'Inextinguishable' Op.29 (1914-6) . . . Sym. #5 Op.50 (1921-2) . . . Wind Quintet Op.43 (1922) . . . Flute Conc. (1926) . . . Clarinet Conc. Op.57 (1928) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz?; Brahms; Dvorák?; Gade; Grieg; JPE Hartmann; --Mozart; -R Schumann?; Svendsen; Wagner?; Renaissance & Early Baroque polyphony; Danish folk music
Has Influenced:  Bartók?; HOLMBOE; Larsson; +Nørgård; Rautavaara; Shostakovich; [R Simpson]; Stenhammar


Nono, Luigi (1924-90) Italian
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde
Best Known For:  music on political subjects---magnetic tape-based concert music---stage works
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Dallapiccola; Maderna; Malipiero; Schoenberg; Varèse; -Verdi; WEBERN; Renaissance & Early Baroque polyphony
Has Influenced:  Górecki; Henze?; Holliger; Kurtág; Penderecki; RIHM


Nørgård, Per (1932-) Danish
Style/Period:  evolving over time from Neoromanticism toward more modernist approaches
Best Known For:  syms. & other orchestral pcs---vocal- & choral/choral-orchestral music
Musical Influences:  HOLMBOE; -Nielsen; Sibelius; Stockhausen; dance; sounds of nature


Novák, Vítezslav (1870-1949) Bohemian; Prague-based from c1889
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (Czech Nationalist)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  Brahms; -Chopin?; Debussy?; DVORÁK; Grieg; Liszt; -Mendelssohn; R Schumann; R Strauss; MORAVIAN, BOHEMIAN & SLOVAKIAN FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  [A Hába]; Husa


Nyman, Michael Laurence (1944-) British
Style/Period:  Experimentalist/Minimalist
Best Known For:  film scores; chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . The Draughtsman's Contract [film score] (1982) . . . The Piano [film score] (1993)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; ---Bull; Cage; Glass; ---Mozart; ---Purcell; Reich; Riley; --R Schumann; folk music; rock music


Obrecht, Jacob (1457/8-1505) Dutch; visited Italy in 1487-8
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred motets---masses
Musical Influences:  [A Busnois]; -[J Ciconia]?; Dufay; Ockeghem; plainchant
Has Influenced:  -Isaac?; -Josquin; +++Pärt


Ockeghem, Johannes [Okeghem, Jean] (c1420-97) Franco-Flemish
Style/Period:  Early Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  masses---sacred motets---secular songs (chansons)
Notable Works:  . . . Requiem [4 vv] (1461?) . . . Alma redemptoris mater [sacred motet for 4 vv] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Binchois; -[J Ciconia]?; Dufay; Dunstable
Has Influenced:  [A Busnois]; -Dufay?; Janequin; Josquin; +++Krenek; La Rue; +++Ligeti; Obrecht; +++Pärt


76. Offenbach, Jacques (1819-80) German-French; Paris-based from 1833
Style/Period:  French Light Classical
Genre Profile:  022---0200---1112---102---23---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operettas---The Tales of Hoffmann (opera)---cello (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Orpheus in the Underworld [operetta] (1858) . . . Over. to (the operetta) Orpheus in the Underworld [orch.] (1858) . . . La Belle Hélène [operetta] (1864) . . . The Tales of Hoffmann [opera] (1881), incl. 'Barcarolle' [orch.] 
Musical Influences:  --Mozart; Rossini; Verdi?; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Bizet; -Flotow; Hahn; Lehár; J STRAUSS JR.; Sullivan; SUPPÉ; +Weill?


Oliveros, Pauline (1932-) American; California-based c1951-71, New York- and Upstate New York-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Experimentalist ('New Music')
Best Known For:  theater & mixed-media works---electronic music---improvisations & 'sonic meditations'---feminist music---music for accordion
Musical Influences:  Cage; Crawford; meditation & breathing


103. Orff, Carl (1895-1982) German; Munich-based
Style/Period:  Neoclassical/Exoticist (Neomedieval)
Genre Profile:  011---1001---0000---000---02---130
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  'scenic choral' stage cantatas---operas---music for children---chamber music---music education
Notable Work:  . . . Carmina Burana [secular cantata for 3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1937) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; ---Buxtehude; ---Byrd?; Debussy; [E Jaques-Dalcroze]; ---MONTEVERDI; ---Pachelbel; ---Schütz; R Strauss; STRAVINSKY; ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE MUSIC; Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Schnittke


111. Pachelbel, Johann (1653-1706) German
Style/Period:  Middle German Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo organ, espec. chorale preludes---church music (motets, sacred concertos, magnificats, etc.)
Notable Works:  . . . Canon & Gigue in D [3 vlns & basso-continuo] (late 17th cent.; since then in many other arrs.) . . . Toccata in E minor [org] (late 17th cent.) 
Musical Influences:  Buxtehude; -Frescobaldi; Froberger; Lutheran & Catholic liturgy
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; +++Orff


Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860-1941) Polish; travelled widely
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. in A minor Op.17 (1888) . . . Menuet Célèbre in G Op.14 no.1 [pf] (1887) 
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; [T Leschetitzky]; Liszt; Rubinstein; Wagner


69. Paganini, Nicolò (1782-1840) Italian
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (Paris virtuoso school)
Genre Profile:  000---0301---0122---003---00---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  violin (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---guitar (solo, chamber combs.)
Notable Works:  . . . 24 Caprices [vln] Op.1 (c1805) . . . Violin Conc. #1 in D [originally E flat] Op.6 (1817?) . . . Cantabile in D [vln & guitar] Op.17 (1823) . . . Moto Perpetuo in C [vln & orch.] Op.11 (1835) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; [R Kreutzer]?; -Locatelli; [JPJ Rode]?; Viotti? GUITAR MUSIC; French violin music; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  Alkan; Chopin; [HW Ernst]; LISZT; +Sarasate?; R Schumann; VIEUXTEMPS; Wieniawski


Paisiello, Giovanni (1740-1816) Italian; mainly Naples-based from 1754
Style/Period:  Classical
Best Known For:  comic operas---concs.
Musical Influences:  [F Durante]
Has Influenced:  Bellini; Donizetti; Mayr; Mozart; Rossini


80. Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (1525/6 - 1594) Italian; Rome-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (masses, motets, magnificats)---secular madrigals
Notable Works:  . . . secular madrigals [3-5 vv] (p1555-94) . . . Missa Papae Marcelli [6 vv] (p1567) . . . Missa brevis [4 vv] (p1570) . . . Missa tu es petrus [6 vv] (p1572) . . . Tu es petrus [sacred motet for 6 vv] (p1572) . . . Missa nigra sum [5 vv] (p1590) . . . magnificats [4-8 vv] (p1591) . . . Missa assumpta est Maria [6 vv] (d?) . . . Stabat Mater [sacred motet for 8 vv] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  [C Festa]; -Josquin; Morales; Rore; +Victoria?; Willaert; Franco-Flemish & French polyphonists; Gregorian chant/plainchant
Has Influenced:  ALLEGRI; ++JS Bach; +++Bartók?; +++Beethoven; +++Boccherini?; +++Bruckner; +++Cherubini; ++FUX; +++GOUNOD; +++Hanson; Hassler; +++M Haydn; +++Kodály; Lasso; +++Liszt; +++Mendelssohn; Monteverdi; +++Nicolai; ++[B Pasquini]; +++Petrassi; +++Pfitzner; Philips; ++A Scarlatti; Schütz; +++Verdi; VICTORIA; +++Wagner; ++Zelenka


Parry, (Charles) Hubert (1848-1918) British; London- & Oxford-based from 1883
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic
Best Known For:  sacred choral music---solo organ---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . I Was Glad [anthem] (1902; r1911) . . . Jerusalem [sacred unison song with words by William Blake for chorus & orch.] Op.208 (1916) 
Musical Influences:  --JS BACH; BRAHMS; Liszt; -Mendelssohn; R Schumann; WAGNER
Has Influenced:  Elgar; Finzi; Howells; Vaughan Williams


Pärt, Arvo (1935-) Estonian; Berlin-based from 1982
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde to c1975; Minimalist thereafter
Genre Profile:  202---1212---2202---221---00---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  sacred vocal- & choral chamber/orchestral music---orchestral pcs---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Tabula Rasa [2 vln, prepared pf & chamber orch.] (1976) . . . Cantus in Memory of Benjamin Britten [string orch. & bell] (1976) . . . Fratres [vln & pf] (1977; also in several later chamber & orchestral arrs.) . . . Spiegel im Spiegel [vc & pf] (1978) . . . St. John's Passion [solo vv, chorus & instrs.] (1982) . . . Stabat Mater [3 solo vv, vln, va & vc] (1985) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Hindemith; ---Obrecht; ---Ockeghem; Prokofiev; Schoenberg; Shostakovich; Gregorian chant; Medieval & Renaissance music; RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH MUSIC; minimalists


Partch, Harry (1901-74) American; mainly California-based
Style/Period:  Experimentalist (Exoticist)
Best Known For:  ensemble music employing invented (primarily percussion) instrs.---music theatre---microtonal music
Musical Influences:  Cowell; folk music; Native American music; ancient Greek music; African & Asian music
Has Influenced:  Harrison; Kagel?; Ligeti; Riley; [La Young]


Penderecki, Krzysztof (1933-) Polish
Style/Period:  at first European Avant-garde (texture music); since the mid-1970s Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  222---0222---0212---002---01---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---works for featured string instr. w/orch.---music on political or religious subjects and/or w/strongly emotional themes
Notable Works:  . . . Anaklasis [string orch. & perc] (1960) . . . Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima [string orch.] (1960) . . . St. Luke Passion [oratorio for narr., 3 solo vv, choruses & orch.] (1963-5) . . . Utrenja I & II [sacred oratorio for 8 solo vv, 2 choruses & orch.] (1970-1) . . . Violin Conc. No. 1 (1976-7) . . . Viola Conc. (1983) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Berg; Boulez; --Bruckner; Cage?; Nono; Schoenberg; Shostakovich; Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Varèse; --Wagner; Webern; Xenakis; Russian Orthodox chant
Has Influenced:  Brouwer; -Górecki


Pergolesi, Giovanni (1710-36) Italian; mainly Naples-based from c1722
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical (Neapolitan school)
Genre Profile:  000---0200---0020---010---02---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music---operas
Notable Works:  . . . La Serva Padrona [comic opera/intermezzo] (1733) . . . Stabat Mater [2 solo vv, org & strings] (1736) . . . Salve Regina in A minor [solo v, org & strings] (1736) 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; A Scarlatti?; Vivaldi?; 'Neapolitan school' e.g. [F Durante]
Has Influenced:  ++Bellini; +Cimarosa; Gluck; +Grétry; -Hasse?; J Haydn?; Jommelli; +Mozart; +++Wolf-Ferrari


Perle, George (1915-2009) American; mainly New York-based from 1961
Style/Period:  Serial (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  chamber music---works for solo player
Musical Influences:  +Babbit; Bartók; Berg; Krenek; Schoenberg; Webern


Pérotin [Perotinus Magnus] (c1160 - c1220) French
Style/Period:  Medieval
Best Known For:  chant settings---motets
Notable Works:  . . . Viderunt omnes V. Notum fecit [gradual for 4 vv] (c1195) . . . Sederunt principes V. Adiuva [gradual for 4 vv] (c1195) 
Musical Influences:  [Léonin]; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  +++Monk; +++Reich


Persichetti, Vincent (1915-87) American; mainly Philadelphia- & New York-based
Style/Period:  Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  202---2011---2222---122---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  works for solo player (espec. piano)---syms.---chamber/wind band music---music education
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Copland; Harris; ---J Haydn; Hindemith; --R Schumann; Stravinsky
Has Influenced:  Druckman; Schickele


Petrassi, Goffredo (1904-2003) Italian
Style/Period:  Neoclassical to c1950; Serial thereafter
Best Known For:  chamber music---concertos for orch.---works for solo player
Notable Works:  8 concertos for orchestra (1933-72) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; CASELLA; Hindemith; ---Palestrina; Stravinsky
Has Influenced:  Davies


Pfitzner, Hans Erich (1869-1949) German
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic (post-Wagnerian to c1920; more post-Brahmsian thereafter)
Best Known Work:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1884-1931) . . . Palestrina [opera/'musical legend'] (1912-5) . . . concs. (1922-44) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; --J Haydn; ---Palestrina; R SCHUMANN; R Strauss?; WAGNER; --Weber?; Wolf?
Has Influenced:  -Mahler?


Philips, Peter (1560/61 - 1628) British; Spanish Netherlands-based from c1590
Style/Period:  Early English Baroque
Best Known For:  solo keyboard---sacred vocal music (motets, etc.)---Italian-style madrigals---consort music
Musical Influences:  Byrd; Lasso; Marenzio; Palestrina; Victoria; Dutch music?
Has Influenced:  Dowland?; -Morley; Sweelinck


98. Piazzolla, Astor (1921-92) Argentinian
Style/Period:  Argentinian Vernacularist
Genre Profile:  012---0022---2222---203---111---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  tangos (solo guitar, solo piano, chamber combs., orchestral ensemble)
Notable Works:  . . . Tango Suite [2 guitars] (1984) . . . Histoire du Tango [fl & guitar] (1986) . . . Le Grand Tango [vc & pf] (d?) . . . Adiós Nonino [guitar] (d?) . . . Verano Porteño [guitar] (d?) . . . Milonga del Ángel [pf] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Ginastera; Hindemith; Ravel; Stravinsky; TANGO DANCE RHYTHMS; jazz


Piccinni, (Vito) Niccolò (1728-1800) Italian; mainly Naples- & Paris-based
Style/Period:  Classical (Neopolitan school)
Best Known For:  operas
Musical Influences:  Gluck; Neapolitan school espec. [F Durante] & [L Leo]
Has Influenced:  Cherubini; Cimarosa


Pierné, Gabriel (1863-1937) French
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (Impressionist)
Best Known For:  chamber music---ballets---works for featured instr. w/orch.---harp (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Impromptu-Caprice [harp] Op.9 (1885) . . . Canzonetta [cl & pf] Op.19 (1888) . . . Introduction et Variations sur une Ronde Populaire [saxophone quartet] (1930) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; FRANCK; Massenet; +Roussel; Saint-Saëns; music of India?


Pinkham, Daniel [Rogers, Jr.] (1923-2006) American; Massachusetts-based
Style/Period:  combined a variety of stylistic starting points; to the 1950s Neoclassical then adding Serial techniques
Best Known For:  sacred choral music---organ (solo, w/chorus and/or orch.)
Musical Influences:  Britten; ---Carissimi?; Copland; Hindemith?; Piston; Stravinsky


Piston, Walter (1894-1976) American; mainly Boston area-based from 1905
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (Neoromantic)
Genre Profile:  212---2222---2222---110---20---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music---concs.---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . 3 Pieces for Flute, Clarinet & Bassoon (1926) . . . 7 syms. (1937-60) . . . The Incredible Flutist [ballet] (1938; orchestral suite 1938) . . . 3 New England Sketches [orch.] (1959) 
Musical Influences:  DUKAS; Fauré; +Hindemith; Ravel; Roussel; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; Baroque & Classical music
Has Influenced:  Adler; Bernstein; Carter; Pinkham


Pizzetti, Ildebrando (1880-1968) Italian; worked in Parma (to 1908), Florence (1908-24), Milan (1924-36) & Rome (1936-58)
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Neomedieval)
Best Known For:  operas---choral music---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Bloch?; Busoni?; Debussy; ---Monteverdi; Mussorgsky; Verdi?; Wagner; Renaissance polyphony; Medieval music
Has Influenced:  Castelnuovo-Tedesco


Ponce, Manuel (1882-1948) Mexican; mainly Mexico City-based from 1909
Style/Period:  early works Mexican Nationalist; later adding Neoclassical, Neoromantic & Impressionist accents
Genre Profile:  012---1120---0112---202---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo guitar---songs---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . Estrellita [song] (p1914) . . . Sonatina Meridional [guitar] (1932) . . . Concierto del Sur [guitar & orch.] (1941) 
Musical Influences:  --Chopin; Debussy; Dukas; Grieg; --Schubert; Mexican & Cuban popular & folk music; Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Chávez


Ponchielli, Amilcare (1834-86) Italian
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Romantic
Genre Profile:  121---0011---0112---110---23---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known Work:  . . . La Gioconda [opera] (1876), incl. 'Dance of the Hours' [orch.] 
Musical Influences:  Meyerbeer; Verdi
Has Influenced:  Giordano; Mascagni; Puccini


55. Poulenc, Francis (1899-1963) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  022---2002---2023---301---22---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---sonatas---songs & song cycles---operas---ballets---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . 3 Mouvements Perpetuels [pf] (1918) . . . songs & song cycles [solo v & pf] (1918-62) . . . Les Biches [ballet w/chorus] (1923) . . . Trio for Oboe, Bassoon & Piano (1926) . . . Concert Champêtre [hpschd (or pf) & orch.] (1927-8) . . . Conc. for 2 Pianos & Orch. in D minor (1932) . . . Sextet [pf & wind quintet] (1932-9) . . . Conc. for Organ, Strings & Percussion in G minor (1938) . . . Stabat Mater [solo v, chorus & orch.] (1950) . . . Dialogues des Carmélites [religious opera] (1953-6) . . . Sonata for Flute & Piano (1956) . . . La Voix Humaine [opera] (1958) . . . Gloria in G [solo v, chorus & orch.] (1959) . . . Sonata for Clarinet & Piano (1962) . . . Sonata for Oboe & Piano (1962) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; -Chabrier; --Chopin; ---F Couperin; Debussy; Fauré; Koechlin; ---Mozart; Prokofiev; Ravel; SATIE; --Schubert; STRAVINSKY; ---Victoria; Baroque music; popular music
Has Influenced:  Bennett; Berkeley; Françaix; -Ibert?; Rorem


Praetorius, Michael (1571-1621) German; from c1592 worked in Wolfenbüttel, from 1613 also at Dresden
Style/Period:  Late German Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (Lutheran hymns, motets)---instrumental dance transcriptions
Notable Works:  . . . Musae Sioniae [9 part collection of Lutheran chorales, mainly for solo vv] (p1605-12), incl. 'In dulci jubilo' [motet for 8 vv or instrs. in 2 choirs] (p1607) & the sacred carol 'Es ist ein Ros' Entsprungen' (p1609) . . . Terpsichore [collection of instrumentation-unspecified instrumental dances] (p1612) 
Musical Influences:  G Gabrieli; Hassler?; Lasso; Marenzio; Monteverdi; +Scheidt; +Schütz; Lutheran hymns; folk music
Has Influenced:  Scheidt; Schein?; Schütz?


28. Prokofiev, Sergei (1891-1953) Russian; Paris-based 1920-36, Moscow-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (Expressionist) to c1935; Neoromantic (Socialist Realist) thereafter
Genre Profile:  332---3300---2203---302---32---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  important contributor to most main genres
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. #2 in G minor Op.16 (1912-3, r1923) . . . Sym. #1 in D 'Classical' Op.25 (1916-7) . . . Violin Conc. #1 in D Op.19 (1916-7) . . . Piano Conc. #3 in C Op.26 (1917-21) . . . The Love for Three Oranges [opera] Op.33 (1919) . . . The Love for Three Oranges [ballet suite for orch.] Op.33a (1919, r1924) . . . String Quartet #1 in B minor Op.50 (1930) . . . Orchestral Suite from (the film) Lieutenant Kije Op.60 (1934) . . . Violin Conc. #2 in G minor Op.63 (1935) . . . Romeo & Juliet [ballet] Op.64 (1935-6) . . . Peter & the Wolf [sym. poem for narr. & orch.] Op.67 (1936) . . . 3 orchestral suites from (the ballet) Romeo & Juliet (1936/1936/1946) . . . Alexander Nevsky [suite from the film for solo v, chorus & orch.] Op.78 (1939) . . . Piano Sonata #6 in A Op.82 (1939-40) . . . Piano Sonata #7 in B flat Op.83 (1939-42) . . . Cinderella [ballet] Op.87 (1940-4) . . . War & Peace [opera] (1941-3, r1946-52) . . . Sonata for Violin (or Flute) & Piano in D Op.94 (1943-4) . . . Sym. #5 in B flat Op.100 (1944) . . . Sym. #6 in E flat Op.111 (1945-7) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in C Op.119 (1949) 
Musical Influences:  -Borodin; Debussy; Glazunov?; Glière; --Glinka; --J Haydn; -Liszt; Miaskovsky; --Mozart; -Mussorgsky; Rachmaninov; Reger; Rimsky-Korsakov; --R Schumann; Scriabin; R Strauss; Stravinsky; Tchaikovsky; [N Tcherepnin]
Has Influenced:  [G Antheil]; Britten?; Kabalevsky; Khachaturian; Lutoslawski; -Miaskovsky; Pärt; Poulenc; Rautavaara?; Schnittke; Shchedrin; Shostakovich; Tcherepnin; Tubin; Walton


15. Puccini, Giacomo (1858-1924) Italian; from 1891 mainly Torre del Lago-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (verismo; Impressionist)
Genre Profile:  002---0000---0201---110---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . Crisantemi [str qtt] (1890) . . . Manon Lescaut [opera] (1893) . . . La Bohème [opera] (1896) . . . Tosca [opera] (1900) . . . Madama Butterfly [opera] (1904) . . . Gianni Schicchi [opera] (1918) . . . Turandot [opera] (1924) 
Musical Influences:  Bizet; +Debussy; Gounod; +Lehar?; +Mascagni; Massenet; Meyerbeer; --Mozart; Ponchielli; +Ravel; Rimsky-Korsakov; +Schoenberg; +R Strauss; +Stravinsky; Verdi; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; CILEA; -JANÁCEK; Korngold; Lehár; +[A Lloyd Webber]; MENOTTI; Villa-Lobos; Wolf-Ferrari


40. Purcell, Henry (1658/9 - 1695) British; London-based from c1667
Style/Period:  Middle English Baroque
Genre Profile:  032---0010---2220---020---03---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  stage works & overs.---songs---chamber music---odes---anthems---solo keyboard
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & continuo] (c1675 to 1694) . . . anthems [mainly for 2-6 solo vv, chorus & org; some w/2-3 additional strings] (c1677 to 1694) . . . 22 Sonatas (in 3 & 4 Parts) [2 vlns, bass viol & continuo/keyb & continuo] (c1680) . . . Dido & Aeneas [opera] (1689) . . . King Arthur [semi-opera] (1691) . . . Hail, Bright Cecilia [secular ode for St. Cecilia's Day for 6 solo vv & 8 instrs.] (1692) . . . The Fairy Queen [semi-opera] (1692) . . . Birthday Ode (1694) . . . Te Deum & Jubilate Deo in D [6/5 solo vv & instrs.] (1694) . . . Chaconne in G minor (1942 arr. for string orch.) 
Musical Influences:  BLOW; --Byrd; Carissimi; Cavalli; Corelli; -Frescobaldi; Froberger; [C Gibbons]; --Gibbons; -Lawes; LOCKE; Lully; -Monteverdi; [G Vitali]?
Has Influenced:  +++Bliss; +++Britten; -Buxtehude?; [W Croft]; Handel; +++Holst; +++Nyman; +++Tippett; +++[P Townshend]; +++Vaughan Williams


Quantz, Johann Joachim (1697-1773) German; Berlin-based from c1741
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  flute (chamber combs., concs.)
Notable Work:  . . . Flute Conc. #161 in G [fl, strings & basso-continuo] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  [F Gasparini]; Tartini; Telemann; Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  -JS Bach?; [F BENDA]


24. Rachmaninov, Sergei (1873-1943) Russian-American; mainly U.S.-based from 1918
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic
Genre Profile:  302---3000---0122---300---01---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---syms.---symphonic poems and other vocal- & choral-orchestral & orchestral pcs---songs
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1890-1916) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in F sharp minor Op.1 (1890-2, r1917) . . . Prelude #1 in C sharp minor [pf] Op.3 no.2 (1892) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in C minor Op.18 (1900-1) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in G minor Op.19 (1901) . . . 23 preludes [pf] Opp. 23/32 (1901-3/1910) . . . Sym. #2 in E minor Op.27 (1906-7) . . . Piano Conc. #3 in D minor Op.30 (1909) . . . The Isle of the Dead [sym. poem] Op.29 (1909) . . . Vocalise [wordless v & orch.] Op.34 no.14 (1912, r1915) . . . The Bells [sym. poem/choral sym. for 3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.35 (1913) . . . Vespers (All-Night Vigil) [2 solo vv & chorus] Op.37 (1915) . . . Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini [pf & orch.] Op.43 (1934) . . . Symphonic Dances [orch.] Op.45 (1940) 
Musical Influences:  Arensky; ---JS Bach?; Borodin; -Chopin; Grieg; Liszt; Mascagni; Mussorgsky?; Rimsky-Korsakov; Rubinstein; Saint-Saëns?; -R Schumann?; Taneyev; TCHAIKOVSKY; RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH MUSIC; Russian folk music
Has Influenced:  -Beach; Grainger?; Kabalevsky; Khachaturian; Medtner; Prokofiev


Raff, (Joseph) Joachim (1822-82) Swiss-German; Wiesbaden-based 1856-77, thereafter Frankfurt-based
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (New German school)
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)---syms.
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; Liszt; Mendelssohn; R Schumann; Weber?
Has Influenced:  Bruch?; MacDowell; R Strauss


86. Rameau, Jean-Philippe (1683-1764) French; Paris-based from c1722
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque
Genre Profile:  020---0000---0020---030---33---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---ballets---solo harpsichord---chamber music---sacred motets
Notable Works:  . . . Pièces de Clavecins (3 books) [hpschd] (p1706-31), incl. no.20, 'Tambourin' . . . Hippolyte et Aricie [opera tragédie] (1733, r1742) . . . Castor et Pollux [opera tragédie] (1737) . . . Dardanus [opera tragédie] (1739, r1744) . . . 5 Pièces de Clavecin en Concert [hpschd, vln (or fl) & viol (or vln)] (1741) . . . Pygmalion [ballet] (1748) 
Musical Influences:  LULLY; Vivaldi; Italian opera; French chamber music
Has Influenced:  Boismortier; ++Chausson; ++Debussy; +++Dukas; Gluck; Handel?; ++Indy; Jommelli; Leclair; +++Messiaen; +++Roussel; Tartini


Rautavaara, Einojuhani (1928-) Finnish; Helsinki-based from 1957
Style/Period:  incorporates diverse stylistic influences in a modernist Mystical/Neoromantic fashion
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---choral music
Notable Work:  . . . Cantus Arcticus [conc. for birds & orch.] Op.61 (1972)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Hindemith; --Mussorgsky?; Nielsen; Prokofiev?; Shostakovich; Sibelius; Stravinsky
Has Influenced:  [K Aho]


20. Ravel, Maurice (1875-1937) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  033---3200---2223---300---32---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---orchestral arrs. of piano works---ballets---chamber music---songs---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . Pavane for a Dead Princess [pf] (1899; orch. arr. 1910) . . . Jeux d'Eau [pf] (1901) . . . String Quartet in F (1902-3) . . . Shéhérazade [song cycle for solo v & orch.] (1903) . . . Alborada del Gracioso (from the pf suite 'Miroirs') (1905; orch. arr. 1918) . . . Introduction et Allegro [harp, fl, cl & str qtt] (1905) . . . Rapsodie Espagnole [orch.] (1907-8) . . . Gaspard de la Nuit [3 poems for pf] (1908) . . . Mother Goose Suite [pf 4 hands] (1908-10) . . . Daphnis et Chloé [ballet/'symphonie chorégraphique'] (1909-12) . . . Mother Goose [ballet after the pf suite] (1911) . . . Valses Nobles et Sentimentales [pf] (1911; orch. arr. 1912) . . . Suite #2 from (the ballet) Daphnis et Chloé [orch.] (1913) . . . Piano Trio in A minor (1914) . . . Le Tombeau de Couperin [pf suite] (1914-7; orch. arr. 1919) . . . La Valse ['poème chorégraphique' for orch.] (1919-20) . . . L'Enfant et les Sortilèges [opera] (1920-5) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano (1923-7) . . . Tzigane ['rapsodie de concert' for vln & pf (or vln & orch.)] (1924) . . . Boléro [ballet] (1928) . . . Piano Conc. in D 'For the Left Hand' (1929-30) . . . Piano Conc. in G (1929-31) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Alkan?; Borodin; CHABRIER; --Chopin; ---F Couperin; Debussy; FAURÉ; +Gershwin; Grieg; Liszt; Massenet; --Mozart; Mussorgsky; Rimsky-Korsakov; Saint-Saëns; Satie; Schoenberg?; R Strauss; +Stravinsky; jazz; Spanish/Andalusian music
Has Influenced:  +Adams; -Albéniz?; Alwyn; +Andriessen; Auric; Bartók; Bax; BERKELEY; Blacher?; Bliss; Bloch; Bowles; Bridge; Britten; Canteloube; Carpenter; Casella; Castelnuovo-Tedesco; Clarke; Creston; Dallapiccola; -Debussy; -Delius?; Diamond; DURUFLÉ; Dutilleux; Enescu; Falla; Françaix; Gerhard; Gershwin; Griffes; -Holst; Howells; Ibert; Ireland; Jolivet; -Jongen; Khachaturian; -Koechlin?; Lutoslawski; Martin; Martinu; Mompou; Montsalvatge; Moreno Torróba; Piazzolla; Piston; Poulenc; -Puccini; Respighi; Rodrigo; Rorem; -Roussel; Szymanowski; Tailleferre; Takemitsu; Tansman; Turina; -Vaughan Williams; Villa-Lobos; Walker; Walton


82. Reger, Max (1873-1916) German
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  002---2210---2222---232---00---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo organ & solo piano---orchestral pcs---chamber music---works for solo string instr.---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Fantasia & Fugue on B-A-C-H [org] Op.46 (1900) . . . Variations & Fugue on an Original Theme in F sharp minor [org] Op.73 (1903) . . . Variations & Fugue on a Theme of J.A. Hiller [orch.] Op.100 (1907) . . . Psalm 100 in D [chorus, org & orch.] Op.106 (1908-9) . . . Variations & Fugue on a Theme of Mozart [orch.] Op.132 (1914) . . . Fantasia & Fugue in D minor [org] Op.135b (1916) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS BACH; --Beethoven; BRAHMS; Bruckner; -Chopin; Debussy; Grieg?; Liszt; --Mendelssohn; --Mozart; -R Schumann; R Strauss; Wagner; Wolf; Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Enescu?; KA Hartmann; HINDEMITH; Honegger; Karg-Elert; Luening?; [A Merikanto]; Prokofiev; [M Rózsa]; Schoenberg; SCHULHOFF; +Schuller?; Szymanowski; Webern; Weill


Reich, Steve (1936-) American; mainly New York-based
Style/Period:  Minimalist
Genre Profile:  012---0012---2212---002---01---12x
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  small ensemble pcs (espec. featuring percussion/percussive effects and/or solo instr(s). recorded on magnetic tape)---mixed-media works
Notable Works:  . . . Drumming [2 wordless vv, piccolo & small perc ensemble] (1970-1) . . . Clapping Music [2 performers: handclaps] (1972) . . . Music for 18 Musicians [4 women's vv & instrs.] (1976) . . . Electric Counterpoint [one live & 12 pre-recorded guitars] (1987) . . . The Cave [mixed-media opera] (1991-2) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Berio?; Cage; -Debussy; ---Pérotin; Riley; Stravinsky; AFRICAN DRUMMING; jazz; gamelan music; EAST ASIAN MUSIC; Hebrew chant
Has Influenced:  ADAMS; Andriessen; [B Eno]; -Ligeti; Nyman; rock music; 'New Age' music


Reicha, Anton [Antonin, Antoine] (1770-1836) Bohemian-French; Paris-based from 1808
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  wind quintets & other chamber music featuring wind instrs.
Notable Works:  . . . 24 wind quintets Opp. 88/91/99/100 (1811-20) 
Musical Influences:  -JS Bach?; Beethoven; Gluck; J HAYDN; Mozart
Has Influenced:  Adam; Beethoven; Berlioz; -Danzi; Flotow?; Franck; Gounod?; Liszt; Meyerbeer?; Schubert?; R Schumann?; Smetana?; Thomas?; Vieuxtemps?


Reinecke, Carl (1824-1910) German; Leipzig-based from 1860
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  chamber music---lieder---concs.
Notable Work:  . . . Sonata for Flute & Piano 'Undine' Op.167 (c1885) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven?; +Brahms; MENDELSSOHN; --Mozart; R SCHUMANN; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Chadwick?; Grieg?; Sullivan?


Respighi, Ottorino (1879-1936) Italian; Rome-based from 1913
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (Neomedieval)
Genre Profile:  013---2202---1102---120---22---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral suites & symphonic poems---songs---ballets---operas---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . The Fountains of Rome [sym. poem] (1914-6) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in B minor (1916-7) . . . Ancient Airs & Dances [3 suites for orch.] (1917/1923/1931) . . . La Boutique Fantasque [ballet] (1919) . . . The Pines of Rome [sym. poem] (1923-4) . . . The Birds [suite for small orch.] (1927) . . . Three Botticelli Pictures [suite for chamber orch.] (1927) . . . Roman Festivals [sym. poem] (1928) 
Musical Influences:  Bruch; +Casella; Debussy; ---Monteverdi; Ravel; RIMSKY-KORSAKOV; R STRAUSS; +Stravinsky; Medieval plainchant/Gregorian chant; Renaissance & Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Castelnuovo-Tedesco; Hanson


Revueltas(-Sánchez), Silvestre (1899-1940) Mexican; Mexico City-based from 1929
Style/Period:  Mexican Nationalist, but modernist in approach
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Sensemayá [orch.] (1938)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Debussy; Stravinsky; MEXICAN POPULAR & TRADITIONAL MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Bowles


Rheinberger, Josef Gabriel (1839-1901) Liechtensteinian-German; Munich-based from 1851
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  solo organ (espec. sonatas)---chamber music---sacred vocal/choral music
Notable Works:  . . . 20 organ sonatas (d?)
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Brahms; Chopin; Liszt; Mendelssohn; -Schubert; R Schumann
Has Influenced:  Chadwick?


Riegger, Wallingford (1885-1961) American; mainly New York-based from 1900
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  chamber music---syms.---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  +Cowell; Ives; Schoenberg


Rihm, Wolfgang (1952-) German; Karlsruhe-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic into the 1980s, then more varied according to purpose
Best Known For:  has worked extensively & in almost all main genres, and nearly equally
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; ---Beethoven; Boulez?; Feldman; --Mahler; NONO; -Schoenberg; --R Schumann; --Spohr?; Stockhausen


Riley, Terry (1935-) American; mainly New York- & California-based
Style/Period:  Minimalist/Exoticist
Best Known For:  small ensemble music---magnetic tape or synthesizer-based pcs---improvised music
Notable Work:  . . . In C [instrumentation unspecified] (1964) . . . A Rainbow in Curved Air [keybs, dumbak & tambourines] (1968) 
Musical Influences:  Cage; [J Coltrane]; Partch; Stockhausen; [La Young]; music of India; jazz; blues
Has Influenced:  Adams; Andriessen; Glass; -Ligeti; Nyman; Reich; rock music; 'New Age' music


46. Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay (1844-1908) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based from 1856
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  223---1220---2211---200---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---orchestral pcs.---syms.---songs & song cycles---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . Sadko [sym. poem] Op.5 (1867, r1869 & 1892) . . . Sym. #2 'Antar' Op.9 (1868, r1875 & 1897) . . . The Snow Maiden [opera] (1880-1, r c1895) . . . Capriccio Espagnol [orch.] Op.34 (1887) . . . Russian Easter Festival Over. [concert over.] Op.36 (1888) . . . Scheherazade [orch. suite] Op.35 (1888) . . . Flight of the Bumblebee from (the opera) The Tale of Tsar Sultan [orch.] (1899-1900) . . . Introduction & Wedding March from (the opera) The Tale of Tsar Sultan [orch.] (1903) . . . The Golden Cockerel [opera] (1906-7; orch. suite 1907) 
Musical Influences:  BALAKIREV; Berlioz; Chopin?; Dargomïzhsky; Glinka; Liszt; --Mozart?; Mussorgsky?; Wagner; Oriental melodies; folksong
Has Influenced:  Arensky; -Borodin; Cilea; Debussy; Glazunov; Glière; Gretchaninov; IPPOLITOV-IVANOV; Khachaturian; Lyadov; Miaskovsky; Moreno Torróba; Prokofiev; Puccini; Rachmaninov; Ravel; RESPIGHI; Shostakovich; STRAVINSKY; [N Tcherepnin]


Rochberg, George (1918-2005) American; mainly Philadelphia-based from 1945
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial to c1965; Neoromantic thereafter
Best Known For:  chamber music---syms.
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; --Beethoven; Dallapiccola; Hindemith; Ives; -Mahler; Menotti?; ---Mozart; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; Webern
Has Influenced:  Bolcom


107. Rodrigo, Joaquín (1901-99) Spanish; Madrid-based from 1939
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  022---2232---0102---202---11---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---songs---concs.---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Concierto de Aranjuez [guitar & orch.] (1939) . . . 3 Piezas Españolas [guitar] (1954) . . . Fantasia para un Gentilhombre [guitar & orch.] (1954) . . . Invocacíon y Danza [guitar] (1961) . . . Concierto Madrigal [2 guitars & orch.] (1968) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Debussy; DUKAS; Falla; Granados; Ravel; ---Sanz; Stravinsky; Turina?; FOLK MUSIC; Renaissance & Baroque music


Rore, Cipriano de (1515/6 - 1565) Flemish; Parma- & Venice-based from late youth or early adulthood
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Renaissance
Best Known For:  madrigals---sacred vocal music (motets, masses, etc.)
Musical Influences:  Josquin; WILLAERT
Has Influenced:  Dowland; A Gabrieli; Gesualdo; Lasso; [L Luzzaschi]; Marenzio; +Monteverdi; Palestrina; [G de Wert]


Rorem, Ned (1923-) American; Paris- & Morocco-based 1949-58
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  212---2112---2212---211---12---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  songs & song cycles---choral music---chamber music---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . War Scenes [song cycle for solo v & pf] (1969) . . . The Nantucket Songs [song cycle for solo v & pf] (1979) 
Musical Influences:  Copland; -Debussy; Milhaud; Poulenc; Ravel; Satie; Sowerby; Thomson; jazz


23. Rossini, Gioachino (1792-1868) Italian
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (bel canto)
Genre Profile:  031---0021---2202---201---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas & opera overs.---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---chamber music---songs---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . 6 String Sonatas [2 vlns, vc & double-bass] (c1804) . . . Over. to (the opera) La Scala di Seta [orch.] (1812) . . . The Italian Woman in Algiers [opera] (1813) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Italian Woman in Algiers [orch.] (1813) . . . Otello [opera] (1816) . . . The Barber of Seville [opera] (1816) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Barber of Seville [orch.] (1816) . . . Cinderella [opera] (1817) . . . The Thieving Magpie [opera] (1817) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Thieving Magpie [orch.] (1817) . . . Semiramide [opera] (1823) . . . Over. to (the opera) Semiramide [orch.] (1823) . . . William Tell [opera] (1829) . . . Over. to (the opera) William Tell [orch.] (1829) . . . Stabat Mater [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1832, r1841) . . . Sins of Old Age 'Péchés de Vieillesse' [150 short pcs for pf &/or various instrs.] (1857-68) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven; +Chopin?; Cimarosa; J Haydn; Mayr; -MOZART; Paisiello; Spontini
Has Influenced:  Adam; -Auber; BELLINI; Bizet; -Boieldieu; -Carulli; Chopin; DONIZETTI; Flotow; -Giuliani; Glinka; -Halévy; Mercadante; -MEYERBEER; Nicolai; Offenbach; [G PACINI]; Saint-Saëns; Schubert; -Spontini?; Sullivan; Suppé; Thomas; Verdi; Wagner; Widor


Roussel, Albert (1869-1937) French; Paris-based 1894-1922, Normandy-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Impressionist to c1918; French Neoclassical thereafter
Genre Profile:  222---1101---2122---112---22---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  syms.---ballets---orchestral pcs---chamber music---songs---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . The Spider's Feast [pantomime ballet] Op.17 (1912) . . . Serenade [fl, vln, va, vc & harp] Op.30 (1925) . . . Suite in F [orch.] Op.33 (1926) . . . Sym. #3 in G minor Op.42 (1929-30) . . . Bacchus et Ariane [ballet] Op.43 (1930; orch. suites 1933 & 1934) . . . Sym. #4 in A Op.53 (1934) 
Musical Influences:  DEBUSSY; Franck; INDY; ---Rameau; +Ravel; +Stravinsky; Indian & East Asian music
Has Influenced:  Dutilleux; Lutoslawski; Martinu; -Pierné; Piston; -Satie; Walton


Rubbra, (Charles) Edmund (1901-86) British
Best Known For:  11 syms. & other orchestral pcs---chamber music---sacred choral/choral-orchestral music
Notable Work:  . . . Sonata for Oboe & Piano in C Op.100 (1958)
Musical Influences:  Bartók?; -Brahms?; Debussy; Hindemith?; Holst; Ireland?; ---Monteverdi; Sibelius; Stravinsky?; Vaughan Williams; Tudor & Elizabethan music


Rubinstein, Anton (1829-94) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based from 1848
Style/Period:  Middle Russian Romantic
Genre Profile:  212---2200---1222---200---12---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)---syms.---songs---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Melody in F [pf] Op.3 no.1 (1852) . . . Romance in E flat [pf] Op.44 no.1 (1860) . . . Piano Conc. #4 in D minor Op.70 (1864) . . . The Demon [opera] (1875) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Berlioz; +Brahms; Chopin; Glinka; Liszt; MacDowell?; MENDELSSOHN; Meyerbeer; C Schumann; R Schumann
Has Influenced:  Busoni; Paderewski; Rachmaninov; Tchaikovsky


Ruggles, Carl (1876-1971) American
Style/Period:  Experimentalist (Expressionist)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Sun-Treader [orch.] (1926-31) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; +Cowell?; Debussy?; Ives?; Schoenberg; +[C Seeger]; +Varèse?
Has Influenced:  Carter; Cowell?; Harrison


Rutter, John (1945-) British; Cambridge U.K.-based
Style/Period:  English Vernacularist
Genre Profile:  001---0002---0001---010---00---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  choral/choral-orchestral music: carols, anthems, hymns, etc.
Notable Works:  . . . Shepherd's Pipe Carol [chorus & pf] (1967; chorus & orch. arr. 1973) . . . Gloria [chorus & orch.] (1976) . . . Requiem [solo v, org, chorus & orch.] (1985) 
Musical Influences:  Britten; Duruflé; -Fauré; Howells; Vaughan Wiliams; Walton; folksong; Gregorian chant & plainchant


41. Saint-Saëns, (Charles-)Camille (1835-1921) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  222---2321---1222---222---12---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  significant contributor to most main genres
Notable Works:   . . . Fantaisie in E flat [org] (1857) . . . Introduction et Rondo Capriccioso in A minor [vln & orch.] Op.28 (1863) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in G minor Op.22 (1868) . . . Cello Conc. #1 in A minor Op.33 (1872) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano #1 in C minor Op.32 (1872) . . . Danse Macabre in G minor [orch.] Op.40 (1874) . . . Piano Conc. #4 in C minor Op.44 (1875) . . . Samson et Dalilah [opera] Op.47 (1877) . . . Violin Conc. #3 in B minor Op.61 (1880) . . . Septet in E flat [pf, trumpet & strings] Op.65 (1881) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano #1 in D minor Op.75 (1885) . . . Carnival of the Animals [11 instrs.] (1886), incl. 'The Swan' . . . Sym. #3 in C minor 'Organ' Op.78 (1886) . . . Havanaise in E [vln & orch.] Op.83 (1887) . . . Piano Conc. #5 in F 'Egyptian' Op.103 (1896) . . . Sonata for Clarinet & Piano in E flat Op.167 (1921) . . . Sonata for Bassoon & Piano in G Op.168 (1921) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Berlioz; +Bizet?; Chopin; +Delibes; --Gluck?; Gounod; --Handel; Hummel?; LISZT; Mendelssohn; --Mozart; Rossini; +Sarasate; R Schumann; Wagner; North African & Middle Eastern music
Has Influenced:  Bizet?; Chaminade; Dukas; FAURÉ; Guilmant?; Pierné; Rachmaninov?; Ravel


Salieri, Antonio (1750-1825) Italian; mainly Vienna-based from c1781
Style/Period:  Classical
Best Known For:  operas---concs.
Notable Work:  . . . Conc. for Flute, Oboe & Orch. in C (p1774) 
Musical Influences:  -Fux; GLUCK; J Haydn; M Haydn; +Mozart; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; Hummel; Liszt; Schubert


Sallinen, Aulis (1935-) Finnish; Helsinki-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---orchestral pcs---operas---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . String Quartet #3 Op.19 (1969) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók?; Britten; Kokkonen; [A Merikanto]; Shostakovich; Sibelius


Sammartini, Giovanni Battista (1700/1 - 1775) Italian; Milan-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  JC Bach; Boccherini; GLUCK; J Haydn; Mozart


Sanz, Gaspar (1640-1710) Spanish; studied & worked in Italy for some years
Style/Period:  Middle Spanish Baroque
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs., instruction & theory)
Notable Works:  . . . Alemanda [guitar] (p1674) . . . Canarios [guitar] (p1674)
Musical Influences:  Italian guitar music; Italian popular music
Has Influenced:  +++Rodrigo


Sarasate, Pablo de (1844-1908) Spanish; mainly Paris-based after c1855
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Genre Profile:  000---0200---0012---000---00---000
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  violin (w/piano, w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Zigeunerweisen [vln & orch. / vln & pf] Op.20 no.1 (1878) . . . Danzas Españolas [vln & pf] Opp. 21/22/23/26 (p1878-82) . . . Concert Fantasy on Carmen [vln & orch.] Op.25 (1883?) 
Musical Influences:  -Paganini?; folksong; gypsy music
Has Influenced:  Albéniz; -Bruch; Kreisler?; -Lalo; -Saint-Saëns


70. Satie, Erik (1866-1925) French; Paris-based from 1878
Style/Period:  Impressionist (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  022---0000---1002---300---21---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . 3 Gymnopédies [pf] (1888; orch. arr. 1896) . . . 3 Pieces in the Shape of a Pear [pf 4 hands] (1890-1903) . . . Sports et Divertissements [suite of 20 short pcs for pf] (1914) . . . Parade [ballet] (1915-7) . . . Socrate [secular cantata/oratorio for 1 or more vv & pf/chamber orch.] (1918) . . . 6 Gnossiennes [pf] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  CHABRIER; Debussy; Indy; +Roussel; Gregorian chant; Medieval & ancient music; popular music (espec. ragtime & jazz)
Has Influenced:  Alain; AURIC; +Birtwistle; Blacher; Cage; Casella; -Debussy; Diamond; +Kagel; Koechlin; Lambert; Milhaud; MOMPOU; +Monk; Montsalvatge; POULENC; Ravel; Rorem; Stravinsky; Tailleferre; THOMSON; Varèse; Villa-Lobos; Wolpe; 'New Age' music; Minimalist music; rock music


96. Scarlatti, Alessandro (1660-1725) Italian; Rome- & Naples-based from 1672
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque (Neapolitan school)
Genre Profile:  000---0012---2110---010---02---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  operas---secular cantatas---motets---sacred oratorios---masses---songs
Notable Works:  . . . secular chamber cantatas [mainly for 1 or 2 vv & 1-3 instrs.] (c1680-1725) . . . Il Tigrane [opera] (1715) 
Musical Influences:  +Bononcini?; CARISSIMI; Cavalli; [A Cesti]; Corelli; Legrenzi; -Monteverdi; --Palestrina; [B Pasquini]; -[L Rossi]; Stradella
Has Influenced:  JS Bach?; Caldara; Geminiani; HANDEL; HASSE; Jommelli; Pergolesi?; D Scarlatti; Vivaldi; Weiss


65. Scarlatti, Domenico (1685-1757) Italian-Spanish; Naples-, Rome- & Venice-based to c1719; thereafter in Portugal & Spain
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Genre Profile:  002---0000---0010---030---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  keyboard sonatas---secular cantatas---sacred vocal music
Notable Works:  . . . 555+ harpsichord sonatas (1738-57), notably: K9 in D/D minor, K11 in C minor, K87 in B minor, K141 in D minor, K146 in G, K159 in C, K175 in A minor, K208 in A, K209 in A, K322 in A, K380 in E 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; [F Gasparini]; [B Pasquini]; A Scarlatti; guitar music; ITALIAN, PORTUGUESE & SPANISH POPULAR & FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  +++Albéniz; Arne?; JS Bach?; +++Bartók?; +Beethoven; ++Brahms; ++Chopin; Cimarosa; Clementi; +++Creston; +++Falla; +++Granados; J Haydn; +++Ligeti; +++Messiaen; ++[I Moscheles]; SOLER; +++Tailleferre?; Weiss


Scelsi, Giacinto (1905-88) Italian; Rome-based from 1951
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (texture music)/Mystical
Best Known For:  chamber music---works for solo player---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  Berg; Schoenberg; Scriabin; Webern; African & Asian music


Schafer, R. [Raymond] Murray (1933-) Canadian
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Best Known For:  music theatre---orchestral pcs---vocal or choral w/ or w/o instrs.---music on environmental themes---music education & works for children & amateurs 
Musical Influences:  world music 


Scheidt, Samuel (1587-1654) German; Halle-based
Style/Period:  Early German Baroque
Best Known For:  solo organ---sacred vocal music (motets, concertatos)---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Tabulatura Nova [3 vol. collection of works for keyb, espec. org] (p1624) 
Musical Influences:  Frescobaldi?; Praetorius; SWEELINCK; Italian, English & Netherlandish music
Has Influenced:  Buxtehude; [A Krieger]; -Praetorius


Schein, Johann Hermann (1586-1630) German; Dresden- & Leipzig-based from 1593
Style/Period:  Early German Baroque
Best Known For:  sacred & secular vocal music (cantatas, madrigals, motets, etc.)---brass (chamber ensemble)
Musical Influences:  G Gabrieli; Marenzio; Monteverdi; Praetorius?


Schickele, [Johann] Peter (1935-) American; New York-based
Style/Period:  American Vernacular
Best Known For:  P.D.Q. Bach recordings---chamber music---music education
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Harris; Persichetti; Stravinsky; popular music (espec. Spike Jones, Elvis Presley & the Everly Brothers)


Schmelzer, Johann Heinrich (c1620/23 - 1680) Austrian; Vienna-based from c1635
Style/Period:  Middle Austrian Baroque
Best Known For:  violin (chamber combs.)
Musical Influences:  folk music; Italian music
Has Influenced:  Biber


Schmitt, Florent (1870-1958) French
Style/Period:  Impressionist (post-Late Romantic/Exoticist)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---ballets
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Fauré; Massenet; R Strauss; Wagner; Impressionism


Schnittke [Shnitke], Alfred (1934-98) Russian; mainly Moscow-based from 1948
Style/Period:  highly varied, at times employing Neoclassical, Neoromantic, Serial & Expressionist approaches: Polystylistic
Genre Profile:  222---2202---2222---212---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  concs. & concerti grossi---chamber music---string instrs. (chamber combs., w/orch.)---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano #1 (1963) . . . Piano Quintet (1972-6) . . . Concerto Grosso #1 [2 vlns, hpschd, pf & string orch.] (1977) . . . Suite in the Old Style [vln & pf] (1977) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano (1978) . . . Conc. for Piano & Strings (1979) . . . String Quartet #3 (1983) . . . Viola Conc. (1985) . . . Cello Conc. #1 (1985-6) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Berg; Berio; Ives; Ligeti?; -Mahler; ---Mozart; Orff; Prokofiev; Shostakovich; Stravinsky; --Tchaikovsky; Varèse?; Baroque music; Russian Orthodox Church music


34. Schoenberg, Arnold (1874-1951) Austrian-American; mainly Vienna-based to 1933; U.S.-based thereafter, mainly in Los Angeles
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic to 1909; German Expressionist 1909-1922; Serial (Second Viennese school) thereafter
Genre Profile:  202---2202---2222---210---02---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---songs & song cycles---dramatic vocal music---operas
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1893-1933) . . . String Sextet 'Transfigured Night' Op.4 (1899; string orch. arr. 1917, r1943) . . . Gurrelieder [secular cantata for narr., 5 solo vv, choruses & orch.] (1900-3, r1910-1) . . . Pelleas und Melisande [sym. poem after the Maeterlinck play] Op.5 (1903) . . . Chamber Sym. #1 in E [15 instrs.] Op.9 (1906; full orch. arr. 1922, r1935) . . . String Quartet #2 in F sharp minor [with solo v] Op.10 (1907-8) . . . 5 Orchestral Pieces Op.16 (1909, r1949) . . . Pierrot Lunaire [song cycle for speaker & 8 instrs. 'chamber ensemble'] Op.21 (1912) . . . 5 Piano Pieces Op.23 (1920 & 1923) . . . Variations for Orch. Op.31 (1926-8) . . . Moses und Aron [opera] (1930-2) . . . Violin Conc. Op.36 (1935-6) . . . String Quartet #4 Op.37 (1936) . . . Piano Conc. Op.42 (1942) . . . Theme & Variations [in band & orch. arrs.] Op.43 (1943) . . . String Trio Op.45 (1946) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; Brahms; Bruckner? Busoni?; Dvorák; Dukas?; Mahler; --Mozart; Reger; R Strauss; Wagner; Wolf; Zemlinsky
Has Influenced:  Adams; BABBITT; Bartók; BERG; [E Bergman]; Blacher; Bliss; Blitzstein; Boulez; Britten; CAGE; Carter; Casella; Chávez; Copland; Dallapiccola; Davies; Eisler; Enescu?; [W Fortner]; GERHARD; Ginastera; [A HÁBA]; Harrison; Henze; [B Hermann]; Holliger; Honegger; -Janácek; Jolivet; Kagel; Karg-Elert; [L Kirchner]; KRENEK; Larsson?; Luening; Martin; Nono; Pärt; Penderecki; Perle; Piston; [M Powell]; -Puccini; Ravel?; Riegger; +Rihm; Rochberg; Ruggles; Scelsi; Schuller; Sculthorpe; Sessions; Shostakovich; SKALKOTTAS; Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Takemitsu; Varèse; Walker; WEBERN; Weill; [E Wellesz]; Wolpe; Wuorinen; -Zemlinsky


Schreker, Franz (1878-1934) Austrian; Vienna-based 1892-1920, Berlin-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic (German Expressionist)
Best Known For:  operas---songs---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Chamber Sym. [for 23 instrs.] (1916) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Debussy; Dukas; Mahler; --Schubert; R Strauss; Wagner; Wolf
Has Influenced:  Berg; [A Hába]; -Janácek?; Krenek; Szymanowski?; Weill?; Wolpe?


4. Schubert, Franz (1797-1828) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (Viennese school)
Genre Profile:  322---0200---3333---301---02---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  songs & song cycles---chamber music---syms.---solo piano---masses---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Gretchen am Spinnrade [song for v & pf] D118 (1814) . . . Mass #2 in G [3 solo vv, chorus & string orch.] D167 (1815) . . . Erlkönig [song for v & pf] D328 (1815) . . . Sym. #3 in D D200 (1815) . . . Sym. #4 in C minor 'Tragic' D417 (1816) . . . Sym. #5 in B flat D485 (1816) . . . Sym. #6 in C 'Little C Major' D589 (1817-8) . . . Quintet for Piano & Strings in A 'Trout' D667 (1819) . . . Mass #5 in A flat [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] D678 (1819-22) . . . String Quartet #12 in C minor 'Quartettsatz' D703 (c1820) . . . Sym. #8 in B minor 'Unfinished' D759 (1822) . . . Fantasie in C 'Wandererfantasie' [pf] D760 (1822) . . . Die Schöne Mullerin [song cycle for solo v & pf] D795 (1823) . . . 6 Moments Musicaux [pf] D780 (1823-8) . . . Over. to (the Chézy play) Rosamunde [orch.] D797 (1823) . . . Octet in F [strings & winds] D803 (1824) . . . String Quartet #13 in A minor D804 (1824) . . . String Quartet #14 in D minor 'Death & the Maiden' D810 (1824) . . . Sonata for Arpeggione & Piano in A minor [now usually played on vc & pf] D821 (1824) . . . Ave Maria (Ellens Gesang III) [religious song for solo v & pf] D839 (1825) . . . Sym. #9 'Great C Major' D944 (1825?-8) . . . String Quartet #15 in G D887 (1826) . . . Piano Sonata #18 in G D894 (1826) . . . Piano Trio #1 in B flat D898 (1827-8?) . . . 8 impromptus [pf] D899 & D935 (1827) . . . Die Winterreise [songs for solo v & pf] D911 (1827) . . . Fantasie in C [vln & pf] D934 (1827) . . . Piano Trio #2 in E flat D929 (1827-8?) . . . Fantasie in F minor [pf 4 hands] D940 (1828) . . . Mass #6 in E flat [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] D950 (1828) . . . String Quintet in C D956 (1828) . . . Schwanengesang [songs for solo v & pf] D957 (1828) . . . Piano Sonata #19 in C minor D958 (1828) . . . Piano Sonata #20 in A D959 (1828) . . . Piano Sonata #21 in B flat D960 (1828) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; BEETHOVEN; Cherubini?; Dussek?; -Gluck; Grétry? --Handel; J Haydn; M Haydn; Hummel; -Mozart; Reicha?; Rossini; Salieri; Spontini
Has Influenced:  ++Albéniz?; ++Berg?; +Brahms; ++Britten; +Bruch; Bruckner; +++Crumb; -Czerny; +Dvorák; +Fibich; FRANZ; Gounod; ++Granados; ++Krenek; Lalo; Liszt; ++Mahler; Mendelssohn?; +Mussorgsky; ++Ponce; ++Poulenc; +Rheinberger; ++Schreker; C Schumann; R Schumann; +Stanford?; Jos Strauss?; +Sullivan; ++Wolf; ++Zemlinsky


Schulhoff, Erwin (1894-1942) Bohemian
Style/Period:  evolving, through Late Romantic to Expressionist, Neoclassical & Socialist Realist
Best Known For:  chamber music---syms.---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . .
 String Quartet #1 (1924) . . . Duo for Violin & Cello (1925) . . . 5 Pieces [string qtt] (d?)
Musical Influences:  Berg; Debussy; Grieg; Janácek?; REGER; Scriabin; R Strauss; jazz; Second Viennese School


Schuller, Gunther (1925-) American
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial ('Third Stream')
Genre Profile:  112---1222---2222---111---10---210
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  winds (chamber combs. & ensemble, w/orch.)---chamber music---orchestral pcs---concs.
Musical Influences:  Babbitt; Berg?; -Debussy; Delius; -Joplin; Messiaen?; -Reger?; Schoenberg; -Scriabin; Stravinsky; Varèse?; Webern; JAZZ, RAGTIME & POPULAR SONG


Schuman, William (1910-92) American; New York-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  212---1210---1211---101---21---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---syms.---choral/choral-orchestral music---music education
Notable Works:  . . . American Festival Over. [concert over. for orch.] (1939) . . . Sym. #3 (1941) . . . New England Triptych [orch.] (1956) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; ---Billings; Copland; Debussy?; HARRIS; ---Lasso; Medieval, Renaissance & Baroque music


Schumann, Clara Wieck (1819-96) German; Leipzig-based to 1856, thereafter mainly Berlin-based
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic
Genre Profile:  000---2000---0022---200---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.); lieder
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. in A minor Op.7 (1835-6) . . . Piano Trio in G minor Op.17 (before 1846) . . . 3 Romances [vln & pf] Op.22 (1853)
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven?; Bellini; +Brahms; Chopin; Field?; Mendelssohn?; Schubert; R Schumann; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  Brahms; Rubinstein; -R Schumann; Smetana


13. Schumann, Robert (1810-56) German; in later years lived in Leipzig, Dresden & Dusseldorf
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic
Genre Profile:  322---3302---2223---310---01---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---syms.---songs & song cycles
Notable Works:  . . . Carnaval [pf suite] Op.9 (1833-5) . . . Piano Sonata #2 in G minor Op.22 (1833-8) . . . 12 Symphonic Etudes [pf] Op.13 (1834-7) . . . Phantasie in C [pf] Op.17 (1836-8) . . . 8 Phantasiestücke [pf] Op.12 (1837) . . . Kinderszenen [pf suite] Op.15 (1838) . . . Kreisleriana [8 fantasies for pf] Op.16 (1838) . . . Arabeske in C [pf] Op.18 (1838) . . . Romance #2 in F sharp [pf] Op.28 no.2 (1839) . . . Myrthen [songs for solo v & pf] Op.25 (1840) . . . Liederkreis [songs for solo v & pf] Op.39 (1840) . . . Frauenliebe und Leben [song cycle for solo v & pf] Op.42 (1840) . . . Dichterliebe [song cycle for solo v & pf] Op.48 (1840) . . . Sym. #1 in B flat 'Spring' Op.38 (1841) . . . Piano Conc. in A minor Op.54 1841 & 1845) . . . Sym. #4 in D minor Op.120 (1841 & 1851) . . . Piano Quintet in E flat Op.44 (1842) . . . Piano Quartet in E flat Op.47 (1842) . . . Sym. #2 in C Op.61 (1845-6) . . . Piano Trio #1 in D minor Op.63 (1847) . . . Over. to Manfred in E flat minor (from the incidental music to Byron's poem) [orch.] Op.115 (1848-9) . . . Adagio & Allegro in A flat [horn (or vln or vc) & pf] Op.70 (1849) . . . 8 Phantasiestücke [cl (or vln or vc) & pf] Op.73 (1849) . . . 3 Romances [oboe (or vln or cl) & pf] Op.94 (1849) . . . Sym. #3 in E flat 'Rhenish' Op.97 (1850) . . . Cello Conc. in A minor Op.129 (1850) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven; Bellini?; Chopin; Dussek?; Field; Hummel; Mendelssohn; Paganini; Reicha?; Schubert; +C Schumann; Weber
Has Influenced:  Balakirev; +Beach; ++Berg; Borodin; BRAHMS; Bruch; ++Butterworth?; Chabrier; ++Chávez; Cui; +Debussy?; +Dohnányi; Dvorák; +Elgar; Fauré; Fibich; Foote; FRANZ; Gade; +Glazunov; Goldmark; Gounod; ++Grainger; +Granados; Grieg; Guilmant; ++Holliger; Janácek; ++Kagel?; Lalo; ++Ligeti; Liszt; -Loewe; ++Luening; Lyadov; +MacDowell; +Mahler; Massenet; +Medtner; Moszkowski; Mussorgsky; Nicolai?; +Nielsen?; +Novák; ++Nyman; [JK Paine]; Parry; ++Persichetti; +PFITZNER; ++Prokofiev; +Rachmaninov?; Raff; +Reger; REINECKE; Rheinberger; ++Rihm; Rubinstein; Saint-Saëns; C Schumann; +Scriabin?; +Sibelius?; Sinding; Smetana; Stanford; +R Strauss; Sullivan; Svendsen; Tchaikovsky; ++Villa-Lobos; +WOLF


89. Schütz, Heinrich (1585-1672) German; intermittently Dresden-based from 1615
Style/Period:  Early German Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (requiem masses, magnificats, passions, motets, sacred concertatos, etc.)
Notable Works:  . . . Psalmen Davids... [vv & 1 to several instrs.] SWV22-47 (p1619) . . . Symphoniae Sacrae (3 vols.) [vv & instrs.] SWV257-76, SWV341-67 & 398-418 (p1629/1647/1650) . . . Musicalische Exequien [funeral music for v or vv & basso-continuo] SWV279-81 (1636) . . . The Seven Last Words of Jesus Christ on the Cross [oratorio for 5 vv, 5 instrs. & basso-continuo] SWV478 (1645) . . . Historia, der Freuden-... 'Christmas Oratorio' [vv, choruses & orch.] SWV435 (1664) 
Musical Influences:  +Carissimi; G GABRIELI; [A Grandi]; Marenzio; MONTEVERDI; Palestrina; Praetorius?; Franco-Flemish composers
Has Influenced:  +JS Bach; +++Brahms; Buxtehude; +Handel?; +++Harbison; +++Kurtág; +++Orff; -Praetorius; [M WECKMANN]


60. Scriabin [Skryabin], Alexander [Aleksandr] (1872-1915) Russian; Moscow-based to 1903
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic to c1902; Mystical thereafter
Genre Profile:  202---2000---0102---300---00---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo piano---symphonic poems/syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Etude in C sharp minor Op.2 no.1 (1887-9) . . . 10 piano sonatas (1892-1913) . . . Piano Etude in D sharp minor Op.8 no.12 (1894) . . . Sym. #2 in C minor Op.29 (1901) . . . Sym. #3 'Divine Poem' Op.43 (1902-4) . . . Poem of Ecstasy [sym. poem] Op.54 (1907) . . . Prometheus: The Poem of Fire [sym. poem for pf, chorus & orch.] Op.60 (1908-10) 
Musical Influences:  Arensky; -CHOPIN; Debussy; Liszt; -R Schumann?; R Strauss?; Taneyev; Wagner; music & color (synesthesia)
Has Influenced:  Auric; Bridge; Copland; Crawford; Glière; +Górecki?; -Gretchaninov?; Griffes; Ireland?; Kabalevsky; Karg-Elert; Medtner; Messiaen; Miaskovsky; Mompou; Prokofiev; Scelsi; Schulhoff; +Schuller; Stravinsky; Szymanowski; +Takemitsu; Tansman; Varèse?; Wolpe


Sculthorpe, Peter Joshua (1929-) Australian; Sydney-based from 1963
Style/Period:  based in Western classical forms, but eclectic & integrating East Asian & Australasian elements
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music (espec. str qtts)---works for solo player---music based on Aboriginal references---music with political themes
Notable Work:  . . . Irkanda IV [vln, strings & perc.] (1961) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Bloch; Copland; Delius; -Mahler?; [C McPhee]; Messiaen; Schoenberg; Varèse; Australasian & East Asian music


Seeger, Ruth Crawford (see under 'Crawford Seeger')


Senfl, Ludwig (c1486 - 1542/3) Swiss-German; Munich-based from 1523
Style/Period:  Middle German Renaissance
Best Known For:  lieder---motets---masses
Musical Influences:  [A Busnois]?; ISAAC; JOSQUIN
Has Influenced:  16th Century German music


Sessions, Roger (1896-1985) American; Princeton-based for many years
Style/Period:  Neoclassical to c1950; Post-Schoenbergian Serial thereafter
Best Known For:  syms.---solo piano---orchestral pcs---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . The Black Maskers (incidental music to the Andreyev play) (1923; orch. suite 1928) . . . Sym. #2 (1946) 
Musical Influences:  Bloch; Schoenberg; Stravinsky
Has Influenced:  Babbitt; Diamond; Finney; HARBISON; [L Kirchner]; Zwilich


Shchedrin, Rodion (1932-) Russian; Moscow-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Socialist Realist)
Best Known For:  ballets---concs.---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . The Carmen Ballet (after Bizet) [strings & perc.] (1968) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Khachaturian; --Liszt; Miaskovsky; --Mussorgsky; Prokofiev; Shostakovich; Stravinsky; --Tchaikovsky; folk music


Sheppard [Shepherd], John (c1515 - 1558) British; London-based from c1550
Style/Period:  Middle English Renaissance
Best Known For:  church music (motets, masses, services, anthems, etc.)
Musical Influences:  TAVERNER; plainchant


27. Shostakovich, Dmitry (1906-75) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg- & Moscow-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Socialist Realist; Expressionist before 1934)
Genre Profile:  322---2302---2322---200---22---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---string quartets---stage works---piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in F minor Op.10 (1924-5) . . . Orchestral Suite from (the ballet) The Golden Age Op.22a (1930) . . . Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District [opera] Op.29 (1930-2, r1956) . . . Conc. for Piano, Trumpet & String Orch. in C minor Op.35 (1933) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in D minor Op.40 (1934) . . . Sym. #5 in D minor Op.47 (1937) . . . Sym. #6 in B minor Op.54 (1939) . . . Piano Quintet in G minor Op.57 (1940) . . . Sym. #7 in C 'Leningrad' Op.60 (1941) . . . Sym. #8 in C minor Op.65 (1943) . . . Piano Trio #2 in E minor Op.67 (1944) . . . Sym. #9 in E flat Op.70 (1945) . . . String Quartet #3 in F Op.73 (1946) . . . Violin Conc. #1 in A minor Op.77 (1947-8, r1955 as Op.99) . . . Sym. #10 in E minor Op.93 (1953) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in F Op.102 (1957) . . . Cello Conc. #1 in E flat Op.107 (1959) . . . String Quartet #8 in C minor Op.110 (1960) . . . Sym. #15 in A Op.141 (1971)
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók?; --Beethoven; Berg; -Borodin; +Britten; Glazunov; Hindemith; Krenek; MAHLER; --Mussorgsky; Nielsen; Prokofiev; Rimsky-Korsakov; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; -Tchaikovsky; jazz; Russian church & folk music
Has Influenced:  [K Aho]; Britten; Brouwer; -Gershwin; Gubaidulina; Holmboe; -Khachaturian; Kokkonen; Larsson; Pärt; Penderecki; [A Previn]; Rautavaara; Sallinen; Schnittke; Shchedrin; Tan; -Tubin; Zwilich


36. Sibelius, Jean (1865-1957) Finnish; from 1904 resided near Lake Tuusula
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (& Finnish Nationalist to c1900)
Genre Profile:  323---0322---2212---210---01---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---symphonic poems---incidental music---songs---Violin Conc. in D minor
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1888-1920) . . . En Saga [orch.] Op.9 (1892, r1902) . . . Karelia Suite (from the incidental music to Karelia) [orch.] Op.11 (1893, r1897 & 1900) . . . The Swan of Tuonela (from the sym. poem 'The Legends') [orch.] Op.22 no.3 (1893, r1897 & 1900) . . . Sym. #1 in E minor Op.39 (1899) . . . Finlandia [sym. poem] Op.26 (1899, r1900) . . . Sym. #2 in D Op.43 (1901-2) . . . Violin Conc. in D minor Op.47 (1903, r1905) . . . Valse Triste (from the incidental music to the Jarnefelt drama Kuolema) [orch.] Op.44 no.1 (1904) . . . Sym. #3 in C Op.52 (1907) . . . String Quartet in D minor 'Intimate Voices' Op.56 (1909) . . . Sym. #4 in A minor Op.63 (1911) . . . Sym. #5 in E flat Op.82 (1915, r1916 & 1919) . . . Sym. #6 in D minor Op.104 (1923) . . . Sym. #7 in C Op.105 (1924) . . . Tapiola [sym. poem] Op.112 (1926) 
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Berlioz; Borodin; Bruckner; +Busoni; Grieg; Liszt; -R Schumann?; TCHAIKOVSKY; Wagner; Finnish folk music; Renaissance polyphony
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; Arnold; Barber; Bax; +[G Benjamin]; [E Bergman]; Davies; HANSON; Harris; Holmboe; Hovhaness; [O Knussen]; Kokkonen; Larsson; Moeran; Nørgård; Rautavaara; Rubbra; Sallinen; [R Simpson]; Tippett; Vaughan Williams; Walton


Sinding, Christian (1856-1941) Norwegian; mainly Germany- & Oslo-based
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---songs
Notable Work:  . . . Rustle of Spring [pf] Op.32 no.3 (1896) 
Musical Influences:  +Delius?; Grieg; LISZT; R Schumann; +R Strauss; WAGNER


Skalkottas, Nikos [Nikolaos](1904-49) Greek; Berlin-based 1921-33, Athens-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . 36 Greek Dances [orch.] (1931-6, r1948-9) 
Musical Influences:  Hindemith; SCHOENBERG; Stravinsky; folk music


83. Smetana, Bedrich (1824-84) Bohemian; mainly Prague-based from 1838
Style/Period:  Czech Nationalist (Romantic; New German school)
Genre Profile:  113---0000---0222---210---03---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---orchestral pcs---string quartets---piano (solo, chamber combs.)
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Trio in G minor (1855, r1857) . . . The Bartered Bride [opera] (1863-6, r1869-70) . . . Over. & Dances to (the opera) The Bartered Bride [orch.] (1863-6) . . . The Moldau (from the suite of 6 sym. poems 'Má Vlast') [orch.] (1874) . . . String Quartet #1 in E minor 'From My Life' (1876) . . . 2 Duets for Violin & Piano 'From the Homeland' (1880) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; Chopin; LISZT; Mendelssohn; --Mozart; Reicha?; C Schumann; R Schumann; Wagner; Weber?; folksong
Has Influenced:  Dvorák; Fibich; +Martinu?; Janácek; Suk?


Soler (Ramos), (Padre) Antonio (1729-83) Spanish (Catalan)
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  keyboard sonatas---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Fandango in D minor [keyb] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  +Boccherini?; +J Haydn; D SCARLATTI; Spanish folk music


Sor, Fernando (1778-1839) Spanish (Catalan); Paris- & London-based from 1813
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Genre Profile:  000---0100---0002---003---11---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs.)---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Introduction & Variations on a Theme by Mozart [guitar] Op.9 (c1815) . . . Sonata in C 'Grand Sonata II' [guitar] Op.25 (p1826) 
Musical Influences:  Boccherini; J Haydn; [F Moretti]; Mozart; Italian opera; Spanish popular music & song
Has Influenced:  Barrios; Tárrega


Sowerby, Leo (1895-1968) American; mainly Chicago-based from 1909
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  solo organ---anthems
Musical Influences:  Delius?; -Franck; Grainger?; Indy; American folk music; jazz & blues; church music; French & German music
Has Influenced:  Rorem


Spohr, Louis [Ludwig] (1784-1859) German; Kassel-based from 1822
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic (Biedermeier)
Genre Profile:  221---0222---2222---112---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  chamber music---concs.---violin (chamber combs., w/orch.)---operas---syms.---harp (solo, w/violin)
Notable Works:  . . . Sonata for Violin & Harp in E flat Op.113 (1806) . . . Clarinet Conc. #1 in C minor Op.26 (1808) . . . Nonet in F [winds & strings] Op.31 (1813) . . . Violin Conc. #8 in A minor Op.47 (1816) . . . Die Letzten Dinge [oratorio for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1825-6) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Cherubini; MOZART; [JPJ Rode]; Viotti
Has Influenced:  Berwald; Brahms; Bruch?; Chopin; Goldmark; JPE Hartmann; Lortzing; Mendelssohn; ++Rihm?; Wagner


Spontini, Gaspare (1774-1851) Italian; mainly Paris- & Berlin-based from 1803
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  operas
Musical Influences:  Cherubini; GLUCK; Méhul?; Mozart; +Rossini?
Has Influenced:  Bellini; Berlioz; -Cherubini; Meyerbeer; Rossini; Schubert; Wagner; Weber?


Stamitz, Johann [Jan] (1717-57) Bohemian-German; Mannheim-based from c1742
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical (Mannheim school)
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---orchestral trios
Musical Influences:  Jommelli; [G Sammartini]; Italian music
Has Influenced:  Boccherini; J Haydn; Mozart; K Stamitz


Stamitz, K[C]arl (1745-1801) German; Mannheim- & then Paris-based to 1777 w/several associations thereafter
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical (Mannheim school)
Best Known For:  concs.---syms. & sinfonies concertantes---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Flute Conc. in G Op.29 (c1777) . . . Clarinet Conc. No.11 in E flat (d?) 
Musical Influences:  J Stamitz


Stanford, Charles Villiers (1852-1924) Irish; Dublin-based to 1870, Cambridge- & then London-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic
Genre Profile:  222---2220---2122---220---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  sacred & secular vocal- & choral/choral-orchestral music---syms.---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Clarinet Conc. in A minor Op.80 (1902) . . . Three Latin Motets [4 vv / 8 vv] Op.38 (p1905) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; BRAHMS; [J Joachim]; -Mendelssohn; -Schubert?; R Schumann; Wagner; Irish folk music
Has Influenced:  Butterworth; Clarke; Coleridge-Taylor; Holst; Howells; Ireland; Moeran?; Vaughan Williams


Stenhammar, (Karl) Wilhelm (Eugen) (1871-1927) Swedish; Stockholm- & Goteborg-based
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---concs.---choral-orchestral music---songs---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Serenade in F [orch.] Op.31 (1911-13) . . . Sym. #2 in G minor Op.34 (1911-5) 
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Brahms; Bruckner; Liszt; -Mendelssohn?; Nielsen; Wagner; Renaissance polyphony


Still, William Grant (1895-1978) American; Los Angeles-based from 1934
Style/Period:  Neoromantic/Nationalist (African-American)
Best Known For:  syms.---orchestral pcs---chamber music---operas---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 'Afro-American' (1930) . . . Summerland [pf (& other arrs.)] (1936) 
Musical Influences:  Chadwick; Coleridge-Taylor; Varèse; jazz; American folk & popular song


106. Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1928-2007) German; lived near Cologne from 1965
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (Mystical after 1968)
Genre Profile:  022---0011---2222---202---02---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  magnetic tape-based pcs---chamber music---operas---orchestral pcs---solo piano---piccolo/flute (solo, chamber combs.)---aleatory music
Notable Works:  . . . Klavierstücke I-XIX [series of solo pf works] (1952-2003) . . . Kontra-Punkte [for 10 instrs.] (1952, r1953) . . . Gruppen [for 3 orchs.] (1955-7) . . . Kontakte [pf, perc & electronic sounds on 4 track tape] (1959-60) . . . Licht [series of 7 operas, one for each day of the week] (1978-2003) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Cage; Martin; Messiaen; Schoenberg; Varèse; Webern; chance events; electronic music; East Asian music
Has Influenced:  Andriessen; -Berio; Birtwistle; Bolcom; -Boulez; [C Cardew]; Davies; Górecki; [J Hassell]; Holliger?; -Ligeti; -Maderna; [B Nilsson]; Nørgård; Penderecki; [H Pousseur]; Rihm; Riley; Takemitsu; Tavener; [F Zappa]; jazz; rock music


Stradella, Alessandro (1639-82) Italian; worked mainly in Rome, Venice & Genoa
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  concerti grossi/chamber music/sinfonias, espec. w/violin---operas & other stage works---cantatas
Has Influenced:  Corelli; +Handel; A Scarlatti


48. Strauss, Johann Jr. (1825-99) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Genre Profile:  003---0100---0011---100---13---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  orchestral waltzes, marches, quadrilles & polkas---operettas
Notable Works:  . . . On the Beautiful Blue Danube [waltz for orch.] Op.314 (1867) . . . Artist's Life [waltz for orch.] Op.316 (1867) . . . Tales of the Vienna Woods [waltz for orch.] Op.325 (1868) . . . Die Fledermaus [operetta] (1874) . . . Voices of Spring [waltz for orch.] Op.410 (1883) . . . Der Zigeunerbaron [operetta] (1885) . . . The Emperor's Waltz [waltz for orch.] Op.437 (1889) 
Musical Influences:  [J Lanner]; Liszt; Lortzing; OFFENBACH; J Strauss Sr.; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Lehár; R Strauss


Strauss, Johann Sr. (1804-49) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Genre Profile:  002---0000---0000---000---00---000
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral waltzes, marches, quadrilles, polkas & galops
Notable Work:  . . . Radetzky March [march for orch.] Op.228 (1848) 
Musical Influences:  [J Lanner]; folksong & gypsy music; Viennese light orchestral dance music
Has Influenced:  J Strauss Jr.


Strauss, Josef (1827-70) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Genre Profile:  002---0000---0000---000---00---000
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  orchestral waltzes & polkas
Notable Work:  . . . Music of the Spheres [waltz for orch.] Op.235 (1868) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz?; Chopin?; Liszt; Schubert?; Wagner


18. Strauss, Richard (1864-1949) German
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) German Romantic (Neoclassical after 1910)
Genre Profile:  223---2232---0212---111---23---13x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  symphonic poems---operas---lieder---wind concs.---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1870-1942) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in F Op.6 (1880-3) . . . Horn Conc. #1 in E flat Op.11 (1882-3) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in E flat Op.18 (1887) . . . Don Juan [sym. poem] Op.20 (1888-9) . . . Death & Transfiguration [sym. poem] Op.24 (1888-9) . . . Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks [sym. poem] Op.28 (1894-5) . . . Thus Spake Zarathustra [sym. poem] Op.30 (1895-6) . . . Don Quixote [sym. poem in the form of variations for vc & orch.] Op.35 (1896-7) . . . A Hero's Life [sym. poem] Op.40 (1897-8) . . . Salome [opera] Op.54 (1903-5), incl. 'Dance of the Seven Veils' [orch.] . . . Elektra [opera] Op.58 (1906-8) . . . Der Rosenkavalier [opera] Op.59 (1909-10) . . . Ariadne auf Naxos [opera] Op.60 (1911-2, r1916) . . . Ein Alpensinfonie Op.64 (1911-5) . . . Die Frau ohne Schatten [opera] Op.65 (1914-8) . . . Horn Conc. #2 in E flat (1942) . . . Metamorphosen [string orch.] (1945) . . . Oboe Conc. in D (1945, r1948) . . . Four Last Songs [solo v & orch.] (1948) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; Brahms; Bruckner; ---F Couperin; +Dukas?; Liszt; Mahler; Massenet?; -Mendelssohn; --Mozart; Raff; -R Schumann; J Strauss Jr.; Wagner; +Wolf-Ferrari
Has Influenced:  Alfvén; Bartók; Bax; Beach; Berg?; Bloch; Casella; -Chadwick; -Delius; Dohnányi; Dukas?; -Elgar; Gretchaninov?; Griffes; -Herbert; Hindemith; Holst; Honegger; -Humperdinck; KORNGOLD; Lehár; Luening?; Miaskovsky?; Moore?; Novák; Orff; Pfitzner?; Prokofiev; -Puccini; Ravel; Reger; RESPIGHI; Schmitt; Schoenberg; Schreker; Schulhoff; Scriabin?; -Sinding; Suk; Szymanowski; Varèse; Villa-Lobos; Webern; [E Wellesz]; Wolf-Ferrari; Zemlinsky


16. Stravinsky, Igor (1882-1971) Russian-French-American; Paris-based 1911-39, U.S.-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Impressionist) to 1924; French Neoclassical 1924-1951; Post-Webernian Serial thereafter
Genre Profile:  232---2222---2222---202---32---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  significant or important contributor to most main genres; pre-eminent 20th Century composer of ballets
Notable Works:  . . . The Firebird [ballet] (1909-10; Suite #2 for reduced orch. 1919, r1945) . . . Petrushka [ballet] (1910-1, r1946) . . . The Rite of Spring [ballet] (1911-3, r1940s) . . . The Wedding [ballet for 4 solo vv, 4 pf, perc ensemble & chorus] (1914-7, r1921-3) . . . The Soldier's Tale [ballet for narr., spoken vv & ensemble of 7 instrs.] (1918) . . . Pulcinella [ballet after Pergolesi for 3 solo vv & chamber orch.] (1919-20; suite for chamber orch. c1922, r1947) . . . Symphonies of Wind Instruments [23 instrs.] (1920, r1945-7) . . . 3 Movements from Petrushka [pf] (1921) . . . Octet [wind instrs.] (1922-3, r1952) . . . Oedipus Rex [secular opera-oratorio] (1926-7, r1948) . . . Apollon Musagète [ballet for string orch.] (1927-8, r1947) . . . The Fairy's Kiss [ballet] (1928, r1950) . . . Symphony of Psalms [sacred text for chorus & orch.] (1930, r1948) . . . Violin Conc. in D (1931) . . . The Card Party [ballet] (1936) . . . Conc. in E flat 'Dumbarton Oaks' [chamber orch.] (1937-8) . . . Symphony in C (1939-40) . . . Sym. in Three Movements (1942-5) . . . Mass [mixed chorus & double wind quintet (10 instrs.)] (1944-8) . . . Conc. in D [string orch.] (1946) . . . Orpheus [ballet] (1947) . . . The Rake's Progress [opera] (1948-51) . . . Agon [ballet] (1953-4 & 1956-7) . . . Movements [pf & orch.] (1958-9) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Borodin; Debussy; Dukas; ---Gesualdo; Glazunov; -Glinka; ---Machaut; --Mozart; RIMSKY-KORSAKOV; Satie; Schoenberg; Scriabin; Tchaikovsky; Verdi; --Weber; +Webern; Renaissance, Baroque & Classical music; ragtime & jazz
Has Influenced:  Adams; ANDRIESSEN; [G ANTHEIL]; Argento; Auric; Babbitt; Barber; -Bartók; Bax; Bennett?; Berio; Berkeley; Bernstein; Birtwistle; BLACHER; Bliss; Blitzstein; Boulez; Bowles; Britten; Brouwer; -Carpenter; Carter; Casella; Chávez; Copland; Corigliano; Diamond?; Dutilleux; [W Egk]; -Falla; Fine; [W Fortner]; Foss; Françaix; Gerhard; Gershwin; Ginastera; Glass; KA Hartmann; Henze; Hindemith; Holmboe; -Holst; Honegger; Howells; Husa; Ibert; -Ireland; -Jongen; [L Kirchner]; KRAFT; Krenek; Kurtág; Lambert; Ligeti; Lutoslawski; Maderna; Malipiero; Martin; MARTINU; [C McPhee]; Messiaen; Milhaud; Moeran?; Monk; Montsalvatge; Moreno Torróba; Nancarrow; ORFF; Penderecki; Persichetti; Petrassi; Piazzolla; Pinkham; Piston; POULENC; [M Powell]; Prokofiev; -Puccini; Rautavaara; -Ravel; Reich; -Respighi; Revueltas; Rochberg; Rodrigo; -Roussel; Rubbra?; Schickele; Schnittke; Schuller; Sessions; Shchedrin; Shostakovich; Skalkottas; Szymanowski; Tailleferre; Takemitsu?; TANSMAN; Tavener; Tcherepnin; Thomson; Tippett; Toch; Tower; Tubin; Varèse; Villa-Lobos; Walker; Walton; Weill; Wolpe?; Wuorinen; Xenakis; [BA Zimmermann]; Zwilich


Suk, Josef (1874-1935) Bohemian; Prague-based from c1885
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) Czech Romantic
Best Known For:  symphonic & orchestral pcs---solo piano---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Serenade in E flat [string orch.] Op.6 (1892) . . . Asrael Symphony Op.27 (1905-6) . . . Things Lived & Dreamt [pf suite] Op.30 (1909) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Debussy; DVORÁK; Mahler?; Smetana?; R Strauss; Tchaikovsky?
Has Influenced:  Husa; Martinu


58. Sullivan, Arthur (1842-1900) British; London-based
Style/Period:  Middle English Romantic/English Light Classical
Genre Profile:  122---0100---0101---100---23---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operettas---orchestral pcs---songs & song cycles---church music
Notable Works:  . . . The Last Chord [song] (1877) . . . H.M.S. Pinafore [operetta] (1878) . . . The Pirates of Penzeance [operetta] (1879) . . . The Mikado [operetta] (1885) . . . The Yeomen of the Guard [operetta] (1888) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; -Beethoven; Berlioz; Bizet; Gounod; --Handel; Liszt; Mendelssohn; --Mozart?; Offenbach; Reinecke?; Rossini; -Schubert; R Schumann
Has Influenced:  [E German]; Herbert; Holst


Suppé, Franz von (1819-95) Belgian-Austrian; Vienna-based from 1835
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Best Known For:  operettas & operetta overs.
Notable Works:  . . . Over. to (the play) Morning, Noon and Night in Vienna [orch.] (1844) . . . Over. to (the operetta) Poet & Peasant [orch.] (1846) . . . Over. to (the operetta) The Light Cavalry [orch.] (1866) . . . Boccaccio [operetta] (1879) 
Musical Influences:  Donizetti; OFFENBACH; Rossini


Susato, Tielman [Tylman] (c1510/15 - 1570+) Flemish; in middle life based mainly in Antwerp
Style/Period:  Late Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  music publishing---masses---chansons---instrumental dances
Notable Work:  . . . Danserye [collection of dances] (p1551) 
Musical Influences:  Clemens


Svendsen, Johan (1840-1911) Norwegian; Copenhagen-based from 1883
Style/Period:  Norwegian Nationalist (Romantic)
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in D Op.4 (1865-6) . . . Sym. #2 in B flat Op.15 (1876) . . . Romance in G [vln & orch.] Op.26 (1881) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Berlioz; Liszt; Mendelssohn; R Schumann; Wagner?; folk music
Has Influenced:  Nielsen


Sweelinck, Jan (Pieterszoon) (1562-1621) Dutch; Amsterdam-based
Style/Period:  Late Dutch Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo keyboard, espec. organ---sacred vocal music (motets, etc.)
Musical Influences:  Bull; Byrd; Cabezón; -Clemens?; +Dowland; +Frescobaldi?; A Gabrieli; G Gabrieli?; Marenzio; [C Merulo]; Philips; Tallis?
Has Influenced:  ++JS Bach; +Buxtehude; Frescobaldi?; Górecki; [J Praetorius]; [H SCHEIDEMANN]; SCHEIDT; [M Weckmann]


Szymanowski, Karol (1882-1937) Polish; travelled widely
Style/Period:  Impressionist to 1924; Polish Nationalist (Neoclassical) thereafter
Genre Profile:  201---2200---0202---200---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  syms.---violin (w/piano, w/orch.)---songs---vocal- & choral-orchestral music---operas---piano (solo, chamber combs.)
Notable Works:  . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in D minor Op.9 (1904) . . . Sym. #2 in B flat Op.19 (1909-10) . . . 3 Myths [vln & pf] Op.30 (1915) . . . Nocturne & Tarantella [vln & pf] Op.28 (1915) . . . Violin Conc. #1 Op.35 (1916) . . . King Roger [opera] Op.46 (1918-24) . . . Stabat Mater [3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.53 (1925-6) . . . Sym. #4 'Symphonie Concertante' [pf & orch.] Op.60 (1932) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Brahms; --Chopin; Debussy; Mahler; Ravel; Reger; Schreker?; Scriabin; R Strauss; Stravinsky; Wagner; Persian & Arabian music; Polish folk music
Has Influenced:  [A Hába]; Lutoslawski


Tailleferre, Germaine (1892-1983) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Best Known For:  chamber music---stage works (operas, ballets, film scores)---concs.
Notable Work:  . . . Pastorale [vln & pf] (1942) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Debussy; Fauré; Koechlin; Ravel; Satie; ---D Scarlatti?; Stravinsky


Takemitsu, Toru (1930-96) Japanese
Style/Period:  Impressionist/Exoticist
Genre Profile:  022---2222---2222---212---10---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---works featuring exotic instrs.---chamber music---guitar (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---film scores---solo piano
Notable Works:   . . . Requiem for String Orch. (1957) . . . November Steps ['double concerto' for biwa, shakuhachi fl & orch.] (1967) . . . Toward the Sea [alto fl & guitar] (1981) . . . All in Twilight [4 guitar pcs] (1988) 
Musical Influences:  Boulez; Cage; -DEBUSSY; MESSIAEN; Ravel; Schoenberg; -Scriabin; Stockhausen; Stravinsky?; Varèse; Webern; Xenakis; silence; sounds of nature; jazz; NATIVE JAPANESE MUSIC & INSTRUMENTS; gamelan music
Has Influenced:  Tan


Tallis, Thomas (c1505-85) British; London-based from c1543
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  Latin & English sacred vocal music (motets, masses, anthems, etc.)---solo keyboard
Notable Works:  . . . Lamentations of Jeremiah [5 vv] (c1565) . . . Spem in alium [sacred motet for 40 vv] (1573?) . . . Salvator Mundi, Salva nos I [sacred motet for 5 vv] (p1575) . . . O nata lux de lumine [hymn for 5 vv] (p1575) 
Musical Influences:  Cabezón; Taverner; [C Tye]?; plainchant; Franco-Flemish music
Has Influenced:  Bull; BYRD; Gibbons; Sweelinck?; +++Vaughan Williams


Tan Dun (1957-) Chinese-American; mainly U.S.-based from 1986
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---film scores---works featuring exotic instruments
Notable Work:  . . . Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon [film score] (2000) 
Musical Influences:  -Bartók; Cage; Crumb; Shostakovich; Takemitsu; minimalists; Chinese folk music & opera


Taneyev, Sergey (1856-1915) Russian; Moscow-based from c1866
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Sym. #4 in C minor Op.12 (1898) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; --Handel; --Mozart; TCHAIKOVSKY; Renaissance polyphony
Has Influenced:  Arensky; Glazunov; Glière; Medtner; Miaskovsky?; Rachmaninov; Scriabin; [V Shebalin]


Tansman, Alexandre (1897-1986) Polish-French; mainly Paris-based from 1920
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Best Known For:  solo guitar---solo piano---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Musical Influences:  --Chopin; Ravel; Scriabin; STRAVINSKY; jazz & popular music; Les Six; Polish folk music


Tárrega (y Eixea), Francisco (1852-1909) Spanish; Barcelona-based from 1885
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (Spanish Nationalist)
Best Known For:  solo guitar (incl. transcriptions of other composers' works)
Notable Works:  . . . Capricho Árabe [guitar] (p1900) . . . Mazurka #3 'Marieta' [guitar] (p1900) . . . Recuerdos de la Alhambra [guitar] (p1900) 
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; Sor; Spanish folk music
Has Influenced:  Barrios


Tartini, Giuseppe (1692-1770) Italian; mainly Padua-based from 1709
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Genre Profile:  000---0220---0222---002---00---100
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  violin (sonatas, concs.)---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . Conc. for Trumpet & String Orch. in D (d?) . . . Sonata for Violin & Basso-Continuo in G minor 'Devil's Trill' (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; Rameau; [F Veracini]; Vivaldi; folk music
Has Influenced:  Boccherini; Leclair?; Mozart; [L Mozart]; [JG Naumann]; Quantz; Viotti


Tavener, John (1944-2013) British; mainly London-based
Style/Period:  Mystical (Minimalist)
Genre Profile:  001---1212---1210---111---00---32x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . The Lamb [carol] (1982) . . . The Protecting Veil [vc & orch.] (1987) . . . Song for Athene [funeral service for 4 vv] (1993) 
Musical Influences:  Messiaen; Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Medieval music; RUSSIAN & GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH MUSIC; Asian music


Taverner, John (c1490-1545) British
Style/Period:  Middle English Renaissance
Best Known For:  church music (masses & mass sections, magnificats, motets, antiphons)
Notable Works:  . . . Dum transisset Sabbatum I [motet for 5 vv] (c1525) . . . Mass 'Western Wynde' [4 vv] (c1535) 
Musical Influences:  Josquin; plainchant
Has Influenced:  Byrd; +++Davies; SHEPPARD; Tallis; [C Tye]


11. Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Il'yich (1840-93) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg- & Moscow-based from 1850
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  333---3300---2222---200---33---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---ballets & orchestral suites drawn therefrom---concs.---orchestral pcs---operas---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in G minor 'Winter Daydreams' Op.13 (1866, r1874) . . . None but the Lonely Heart [song w/words after Goethe] Op.6 no.6 (1869) . . . Romeo & Juliet (Fantasy Over.) in B minor [orch.] (1869, r1870 & 1880) . . . String Quartet #1 in D Op.11 (1871) . . . Sym. #2 in C minor 'Little Russian' Op.17 (1872, r1879-80) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in B flat minor Op.23 (1874-5) . . . Swan Lake [ballet] Op.20 (1875-6; orch. suite 1876) . . . The Seasons [pf suite] Op.37b (1875-6) . . . Marche Slave in B flat [orch.] Op.31 (1876) . . . Francesca da Rimini in E minor [sym. fantasy] Op.32 (1876) . . . Variations on a Rococo Theme in A [vc & orch.] Op.33 (1876) . . . Eugene Onegin [opera] (1877-8), incl. 'Waltz' [orch.] . . . Sym. #4 in F minor Op.36 (1877-8) . . . Violin Conc. in D Op.35 (1878) . . . 1812 Over. in E flat [concert over.] Op.49 (1880) . . . Italian Capriccio in A [orch.] Op.45 (1880) . . . Serenade in C [string orch.] Op.48 (1880) . . . Piano Trio in A minor Op.50 (1881-2) . . . Manfred Symphony in B minor [sym./sym. poem after Byron] Op.58 (1885) . . . Andante Cantabile (from String Quartet #1, Op.11) [vc & string orch. arr.] (1886?-8) . . . Suite #4 in G 'Mozartiana' [orch.] Op.61 (1887) . . . Sym. #5 in E minor Op.64 (1888) . . . The Sleeping Beauty [ballet] Op.66 (1888-9; orch. suite 1890) . . . The Queen of Spades [opera] Op.68 (1890) . . . The Nutcracker [ballet] Op.71 (1891-2; orch. suite Op.71a 1892), incl. 'Waltz of the Flowers' . . . Sym. #6 in B minor 'Pathétique' Op.74 (1893) 
Musical Influences:  Balakirev; -Beethoven; -Bellini?; Berlioz; Bizet; Chopin; Dargomïzhsky?; Delibes; Glinka; Gounod; +Grieg; Liszt; +Massenet; Meyerbeer; --MOZART; Rubinstein; R Schumann; Russian folksong; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  ARENSKY; Debussy; Glazunov; Glière; Gretchaninov; Ippolitov-Ivanov; Ives; Janácek; +Kabalevsky; +Khachaturian; Mahler?; Massenet; Miaskovsky; Prokofiev; RACHMANINOV; ++Schnittke; ++Shchedrin; +Shostakovich; SIBELIUS; Stravinsky; Suk?; TANEYEV; Villa-Lobos; Zemlinsky


Tcherepnin, Alexander (1899-1977) Russian-French-American; mostly U.S.- & Paris-based from 1921 (with stops in China & Japan)
Style/Period:  Neoclassical ('Eurasian')
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---syms.
Musical Influences:  -Mussorgsky; Prokofiev; Stravinsky; French music; European, Caucasian & East Asian folk music
Has Influenced:  [R Muczynski]; Chinese & Japanese music


35. Telemann, Georg Philipp (1681-1767) German; Hamburg-based from 1721
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque (w/eclectic German, French & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  122---1223---2222---022---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  concs. & concerti grossi---overture-suites---chamber music (quartets, sonatas, trio sonatas, etc.)---sacred & secular cantatas
Notable Works:  . . . 6 Trio Sonatas [2 instrs. & continuo] (p1718) . . . Conc. for 2 Horns & String Orch. in E flat 'Tafelmusik III, no.3' (p1733) . . . Conc. for 3 Violins & String Orch. in F 'Tafelmusik II, no.3' (p1733) . . . Over.-Suite in G 'Don Quichotte' [string orch.] (1761?) . . . 2 Concerti for 3 Trumpets & Orch. in D (d?) . . . 8 Concerti for Oboe & String Orch. (d?) . . . Conc. for Trumpet & Strings in D (d?) . . . Conc. for Viola & Strings in G (d?) . . . Over.-Suite in A minor [fl & string orch.] (d?) . . . Conc. for Recorder, Flute & String Orch. in E minor (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Albinoni?; Buxtehude; Caldara; CORELLI; F Couperin; +Handel?; [R Keiser]; Lully; [A Steffani]; Torelli; Vivaldi; Zelenka?; French & Italian music; POLISH FOLK MUSIC; Moravian & German folk music
Has Influenced:  CPE Bach; JS Bach; WF Bach; Fasch; Handel?; Heinichen; Quantz


Thomas, (Charles Louis) Ambroise (1811-96) French; mainly Paris-based from 1821
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Genre Profile:  001---1100---1111---110---23---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Works:  . . . Mignon [opera] (1866) . . . Hamlet [opera] (1869) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; GOUNOD; Meyerbeer; Reicha?; Rossini; Weber
Has Influenced:  Massenet


Thompson, Randall (1899-1984) American
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  choral & choral-orchestral music---syms.
Musical Influences:  Bloch; Malipiero; Americana
Has Influenced:  Bernstein


Thomson, Virgil (1896-1989) American; Paris-based 1921-2 & 1925-40, mainly New York-based thereafter
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical/American Nationalist (Experimentalist)
Genre Profile:  222---0111---2112---222---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  film scores & suites---operas---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Four Saints in Three Acts [opera] (1927-8 & 1933) . . . The Plow that Broke the Plains [film score & orch. suite] (1936) . . . The River [film score & orch. suite] (1937) . . . The Mother of Us All [opera] (1947) . . . 5 Songs from William Blake [solo v & orch.] (1951) . . . 'Portraits' series [147 pcs, mainly for solo pf] (various dates) 
Musical Influences:  Milhaud; SATIE; Stravinsky; American hymns & folk music
Has Influenced:  Bowles; Copland; Harrison; Rorem


Tippett, Michael (1905-98) British
Style/Period:  Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  222---2002---1211---212---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  has worked productively in most main genres
Notable Works:  . . . String Quartet #1 in A (1934-5, r1943) . . . Conc. for Double String Orch. (1938-9) . . . A Child of Our Time [secular oratorio for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1939-41) . . . Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli [string orch.] (1953) . . . King Priam [opera] (1958-61) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; --Beethoven; Hindemith; ---Purcell; Sibelius; Stravinsky; blues; jazz; Renaissance & Baroque music


Toch, Ernst (1887-1964) Austrian-American; U.S.-based from 1935
Style/Period:  at first Late German Romantic, then mainly German Neoclassical/Expressionist
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music---film scores
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Busoni?; Debussy?; Mahler?; --Mozart; Stravinsky; jazz
Has Influenced:  [M Powell]


Tomkins, Thomas (1572-1656) Welsh; mainly London- & Worcester-based
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  anthems---solo keyboard---consort music---madrigals
Musical Influences:  BYRD; Morley; +Weelkes


Torelli, Giuseppe (1658-1709) Italian
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  concs. & concerti grossi---chamber music---orchestral pcs---trumpet (w/orch.)
Notable Work:  . . . Conc. for Trumpet & Strings #2 in D (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Legrenzi; [G Vitali]; +Vivaldi?
Has Influenced:  Albinoni; JS Bach; Telemann; Vivaldi


Torróba, Federico Moreno (see under 'Moreno Torróba')


Tournemire, Charles (1870-1939) French; Paris-based during most of adult life
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (French organ school)
Best Known For:  solo organ---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . L'Orgue Mystique [51 Offices for the Roman Catholic liturgy, for org] Opp. 55-57 (1927-32) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Debussy; FRANCK; Mahler?; Wagner?; WIDOR; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Alain; Dupré; Duruflé; Langlais; Messiaen


Tower, Joan (1938-) American
Style/Period:  Serial to c1975; Impressionist thereafter
Best Known For:  works for featured instr. w/orch.---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Sequoia [orch.] (1981) . . . Fanfare for the Uncommon Woman [orch.] (1992)
Musical Influences:  ---Beethoven; Crumb; Messiaen; Stravinsky; Latin American music


Tubin, Eduard (1905-82) Estonian; Stockholm-based from 1944
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---solo piano---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #4 'Sinfonia Lirica' (1943) . . . Sym. #9 'Sinfonia Semplice' (1969) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Debussy?; Kodály; Prokofiev; +Shostakovich; Stravinsky; folk music; jazz & popular song


Turina, Joaquín (1882-1949) Spanish; Madrid-based from 1914
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist
Genre Profile:  112---2000---2222---212---01---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber music, w/orch.)---solo guitar---songs---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Danzas Fantásticas [sym. poem] Op.22 (1920) . . . La Oración del Torero [str qtt] Op.34 (1925; string orch. arr. 1934) . . . Fandanguillo [guitar] Op.36 (1926) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Debussy; Dukas; Falla; Franck; Indy; Ravel; folk music; popular music
Has Influenced:  Rodrigo?


Varèse, Edgard (1883-1965) French-American; mainly Paris-, Germany- & U.S.-based
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Genre Profile:  002---0000---2000---002---00---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  music emphasizing percussion, rhythmicity, & winds---magnetic tape-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Octandre [fl, woodwinds & brass chamber ensemble (8 instrs.)] (1923) . . . Ionisation [13 perc] (1929-31) . . . Ecuatorial [solo v & 18 instr. ensemble (or for chorus & orch.)] (1932-4) . . . Density 21.5 [fl] (1936) . . . Déserts [14 winds, 5 perc, pf & 2 track tape] (1950?-4, r1960 & 1961) 
Musical Influences:  Berlioz?; Busoni; Debussy; Satie; Schoenberg; Scriabin?; R Strauss; Stravinsky; Wagner?; Widor?; Medieval, Renaissance & Baroque music; Asian music, incl. gamelan music
Has Influenced:  Babbitt; Birtwistle; Boulez; Cage; Carter; FELDMAN; Gerhard; Harrison; JOLIVET; KRAFT; Lutoslawski; Messiaen; Nancarrow?; Nono; Penderecki; -Ruggles?; Schnittke?; Schuller?; Sculthorpe; Still; Stockhausen; Takemitsu; Wolff; Wuorinen; Xenakis; [F ZAPPA]


39. Vaughan Williams, Ralph (1872-1958) British; mainly London-based
Style/Period:  English Nationalist
Genre Profile:  323---2322---2202---120---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---orchestral pcs, incl. folksong settings---songs & song cycles---works for featured instr(s). w/orch.---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 'Sea Symphony' [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1903-9, r1923) . . . On Wenlock Edge [song cycle for solo v, pf & str qtt] (1908-9) . . . The Wasps, Aristophanic Suite (from incidental music to the Aristophane play) [orch.] (1909) . . . Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis [2 string orchs.] (1910, r1910-19) . . . Sym. #2 'London' (1912-3, r1920 & 1933) . . . The Lark Ascending [romance for vln & orch.] (1914, r1920) . . . Mass in G minor [4 solo vv & chorus of 8] (1920-1) . . . English Folk Song Suite [military band] (1923) . . . Job [masque for dancing] (1927-30) . . . Sym. #4 in F minor (1931-4) . . . Fantasia on Greensleeves (from the opera Sir John in Love) [fl(s), harp & strings] (1934) . . . Serenade to Music [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1938; chorus & orch. arr. 1939) . . . Sym. #5 in D (1938-43, r1951) . . . Five Variants of Dives & Lazarus [harp & string orch.] (1939) . . . Conc. for Oboe & String Orch. in A minor (1944) . . . Sym. #6 in E minor (1944-7, r1950) . . . Sym. #7 'Antarctica' [solo v, chorus & orch.] (1949-52) . . . The Pilgrim's Progress [morality opera] (1949, r1951-2) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Brahms?; Bruch; +Butterworth; ---Byrd; Dvorák?; Elgar; +Holst; Parry; ---Purcell; +Ravel; Sibelius; Stanford; ---Tallis; English Renaissance music; ENGLISH FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; Butterworth; Clarke; -Delius?; Finzi; Hanson?; Holst; HOWELLS; Leighton; Moeran; Rubbra; Rutter


7. Verdi, Giuseppe (1813-1901) Italian; mainly North Italy-based
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Romantic
Genre Profile:  000---0010---0200---100---03---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Ernani [opera] (1844) . . . Macbeth [opera] (1847, r1865) . . . Rigoletto [opera] (1851) . . . Il Trovatore [opera] (1853) . . . La Traviata [opera] (1853) . . . Over. to (the opera) La Traviata [orch.] (1853) . . . La Forza del Destino [opera] (1862, r1869) . . . Over. to (the opera) La Forza del Destino [orch.] (1862) . . . Don Carlo [opera] (1867, r1884) . . . Aida [opera] (1871), incl. 'March' [orch.] . . . String Quartet in E minor (1873) . . . Messa da Requiem [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1874) . . . Otello [opera] (1887) . . . Falstaff [opera] (1893) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Bellini; Berlioz; +Boito; Donizetti; Mayr?; Mercadante; Meyerbeer; [G Pacini]; ---Palestrina; Rossini; Wagner
Has Influenced:  +Argento; Bizet; Boito; Bottesini; +Britten; Busoni; Cilea; +Dallapiccola?; +Ginastera; Giordano; Leoncavallo; Mascagni; +Menotti; -Mercadante?; Mussorgsky; +Nono; Offenbach?; -[G Pacini]?; Pizzetti?; Ponchielli; Puccini; Stravinsky


Victoria, Tomás Luis de (1548-1611) Spanish; Rome-based from c1565-1587, Madrid-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Late Spanish Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (motets, masses, hymns, passions, etc.)
Notable Works:  . . . Ave Maria [sacred motet for 8 vv & org] (p1572, r p1600) . . . O magnum mysterium [sacred motet for 4 vv] (p1572) . . . O quam gloriosum est regnum [sacred motet for 4 vv] (p1572) . . . Missa O quam gloriosum [4 vv] (p1583) . . . Officium defunctorum [requiem for 6 vv] (1605) 
Musical Influences:  +Marenzio; Morales; PALESTRINA
Has Influenced:  -Palestrina?; Philips; +++Poulenc


Vierne, Louis (1870-1937) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) French Romantic (French organ school)
Best Known For:  solo organ, espec. organ syms.---sacred vocal/choral music w/organ---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in D minor [org] Op.14 (1899) . . . Messe Solennelle in C sharp minor [4 vv & 2 organs] Op.16 (1900) . . . Sym. #3 in F sharp minor [org] Op.28 (1912) . . . Carillon de Westminster [organ fantasy] Op.54 no.6 (1927) 
Musical Influences:  Fauré; FRANCK; Guilmant; Wagner; WIDOR
Has Influenced:  Creston; DUPRÉ; Duruflé; Langlais


Vieuxtemps, Henri (1820-81) Belgian; travelled widely
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Best Known For:  violin (solo, chamber, w/orch.)
Notable Work:  . . . Violin Conc. #5 in A minor Op.37 (1861) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Mendelssohn?; PAGANINI; Reicha?; [JPJ Rode]; Viotti
Has Influenced:  Wieniawski


67. Villa-Lobos, Heitor (1887-1959) Brazilian; mainly Rio de Janeiro-based (Paris-based 1923-30)
Style/Period:  Brazilian Nationalist
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---203---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  'Chôros' & 'Bachianas Brasileiras' series (various forces)---guitar (solo, chamber, w/orch.)---chamber music, espec. string quartets---songs---piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---music education
Notable Works:  . . . 17 string quartets (1915-57) . . . Chôros #1 in E minor [guitar] (1920) . . . Nonet [secular text for chorus, instrumental ensemble & perc] (1923) . . . Chôros #5 'Alma Brasileira' [pf] (1925) . . . Chôros #10 [chorus & orch.] (1926) . . . 12 Etudes [guitar] (1929) . . . Bachianas Brasilieras #1 [8 vc] (1930) . . . Bachianas Brasilieras #5 [songs for solo v & 8 vc] (1938-45) . . . 5 Preludes [guitar] (1940) . . . Guitar Conc. (1951) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS BACH; --Chopin; Debussy; Fauré; +Milhaud; [E Nazareth]; Puccini; Ravel; Satie; --R Schumann; R Strauss; Stravinsky; Tchaikovsky; -Wagner; BRAZILIAN POPULAR & FOLK MUSIC; BRAZILIAN NATIVE AMERICAN MUSIC; African music
Has Influenced:  Messiaen; Milhaud


Viotti, Giovanni Battista (1755-1824) Italian; mainly Paris- & London-based from 1782
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (Paris virtuoso school)
Best Known For:  violin concs.
Musical Influences:  --Corelli; J Haydn; +Mozart; [G Pugnani]; Tartini; French & Italian music
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; +Brahms; Cherubini?; [R Kreutzer]; Mozart?; Paganini?; [JPJ Rode]; Spohr; Vieuxtemps


22. Vivaldi, Antonio (1678-1741) Italian; mainly Venice-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Genre Profile:  000---0333---3222---000---02---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  concs. & concerti grossi (violin(s), wind(s), multiple instr. combinations)---chamber music (chamber concs., sonatas, trio sonatas)---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---operas
Notable Works:  . . . 12 Concerti Grossi 'L'Estro Armonico' Op.3 (p1711) . . . 4 Concerti for Violin & String Orch. 'The Seasons' Op.8, nos.1-4 (p1725) . . . 6 Concerti for Flute & String Orch. Op.10 (p c1728) . . . Trio Sonata for Violin, Lute & Continuo in C RV82 (d?) . . . Chamber Conc. for Lute (now usually guitar), 2 Violins & Basso-Continuo in D RV93 (d?) . . . Conc. for Mandolin, Strings & Basso-Continuo in C RV425 (d?) . . . Conc. for Flute (or Recorder), Strings & Basso-Continuo in C minor RV441 (d?) . . . Conc. for Flute (or Recorder), Strings & Basso-Continuo in F RV442 (d?) . . . Conc. for Piccolo, Strings & Basso-Continuo in C RV443 (d?) . . . Conc. for Oboe, Strings & Basso-Continuo in A minor RV461 (d?) . . . Conc. for 2 Cellos, Strings & Basso-Continuo in G minor RV531 (d?) . . . Conc. for 2 Mandolins, Strings & Basso-Continuo in G RV532 (d?) . . . Conc. for 2 Trumpets, Strings &Basso-Continuo in C RV537 (d?) . . . Conc. for 3 Violins, Strings & Basso-Continuo in F RV551 (d?) . . . Gloria in D [solo vv, chorus & orch.] RV589 (d?) . . . Credo in E minor [chorus, org & string orch.] RV591 (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Albinoni; Corelli; Legrenzi; A Scarlatti; Torelli
Has Influenced:  -Albinoni; CPE Bach; JS Bach; +++Casella; Fasch; Hasse; Heinichen; Leclair; Locatelli; +++Malipiero; Marcello; Pergolesi?; Quantz; Rameau; Sammartini; Tartini; Telemann; -Torelli?; Zelenka


6. Wagner, Richard (1813-83) German
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (New German school; German Nationalist)
Genre Profile:  132---0100---0002---200---03---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas and opera overs. & preludes---'Siegfried Idyll' (orch.)---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . The Flying Dutchman [opera] (1841, r1846 & 1852) . . . Over. to (the opera) The Flying Dutchman [orch.] (1841, r1852 & 1860) . . . Tannhäuser [opera] (1843-5, r1861 & 1865) . . . Over. to (the opera) Tannhäuser [orch.] (1845) . . . Lohengrin [opera] (1845-8) . . . Götterdämmerung [opera] (1848-74) . . . Preludes to Acts I & III of (the opera) Lohengrin [orch.] (1850) . . . Das Rheingold [opera] (1851-4) . . . Die Walküre [opera] (1851-6), incl. 'Ride of the Valkyries' [orch.] . . . Siegfried [opera] (1851-71), incl. 'Forest Murmurs' [orch.] . . . Tristan und Isolde [opera] (1857-9) . . . Prelude & Death of Isolde from (the opera) Tristan und Isolde [orch.] (1857-9) . . . Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg [opera] (1861-7) . . . Prelude to (the opera) Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg [orch.] (1867) . . . Siegfried Idyll [small orch.] (1870) . . . Parsifal [opera] (1876-82) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; --JS Bach; BEETHOVEN; Bellini; Berlioz; Cherubini; Chopin; --Gluck; Halévy; Liszt; Loewe; Lortzing; Méhul?; Mendelssohn; MEYERBEER; -Mozart; ---Palestrina; Rossini; Spohr; Spontini; Weber
Has Influenced:  Albéniz; +Alwyn; Alfvén; Bartók; Bax; Beach; +Berg; ++Birtwistle; Bizet?; Bloch; Boito; +Boulanger; BRUCKNER; CHABRIER; Chadwick; Chaminade?; G Charpentier; CHAUSSON; +Dallapiccola; Dargomïzhsky; Debussy; Delibes; DELIUS; Dohnányi; DUKAS; Duparc; Dvorák; ELGAR; Enescu; Fibich; Franck; Gade; Glière; GOLDMARK; Granados; Grieg?; +Griffes; ++Henze; Herbert; Holst; +Honegger; HUMPERDINCK; INDY; Janácek; Jongen; +Korngold; Lalo; Léhar; Leoncavallo; ++[A Lloyd Webber]; -Liszt; Lyadov; MacDowell; MAHLER; +Martin?; Mascagni; Massenet; +Messiaen?; Miaskovsky; Mussorgsky; Nielsen?; Offenbach; Paderewski; PARRY; ++Penderecki; PFITZNER; Pizzetti; Puccini; Reger; Reinecke; Rimsky-Korsakov; Saint-Saëns; Schmitt; Schoenberg; Schreker; Scriabin; Sibelius; SINDING; Smetana; Stanford; Stenhammar; J Strauss Jr.; Jos Strauss; R Strauss; Svendsen?; Szymanowski; Tournemire?; Varèse?; Verdi; Vierne; +Villa-Lobos; Webern; WOLF; Wolf-Ferrari; Zemlinsky; FILM MUSIC


Walker, George (Theophilus) (1922-) American
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; -Debussy; Ravel; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; folk music


85. Walton, William (1902-83) British; from 1956 Italy-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  232---0300---0202---112---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  concs. for string instrs.---film scores---vocal- & choral-orchestral music---orchestral pcs---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Façade [monologues w/music for 2 speakers & instrumental ensemble] (1921-2; orch. suites 1 & 2, 1926 & 1938) . . . Viola Conc. in A minor (1928-9, r1961) . . . Belshazzar's Feast [sacred cantata for solo v, chorus & orch.] (1930-1) . . . Sym. #1 in B flat minor (1932-5) . . . film scores (1934-70) . . . Crown Imperial--Coronation March [orch.] (1937) . . . Violin Conc. in B minor (1938-9) . . . Cello Conc. (1956, r1974) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Elgar; Gershwin; Hindemith; Prokofiev; Ravel; Roussel; Sibelius; Stravinsky; jazz
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; Arnold; Bennett; Britten; -Finzi; -Howells; Lambert; Leighton; Rutter


Warlock, Peter (1894-1930) British; mainly London-based
Style/Period:  English Nationalist
Best Known For:  songs & song cycles---orchestral pcs---choral music
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1910-30) . . . The Curlew [song cycle for solo v, fl, English horn & str qtt] (1920-2) . . . Serenade [string orch.] (1921-3) . . . Capriol Suite [string orch.] (1926) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; DELIUS; ---Gesualdo; [R Quilter]; [B Van Dieren]; ELIZABETHAN & EARLY BAROQUE (JACOBEAN) MUSIC; English folksong
Has Influenced:  Lambert; Moeran


42. Weber, Carl Maria von (1786-1826) German
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Genre Profile:  222---2230---2122---201---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas & opera overs.---clarinet (chamber combs., w/orch.)---piano (solo, concs.)---songs---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . Bassoon Conc. in F (1811, r1822) . . . Clarinet Conc. #1 in F minor Op.73 (1811) . . . Clarinet Conc. #2 in E flat Op.74 (1811) . . . Concertino for Clarinet & Orch. in E flat Op.26 (1811) . . . Quintet for Clarinet & String Quartet in B flat Op.34 (1815) . . . Grand Duo Concertant for Clarinet & Piano in E flat Op.48 (1815-6) . . . Der Freischütz [opera] (1817-21) . . . Invitation to the Dance in D flat [pf] Op.65 (1819; orch. arr. by Berlioz, 1841) . . . Over. to (the opera) Der Freischütz [orch.] (1821) . . . Euryanthe [opera] (1822-3) . . . Over. to (the opera) Euryanthe [orch.] (1822-3) . . . Over. to (the opera) Oberon [orch.] (1825-6) 
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach?; Beethoven?; Boieldieu?; Cherubini; Danzi; Gluck; M Haydn; Méhul; Mozart; Spontini?; [G Vogler]; folk music
Has Influenced:  Alkan?; -Auber?; Berlioz; Berwald; -Boieldieu; Chopin; -Danzi; +Fibich; Glinka?; Kuhlau; Lalo; Liszt; Lortzing; ++Mahler; MENDELSSOHN; Meyerbeer; Nicolai; ++Pfitzner?; Raff?; R Schumann; Smetana?; ++Stravinsky; Thomas; Wagner


75. Webern, Anton (von) (1883-1945) Austrian; mainly Vienna-based
Style/Period:  German Expressionist to 1924; Serial (Second Viennese school) thereafter
Genre Profile:  202---0000---2222---200---00---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  chamber music, espec. string quartets---orchestral & chamber orchestral pcs---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Im Sommerwind [sym. poem] (1904) . . . Passacaglia [large orch.] Op.1 (1908) . . . 5 Movements [str qtt] Op.5 (1909) . . . 6 Pieces [orch.] Op.6 (1909) . . . 5 Pieces [small orch.] Op.10 (1911-3) . . . 6 Bagatelles [str qtt] Op.9 (1911-3) . . . 5 Canons on Latin Texts [sacred songs for solo v, cl & bass cl] Op.16 (1923-4) . . . Sym. [chamber orch.] Op.21 (1928) . . . String Quartet Op.28 (1936-8) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; Brahms; Debussy; ---Isaac; Mahler; Reger; SCHOENBERG; R Strauss; Wagner; Wolf; Renaissance polyphony
Has Influenced:  Babbitt; [E Bergman]; Berio; Birtwistle; Boulez; Cage; Crumb; Dallapiccola; Davies; Eisler; Feldman; Górecki; Gubaidulina; KA Hartmann; Holliger; Kagel; Krenek; Kurtág; Ligeti; Maderna; Messiaen; NONO; Penderecki; Perle; [H POUSSEUR]; [M Powell]; Rochberg; Scelsi; Schuller; Stockhausen; -Stravinsky; Takemitsu; Wolff; Wolpe; [BA Zimmermann]; jazz


Weelkes, Thomas (1576-1623) British; mainly Chichester-based from 1602
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred & secular madrigals---anthems
Notable Work:  Hosanna to the Son of David [anthem for 6 vv] (d?)
Musical Influences:  Byrd; Dowland; Marenzio; Monteverdi; Morley
Has Influenced:  +++Holst; -Tomkins


73. Weill, Kurt (1900-50) German-American; U.S.-based from 1935
Style/Period:  German Neoclassical/German Vernacularist to c1935; American Vernacularist thereafter
Genre Profile:  221---0200---0101---100---13---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  stage works (operas, operettas, musicals)---songs---choral music---music on socio-political subjects
Notable Works:  . . . Recordare: Lamentations of Jeremiah [2 choruses] Op.11 (1923) . . . Conc. for Violin & Wind Orch. Op.12 (1924) . . . Rise & Fall of the City of Mahagonny [opera] (1927-9) . . . The Threepenny Opera [operetta/ play with music'] (1928; orch. suite [winds] 1928-9), incl. 'Mack the Knife' [song] . . . The Seven Deadly Sins [ballet/'spectacle' for solo v, chorus & orch.] (1933) . . . September Song (from the musical Knickerbocker Holiday) (1938) 
Musical Influences:  Busoni; Gershwin; Humperdinck; Mahler; ---Mozart; -Offenbach?; Reger; Schoenberg; Schreker?; Stravinsky; JAZZ
Has Influenced:  Bernstein; BLITZSTEIN; Henze; -Zemlinsky


Weiss, Silvius [Sylvius] Leopold (1687-1750) German; mainly Dresden-based from 1717
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque
Best Known For:  some 600 solo lute pcs, mostly in the form of dance suites
Notable Work:  Passacaglia in D [lute] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; +Hasse?; Heinichen?; A Scarlatti; D Scarlatti; Zelenka?; French music; Italian opera


Widor, Charles-Marie (1844-1937) French; Paris-based from 1870
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (French organ school)
Genre Profile:  101---2110---1112---230---11---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo organ, espec. organ syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #6 in G minor [org] Op.42 no.2 (1880?) . . . Toccata (from Sym. #5 in F minor, Op.42 no.1) [org] (1880?) 
Musical Influences:  --JS BACH; Franck; [J-N Lemmens]; Liszt; Mendelssohn?; Rossini; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  DUPRÉ; TOURNEMIRE; Varèse?; VIERNE


Wieck, Clara [see under 'Schumann, Clara Wieck']


Wieniawski, Henryk (1835-80) Polish; St. Petersburg-based 1860-72
Style/Period:  Middle Romantic
Genre Profile:  000---0200---0002---002---00---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  violin (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Scherzo-tarantelle in G minor [vln & pf] Op.16 (1856) . . . Légende in G minor [vln & orch.] Op.17 (c1860) . . . Violin Conc. #2 in D minor Op.22 (1862) . . . Fantaisie Brillante on Themes from Gounod's Faust [vln & orch.] Op.20 (p1868) 
Musical Influences:  Chopin; [HW Ernst]; Paganini; Vieuxtemps; Polish folk/folk dance music
Has Influenced:  Kreisler


Willaert, Adrian (c1490-1562) Flemish-Italian; Venice-based from 1527
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Renaissance
Best Known For:  madrigals & chansons---sacred motets---masses---psalms
Musical Influences:  Josquin; [J Mouton]
Has Influenced:  A Gabrieli; G Gabrieli; Lasso; Palestrina; RORE; [G de Wert]


62. Wolf, Hugo (1860-1903) Austrian; mainly Vienna-based from 1875
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) German Romantic
Genre Profile:  012---0000---0200---200---02---130
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  lieder
Notable Works:  . . . Italian Serenade in G [str qtt] (1887; arr. for small orch. 1892) . . . Gedichte von Eduard Mörike [songs for solo v & pf] (1888) . . . Gedichte von J. W. von Goethe [songs for solo v & pf] (1888-9) . . . Spanisches Liederbuch, nach Heyse & Geibel [songs for solo v & pf] (1889-90) . . . Italienisches Liederbuch, nach Paul Heyse (2 pts.) [songs for solo v & pf] (1890-1/1896) 
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Bruckner; -Chopin; Liszt; Loewe; --Schubert; -R SCHUMANN; WAGNER
Has Influenced:  Berg; Eisler; -Humperdinck; Pfitzner?; Reger; Schoenberg; Schreker; Webern


Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno (1876-1948) Italian
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  operas---woodwinds (w/orch.)---songs
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Leoncavallo; Mascagni; --Mozart; ---Pergolesi; Puccini; R Strauss; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Eisler?; Menotti?; -R Strauss


Wolff, Christian G. (1934-) French-American; U.S.-based from 1941
Style/Period:  American Avant-garde (New York school)
Best Known For:  aleatory music---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Boulez?; Cage; Feldman; Varèse; Webern
Has Influenced:  -Cage; [J Zorn]


Wolpe, Stefan (1902-72) German-American; U.S.-based from 1938
Style/Period:  Serial (Expressionist)
Best Known For:  solo piano---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Busoni; Debussy?; Hindemith?; Satie; Schoenberg; Schreker?; Scriabin; Stravinsky?; Webern; jazz
Has Influenced:  Cage; Carter; Feldman; Wuorinen; jazz


Wuorinen, Charles (1938-) American
Style/Period:  Post-Webernian Serial (Neoclassical after c1980)
Best Known For:  chamber music---concs.---orchestral pcs---magnetic tape-based pcs
Musical Influences:  Babbitt; Carter; Luening; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; Varèse; Wolpe


Xenakis, Iannis (1922-2001) Greek-French; mainly Paris-based from 1947
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (texture music)
Genre Profile:  022---2110---2222---212---10---?2x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  aleatory & mathematics-based music---orchestral pcs---chamber music---works for solo player---magnetic tape-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Metastaseis [orch.] (1953-4) . . . Pithoprakta [orch.] (1955-6) . . . Pleïades [perc sextet] (1978)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; -Debussy; Honegger?; Messiaen; Milhaud?; Stravinsky; Varèse; ancient music; CHANCE & PROBABILISTIC EVENTS
Has Influenced:  Górecki; Penderecki; Takemitsu


Zelenka, Jan [Johann] Dismas (1679-1745) Bohemian; mainly Dresden-based from 1710
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque
Best Known For:  sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---chamber music---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . 6 Trio Sonatas [2 oboes, bassoon & basso-continuo] (1715-6) . . . 5 Capriccios [orch.] (c1717-29) . . . Lamentationes Jeremiae Prophetae [3 solo vv & chorus] (1722) . . . Hipocondrie a 7 in A [orch.] (1723) 
Musical Influences:  --Allegri; --Frescobaldi; Fux; +Hasse; Lotti; --Marenzio; ---Morales; --Palestrina; Vivaldi; folk music; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; WF Bach; Telemann?; Weiss?


Zemlinsky, Alexander (von) (1871-1942) Austrian; mainly Vienna- & Prague-based
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic
Genre Profile:  212---0000---2221---100---12---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  operas---songs & lieder---chamber music---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Trio in D minor [cl (or va), vc & pf] Op.3 (1896) . . . Die Seejungfrau [sym. poem after the H.C. Andersen story] (c1903) . . . Lyric Symphony [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.18 (1923) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Dukas?; Dvorák; MAHLER; +Schoenberg; --Schubert; R Strauss; Tchaikovsky; Wagner; +Weill
Has Influenced:  Berg; Korngold; Schoenberg


Zwilich, Ellen Taaffe (1939-) American; Tallahassee-based from 2000
Style/Period:  Serial to c1980; Neoromantic thereafter
Best Known For:  concs.---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Bartók; ---Beethoven; -Berg; Carter; [T Monk]; Sessions; Shostakovich; Stravinsky

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