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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Adam, Adolphe (Charles) (1803-56) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic (bel canto)
Best Known For:  ballets---comic operas
Notable Works:  . . . Giselle [ballet] (1841) . . . Cantique de Nöel [O Holy Night] [carol] (1847) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; BOIELDIEU; Reicha; Rossini
Has Influenced:  DELIBES


Adams, John (Coolidge) (1947-) American; San Francisco area-based from 1971
Style/Period:  Minimalist
Genre Profile:  112---1210---1111---200---02---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Shaker Loops [string orch. arr.] (1983) . . . Nixon in China [opera] (1984-87), incl. 'The Chairman Dances' [orch.] . . . Short Ride in a Fast Machine [fanfare for orch.] (1986) . . . The Death of Klinghoffer [opera] (1991) . . . Chamber Sym. [for 15 instrs.] (1992) . . . Violin Conc. (1993)  
Musical Influences:  Cage; [D Ellington]; Glass; Harrison; Ives; ---Mozart; Nancarrow; -Ravel; REICH; Riley; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; jazz


Adler, Samuel (Hans) (1928-) German-American; U.S.-based from 1939
Style/Period:  "embraces a wide variety of contemporary styles"
Best Known For:  music on Jewish themes & for the Hebrew liturgy---orchestral pcs---vocal- & choral/choral-orchestral music
Musical Influences:  Copland; Hindemith; Piston


Alain, Jehan (Ariste) (1911-40) French; Paris-based from 1927
Style/Period:  Mystical
Best Known For:  solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Litanies [org] Op.79 (1937) . . . Variations sur un Thème de Clément Janequin [org] (1937) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Dukas; Dupré; Messiaen; Satie; Tournemire; Asian music


87. Albéniz, Isaac (1860-1909) Spanish (Catalan)
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist
Genre Profile:  012---2000---0000---300---02---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo piano (& later arrs. thereof for guitar)
Notable Works:  . . . Suite Española #1 [pf] Op.47 (1886) . . . España [pf suite] Op.165 (1890) . . . Cantos de España [pf] Op.232 (p1896) . . . Iberia [4 books of 12 works for pf] (1906-8; orch. arr. by E. Arbós, 1906-8) 
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; +Debussy; +Dukas; Fauré; Indy; LISZT; [F PEDRELL]; +Ravel?; Sarasate; ---D Scarlatti; --Schubert?; Wagner; Spanish/Andalusian folk & guitar music and zarzuela
Has Influenced:  Debussy; Falla; Granados; Messiaen; Moreno Torróba; Ravel; Rodrigo; Turina


Albinoni, Tomaso (1671-1751) Italian; Venice-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Genre Profile:  011---0232---2222---001---02---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  concs.---operas---trio sonatas
Notable Works:  . . . 12 Concerti a Cinque [1 or 2 oboes & strings] Op.7 (1715) . . . 12 Concerti a Cinque [1 or 2 oboes (or vln) & strings] Op.9 (1722) . . . Adagio in G Minor [arr. of spurious fragment for org & string orch.] (arr. late 1940s) 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; Torelli; +Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; Telemann?; Vivaldi


Alfvén, Hugo (1872-1960) Swedish
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Best Known For:  programmatic orchestral pcs---vocal & choral music---syms.
Notable Work:  . . . Swedish Rhapsody #1 'Midsummer Vigil' [orch.] Op.19 (1903) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; -Mendelssohn; R Strauss; Wagner; Swedish folksong


Alkan, (Charles-)Valentin (1813-88) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Best Known For:  solo piano & solo organ
Notable Work:  . . . 12 Etudes dans les Tons Mineurs [pf] Op.39 (p1857) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven; Berlioz; CHOPIN; --Handel; Hummel; Liszt; Mendelssohn; Paganini; Weber?
Has Influenced:  Debussy; Ravel?


Allegri, Gregorio (1582-1652) Italian; Rome-based
Style/Period:  Early Italian Baroque (stile antico)
Best Known Work:  . . . Il salmo Miserere mei Deus [psalm setting for 9 vv] (c1640) 
Musical Influences:  PALESTRINA
Has Influenced:  +++Liszt; ++Zelenka


Alwyn, William (1905-85) British; mainly London-based c1920-60
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---film scores
Musical Influences:  Berg; Debussy; Delius; -Liszt; Puccini; Ravel; Sibelius; Vaughan Williams; -Wagner; Walton; Czech music


Amram, David (1930-) American
Best Known For:  music for stage & film---orchestral pcs---music on Jewish themes
Musical Influences:  JAZZ; folk music; Latin American music


Anderson, Leroy (1908-75) American; Woodbury CT-based from 1948
Style/Period:  American Light Classical
Best Known For:  light orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . The Syncopated Clock [orch.] (1945) . . . Fiddle-Faddle [string orch.] (1947) . . . Sleigh Ride [orch.] (1950) . . . Blue Tango [orch.] (1952) 
Musical Influences:  GERSHWIN; folk music


Andriessen, Louis (1939-) Dutch; mainly Amsterdam-based
Style/Period:  combines Neoclassical outlook with Minimalism & European Avant-garde
Best Known For:  unusual instrumental settings---dissonant pcs
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Berio; Cage; [Miles Davis]?; Feldman; Glass; Messiaen?; -Ravel; Reich; Riley; Stockhausen; STRAVINSKY; jazz


Arensky, Anton (1861-1906) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg- & Moscow-based after 1879
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  chamber music---orchestral pcs---concs.---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Trio #1 in D minor Op.32 (1894) . . . Variations on a Theme of Tchaikovsky in E minor [strings] Op.35a (1894)
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; -Mendelssohn; Rimsky-Korsakov; Taneyev; TCHAIKOVSKY
Has Influenced:  Glière; Rachmaninov; Scriabin


Argento, Dominick (1927-) American; mainly Minnesota- & Florence-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  operas---song cycles---choral music
Musical Influences:  Britten; Cowell?; Dallapiccola; Gershwin; Hanson; Hovhaness; ---Mozart; --Mussorgsky?; Stravinsky; --Verdi
Has Influenced:  Larsen


Arne, Thomas (1710-78) British; London-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  operas & other stage works---songs---incidental music
Notable Work:  . . . Rule Britannia [song for chorus & orch. from the masque Alfred] (1740) 
Musical Influences:  +JC Bach; Geminiani; Handel; D Scarlatti?; French & Italian music


Arnold, Malcolm (1921-2006) British
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (English Vernacularist)
Genre Profile:  222---1122---2222---102---21---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  film scores---syms.---concs.---chamber music, espec. sonatas---winds (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . 4 English Dances (2 sets) [orch.] Opp. 27/33 (1950/1951) . . . Sonatina for Clarinet & Piano Op.29 (1951) . . . Conc. for Guitar & Chamber Orch. Op.67 (1959) . . . Brass Quintet Op.73 (1960) . . . Conc. for Clarinet & Orch. Op.115 (1974) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Bax; --BERLIOZ; Elgar?; Lambert; Mahler; Sibelius; Walton; jazz; popular music


Auber, Daniel-François-Esprit (1782-1871) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic (bel canto)
Best Known For:  comic operas
Notable Work:  . . . Fra Diavolo [opera] (1830) 
Musical Influences:  Cherubini; Mozart; +Rossini; +Weber?
Has Influenced:  Adam; Cui; Dargomïzhsky; Donizetti; Flotow; Halévy; Meyerbeer; Sullivan; Wagner


Auric, Georges (1899-1983) French
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Best Known For:  film scores---chamber music---ballets & incidental music
Musical Influences:  Berg?; Ravel; SATIE; Scriabin; Stravinsky


Babbitt, Milton (1916-2011) American; mainly Princeton-based from 1938
Style/Period:  Post-Webernian Serial
Best Known For:  computer & magnetic tape-based music---solo piano
Musical Influences:  Berg; SCHOENBERG; Sessions; Stravinsky; Varèse; Webern
Has Influenced:  Davidovsky; Musgrave; -Perle; Schuller; Wuorinen


61. Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714-88) German; Berlin-based 1738-68; Hamburg-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Genre Profile:  200---3222---1222---232---00---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  solo keyboard---syms.---concs.---sonatas & trio sonatas---sacred vocal & choral music---flute (solo, chamber combs., concs.)
Notable Works:  . . . sonatas (6) [fl & continuo] W125-7,129,130,134 (1735-40) . . . 6 Sonatas 'Wurttemberg' [keyb] W49 (1744) . . . Sonata for Flute Solo in A minor W132 (1747) . . . Conc. for Cello & Strings in A W172 (1753?) . . . Conc. for Flute & Strings in G W169 (1755?) . . . 6 Sonatas & Prelude [org] W70 (1755 & 1758) . . . Conc. for Oboe & Strings in E flat W165 (1765?) . . . Orchestral Sym. #3 in C from W182, '6 Hamburg Symphonies' (1773) 
Musical Influences:  JS BACH; Hasse; Telemann; Vivaldi
Has Influenced:  JC BACH; Beethoven; [G Benda]; +Chopin?; Clementi; Dussek; J HAYDN; Hummel; +Mendelssohn; Mozart; Weber?


Bach, Johann Christian (1735-82) German; London-based from 1762
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Genre Profile:  222---2122---2221---220---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms. & sinfonies concertantes---keyboard sonatas---concs.---chamber music---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Grand Over. in B flat from (the opera) Lucio Silla Op.18 no.2 [orch.] (c1779) . . . Sinfonie Concertante in A [vln, vc, 2 oboes & strings] (p1773) . . . 6 Quintets [fl, oboe, vln, va & continuo] Op.11 (p1774) 
Musical Influences:  CPE BACH; JS BACH; Gluck; Handel?; Hasse?; Martini; Sammartini
Has Influenced:  -Arne; -Boyce?; Clementi; -Gluck?; -J Haydn?; MOZART


1. Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750) German; Leipzig-based from 1723
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque (w/eclectic German, French & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  003---3323---2222---033---00---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo organ---sacred & secular cantatas---concs. & concerti grossi---masses---orchestral pcs---passions---works for solo player---sonatas---harpsichord (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---motets
Notable Works:  . . . Christ Lag in Todesbanden [church cantata for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV4 (1707-8?) . . . Toccata & Fugue in D minor [org] BWV565 (before 1709) . . . Passacaglia & Fugue in C minor [org] BWV582 (1708-12?) . . . Prelude & Fugue in D [org] BWV532 (1708-17) . . . Toccata & Fugue in F [org] BWV540 (1708-17) . . . Toccata, Adagio & Fugue in C [org] BWV564 (1708-17) . . . Brandenburg Concertos [6 concerti grossi for featured instrs. & strings] BWV1046-51 (1708-21) . . . unaccompanied lute works BWV995-1000 & 1006a (c1708-40s) . . . Hunt Cantata [secular cantata for 4 solo vv & orch.] BWV208 (1713?), incl. 'That Sheep may Safely Graze' . . . Conc. for 2 Violins & Strings in D minor BWV1043 (1717-23) . . . Conc. for Violin & Strings in A minor BWV1041 (1717-23) . . . Conc. for Violin & Strings in E BWV1042 (1717-23) . . . 6 sonatas for violin & harpsichord BWV1014-9 (1717-23) . . . 3 sonatas for flute & harpsichord BWV1030-2 (1717-30s) . . . 3 sonatas for flute & continuo BWV1033-5 (1717-30s) . . . 4 Orchestral Suites [instrs. & strings] BWV1066-9 (c1717-30s), incl. 'Air on a G String' . . . Weichet Nur 'Wedding Cantata' [secular cantata for solo v & orch.] BWV202 (1718-23?) . . . 6 Partitas & Sonatas for Solo Violin BWV1001-6 (1720) . . . Partita in A minor [fl] BWV1013 (1720s) . . . Chromatic Fantasia & Fugue in D minor [keyb] BWV903 (c1720; r c1730) . . . The Well-Tempered Klavier (2 Books) [keyb] BWV846-69 & 870-93 (1722 & 1738-42) . . . Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben [church cantata for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV147 (1723), incl. 'Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring' . . . A Mighty Fortress is our God [church cantata for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV80 (1724) . . . St. John Passion [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV245 (1724; r c1730s & 1740s) . . . St. Matthew Passion [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV244 (1727, r1736) . . . Magnificat in D [5 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV243 (c1728-31) . . . Conc. for Harpsichord & Strings in D minor BWV1052 (1728-35) . . . Conc. for Harpsichord & Strings in F minor BWV1056 (1728-35) . . . 6 Partitas [keyb] BWV825-30 (1731) . . . Wachet Auf! 'Sleepers Awake!' [church cantata for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV140 (1731) . . . Christmas Oratorio [6 cantatas for solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV248 (1734) . . . 'Concerto' in the Italian Style [keyb] BWV971 (1735) . . . 21 Choral Preludes [org] BWV669-89 (1739) . . . Goldberg Variations [keyb] BWV988 (1741-2) . . . The Art of Fugue [chamber music for unspecified instrumentation] BWV1080 (c1745-50) . . . The Musical Offering [fl, 2 vlns, keyb & continuo] BWV1079 (1747) . . . Mass in B minor [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] BWV232 (c1747-9) . . . 6 Suites (Sonatas) for Solo Cello BWV1007-12 (c1750) . . . Conc. for 4 Harpsichords & Strings in A minor BWV1065 (d?) . . . Conc. for Oboe & Violin (or 2 Harpsichords) & Strings in C minor BWV1060 (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Albinoni; Böhm; Bruhns; BUXTEHUDE; Caldara?; Corelli; F Couperin; --Frescobaldi; -Froberger; Fux?; [F Gasparini]?; Handel; +Hasse; [R Keiser]; Legrenzi; Lotti; Lully; Marais; Pachelbel; --Palestrina; +Quantz?; A Scarlatti?; D Scarlatti?; -Schütz; --Sweelinck; Telemann; Torelli; Vivaldi; Zelenka
Has Influenced:  ++Alkan; +++Andriessen; CPE BACH; JC BACH; WF BACH; +++Barrios; +++Bartók; +Beethoven; +++Berio; +++Bloch; ++Brahms; ++Bruckner; +++BUSONI; ++Chopin; +Clementi; +++Creston; +++Crumb; +++Debussy; +++Dupré; +++Elgar; +++Enescu; +++Falla; ++Fauré; +++Finzi; +++[W Fortner]; +++Foss; ++FRANCK; ++Franz; ++Gounod; +++Grainger; +++Gubaidulina; ++Guilmant?; +++Hanson; +++Harbison; Hasse?; +++Hindemith; +++HONEGGER; +++Hovhaness; ++Hummel?; +++Indy; +++Ives; +++Janácek?; +++Kagel; +++Karg-Elert; +++Kodály; +++Koechlin; +++Kokkonen; KREBS; +++Kurtág; +++Leighton; +++Ligeti; ++Liszt; ++Loewe; +++Mahler; +++MARTIN; +++Martinu; ++MENDELSSOHN; ++Mendelssohn-Hensel; ++[I Moscheles]; +Mozart; +++Nancarrow; +++Orff; ++[JK Paine]; ++PARRY; +++Pärt; +++Penderecki; +++Rachmaninov?; +++REGER; +++Reich; +Reicha?; ++Rheinberger; +++Rihm; +++Rochberg; ++Rossini; +++Ruggles; +++Schnittke; +++Schoenberg; ++Schubert; +++Schuman; ++C Schumann; ++R Schumann; +++Shchedrin; +++Shostakovich; +++Stanford; +++Stravinsky; +++Tailleferre; +++Taneyev; +++Tournemire; +++Vaughan Williams; +++VILLA-LOBOS; ++Wagner; +++Walker; +++Webern; ++WIDOR; +++[BA Zimmermann]


Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann (1710-84) German; Halle-based 1746-70
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  solo keyboard
Notable Work:  . . . Concerto in F [2 hpschds] Fk10 (c1740)]
Musical Influences:  JS BACH; Telemann; Zelenka


Badings, Henk (1907-87) Dutch
Style/Period:  Neoclassical
Best Known For:  unusual musical scales & harmonies---contributed to all main genres, including electronic music
Musical Influences:  Bartók; -Bruckner; Hindemith; Honegger; Milhaud; Indonesian music & scales


Balakirev, Mily (1837-1910) Russian; St. Petersburg-based from 1855
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  212---2000---1101---200---00---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, concs.)---symphonic poems & concert overs.---syms.---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Tamara [sym. poem] (1867-82) . . . Islamey: Oriental Fantasy [pf] (1869, r1902) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Berlioz; Chopin; Dargomïzhsky; GLINKA; Liszt; R Schumann; Russian folk music
Has Influenced:  -Borodin; -Cui; Glazunov; Ippolitov-Ivanov; -Mussorgsky; RIMSKY-KORSAKOV; Tchaikovsky


54. Barber, Samuel (1910-81) American
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  223---2212---2212---211---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  significant contributor to most main genres
Notable Works:  . . . Dover Beach [songs for solo v & str qtt] Op.3 (1931) . . . Over. to (the Sheridan stage comedy) The School for Scandal [orch.] Op.5 (1931-3) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano Op.6 (1932) . . . Sym. #1 in One Movement Op.9 (1935-6) . . . Adagio for Strings (from String Quartet #1, Op.11) [orch. arr.] (1936) . . . Essay for Orch. #1 Op.12 (1937) . . . Violin Conc. Op.14 (1939-40) . . . Essay for Orch. #2 Op.17 (1942) . . . Cello Conc. Op.22 (1945) . . . Knoxville: Summer of 1915 [songs for solo v & orch.] Op.24 (1947) . . . Piano Sonata in E flat minor Op.26 (1949) . . . Medea's Meditation & Dance of Vengeance from (the ballet) Medea [orch.] Op.23a (1955) . . . Vanessa [opera] (1957) . . . Piano Conc. Op.38 (1962) . . . Agnus Dei [chorus & org/pf; arr. of Op.11] (1967) 
Musical Influences:  -Brahms; Copland; Debussy; +Menotti; Sibelius; Stravinsky
Has Influenced:  Menotti


Barrios Mangoré, Agustín (1885-1944) Paraguayan
Style/Period:  Nationalist (Romantic)
Best Known For:  solo guitar
Notable Works:  . . . Waltzes [guitar] Op.8 (d?) . . . La Catedral [guitar] (1921) . . . Julia Florida [barcarolle for guitar] (1938)
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; --Chopin; --Sor; Tárrega; folk music
Has Influenced:  Lauro


25. Bartók, Béla (1881-1945) Hungarian; New York-based from 1940
Style/Period:  Hungarian Nationalist (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  023---3302---1322---302---22---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)---concs.---string quartets---folksong settings---ballets & Duke Bluebeard's Castle (opera)---violin (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Hungarian folksong arrangements [solo v & pf] (1904-37?) . . . 14 Bagatelles [pf] S38 (1908) . . . String Quartet #1 S40 (1908, r1910) . . . Duke Bluebeard's Castle [opera] S48 (1911) . . . String Quartet #2 S67 (1915-7) . . . 7 Romanian Folk Dances [orch. arr.] S68 (1917) . . . The Miraculous Mandarin [pantomime ballet] S73 (1918-9, 1923, r1924-31; orch. suite 1919, 1927) . . . 2 Sonatas for Violin & Piano S75-6 (1921/1922) . . . Dance Suite [orch.] S77 (1923) . . . Mikrokosmos [6 vols. of pf studies] S107 (1926, 1932-9) . . . String Quartet #3 S85 (1927) . . . Rhapsody #1 for Violin & Piano S86 (1928) . . . String Quartet #4 S91 (1928) . . . Piano Conc. #2 S95 (1930-1) . . . String Quartet #5 S102 (1934) . . . Music for String Instruments, Percussion & Celesta S106 (1936) . . . Sonata for 2 Pianos & Percussion [4 players] S110 (1937) . . . Violin Conc. #2 S112 (1937-8) . . . Divertimento for String Orch. S113 (1939) . . . String Quartet #6 S114 (1939) . . . Conc. for Orch. S116 (1943, r1945) . . . Sonata for Unaccompanied Violin S117 (1944) . . . Piano Conc. #3 S119 (1945) . . . Viola Conc. S120 (1945) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; +Berg; Brahms; Debussy; +Gershwin?; Grieg; +Kodály; Liszt; -Mussorgsky; Nielsen?; ---Palestrina?; Ravel; ---D Scarlatti?; Schoenberg; R Strauss; +Stravinsky; Wagner; FOLK MUSIC; Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  Arnold; Badings; [E Bergman]; Berio; Blacher; Boulez; -Bridge; Brouwer; Britten; Carter; Casella; Copland; Crawford?; CRUMB; Druckman?; Dutilleux; Feldman?; Gerhard; Ginastera; Górecki; Gubaidulina?; KA Hartmann; Henze; Hindemith; HOLMBOE; Husa; -Ireland; Jolivet; [L Kirchner]; Kodály; Kokkonen; Krenek; KURTÁG; Leighton; LIGETI; LUTOSLAWSKI; Maderna; Martin; Messiaen; Monk; Nyman; Pärt; Penderecki; Perle; Persichetti; Petrassi; Piazzolla; Poulenc; Rautavaara; Reich; Revueltas; Rochberg; Rubbra?; Sallinen?; Schickele; Schnittke; Sculthorpe; Shchedrin; Shostakovich?; Stockhausen; Szymanowski; +Tan; Tippett; Tubin; Warlock; Xenakis; Zwilich


Bax, Arnold (1883-1953) British
Style/Period:  Late English Romantic (Celtic revival)
Genre Profile:  222---2211---2212---201---10---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms. & symphonic poems---chamber music---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Quintet in G minor (1915) . . . Tintagel [sym. poem] (1917-9) . . . Piano Sonata #2 in G (1919) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Delius; Dvorák; Elgar; Grieg; Liszt; Ravel; Sibelius; R Strauss; Stravinsky; Wagner; Irish/Celtic folk music; Romantic Russian opera & ballet
Has Influenced:  Arnold; Moeran


Beach, Amy Marcy [Mrs. H. H. A.] (1867-1944) American; New York-based from 1914
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (New England school)
Genre Profile:  201---2000---2122---200---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---songs
Notable Work:  . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in A minor Op.34 (1898)
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven?; Brahms; -Chopin; Debussy; Dvorák; Grieg?; Liszt; MacDowell; +Rachmaninov; -R Schumann; R Strauss; Wagner; folk music; Native American themes


3. Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827) German; Vienna-based from 1792
Style/Period:  Late Viennese Classical
Genre Profile:  332---3302---3333---310---23---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---piano (sonatas, chamber combs., concs.)---chamber music (string quartets, violin sonatas, trios, etc.)---overs.---Violin Conc. in D---Fidelio (opera)---Mass in D 'Missa Solemnis'
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. #2 in B flat Op.19 (1793-5, r1798) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in C Op.15 (1795, r1800) . . . Quintet for Piano & Winds in E flat Op.16 (1796) . . . Piano Sonata #8 in C minor 'Pathetique' Op.13 (1797-8?) . . . Septet in E flat [winds & strings] Op.20 (1799-1800) . . . Sym. #1 in C Op.21 (1800) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in F 'Spring' Op.24 (1800-1) . . . Piano Conc. #3 in C minor Op.37 (1800?) . . . Piano Sonata #14 in C sharp minor 'Moonlight' Op.27 no.2 (1801) . . . Sym. #2 in D Op.36 (1801-2) . . . Piano Sonata #17 in D minor 'Tempest' Op.31 no.2 (1802) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in A minor 'Kreutzer' Op.47 (1802-3) . . . Sym. #3 in E flat 'Eroica' Op.55 (1803) . . . Conc. for Violin, Cello, Piano & Orch. in C Op.56 (1803-4) . . . Piano Sonata #21 in C 'Waldstein' Op.53 (1803-4) . . . Fidelio [opera] Op.72 (1804-5) . . . Piano Sonata #23 in F minor 'Appassionata' Op.57 (1804-5) . . . Leonore Over. #3 (to the opera Fidelio) [orch.] Op.72a (1805-6) . . . Over. to (the opera) Fidelio [orch.] Op.72b (1805) . . . Piano Conc. #4 in G Op.58 (1805-6) . . . String Quartet #7 in F Op.59 no.1 (1805-6) . . . String Quartet #9 in C 'Hero' Op.59 no.3 (1805-6) . . . Sym. #4 in B flat Op.60 (1806) . . . Violin Conc. in D Op.61 (1806) . . . Over. to (the Collin play) Coriolan in C minor [orch.] Op.62 (1807) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in A Op.69 (1807-8) . . . Sym. #5 in C minor Op.67 (1807-8) . . . Piano Trio #4 in D 'Ghost' Op.70 no.1 (1808) . . . Sym. #6 in F 'Pastoral' Op.68 (1808) . . . Piano Conc. #5 in E flat 'Emperor' Op.73 (1809) . . . Over. & Incidental Music to (the Goethe play) Egmont [orch.] Op.84 (1809-10) . . . Piano Sonata #26 in E flat 'Les Adieux' Op.81a (1809-10) . . . Piano Trio #7 in B flat 'Archduke' Op.97 (1810-1) . . . Sym. #7 in A Op.92 (1811-2) . . . Sym. #8 in F Op.93 (1812) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in D Op.102 no.2 (1815) . . . Piano Sonata #29 in B flat 'Hammerklavier' Op.106 (1817-8) . . . Mass in D 'Missa Solemnis' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.123 (1819-23) . . . 33 Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli [pf] Op.120 (1819, 1822-3) . . . Piano Sonata #31 in A flat Op.110 (1821-2) . . . Piano Sonata #32 in C minor Op.111 (1821-2) . . . Sym. #9 in D minor 'Choral' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.125 (1822-4) . . . 6 Bagatelles [pf] Op.126 (1823-4) . . . String Quartet #15 in A minor Op.132 (1825) . . . String Quartet #13 in B flat Op.130 (1825-6) . . . Grosse Fuge in B flat [str qtt] Op.133 (1825-6) . . . String Quartet #14 in C sharp minor Op.131 (1826) . . . String Quartet #16 in F Op.135 (1826) 
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach; -JS Bach; Cherubini; Clementi; Dittersdorf?; Dussek; --Fux; Gluck; -Handel; J Haydn; Mayr?; Méhul; Mozart; ---Palestrina; Reicha; Salieri; -D Scarlatti; Viotti; gypsy music
Has Influenced:  Alkan; +Balakirev; ++Barrios; ++Bartók; ++Beach?; BERLIOZ; Berwald; +Bizet; +Boito; +Borodin; +BRAHMS; BRUCKNER; ++Busoni?; Carulli?; ++Chadwick; ++Chávez; -Clementi?; Chopin; CZERNY; ++Dukas; +Dvorák; ++Elgar?; Franck; Gade; Giuliani; Glinka; +++Górecki?; Gounod?; +Grieg; ++Honegger; +Indy; ++Ives; +++Kagel; KUHLAU; ++Kurtág; Lalo; Liszt; Loewe; ++Mahler; -Mayr; ++Medtner; -Méhul; Mendelssohn; Mendelssohn-Hensel; Nicolai; ++Nono; Paganini; +[JK Paine]; ++Reger; Reicha; +Reinecke?; +++Rihm; ++Rochberg; Rossini; +Rubinstein; +Saint-Saëns; ++Schoenberg; SCHUBERT; ++Schuman; C Schumann?; R Schumann; ++Shostakovich; ++Sibelius; Spohr; ++Stenhammar; +Sullivan; +Svendsen; ++Taneyev; +Tchaikovsky; ++Tippett; +++Tower; Verdi; Vieuxtemps; WAGNER; Weber?; ++Webern; ++Wolf; +++Zwilich


51. Bellini, Vincenzo (1801-35) Italian
Style/Period:  Early Italian Romantic (bel canto)
Genre Profile:  002---0020---0011---110---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Conc. for Oboe & Strings in E flat (c1825) . . . La Sonnambula [opera] (1831) . . . Norma [opera] (1831) . . . I Puritani [opera] (1835) 
Musical Influences:  Donizetti?; Mayr; Meyerbeer; -Mozart; Paisiello; --Pergolesi; ROSSINI; Spontini; [N Zingarelli]; folksong
Has Influenced:  BOTTESINI; Chopin; ++Cilea; -Donizetti; Glinka; Liszt?; ++Mascagni?; -Mercadante; -Meyerbeer?; Nicolai; -[G PACINI]; C Schumann; R Schumann?; +Tchaikovsky?; Verdi; Wagner


Bennett, Richard Rodney (1936-2012) British; New York-based from 1979
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial (Neoromantic)
Best Known For:  works prolifically in all main genres, but especially in stage & screen
Musical Influences:  -Berg; Boulez; Britten; Poulenc; [E Lutyens]; Stravinsky?; Walton; jazz; popular song


72. Berg, Alban (1885-1935) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Expressionist to 1925; Serial thereafter
Genre Profile:  022---0202---0211---200---03---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  significant contributor to most main genres
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf/orch.] (1900-12) . . . Piano Sonata Op.1 (1907-8?) . . . String Quartet Op.3 (1910) . . . Three Pieces for Orch. Op.6 (1914-5) . . . Wozzeck [opera] Op.7 (1917-22) . . . Chamber Conc. [vln, pf & 13 wind instrs.] (1923-5) . . . Lyric Suite for String Quartet (1925-6) . . . Lulu [opera] (1929-35) . . . Lulu Symphony [suite for solo v & orch. from the opera] (1934) . . . Violin Conc. 'To the Memory of an Angel' (1935) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Debussy; Dukas?; MAHLER; SCHOENBERG; Schreker; --Schubert?; --R Schumann; R Strauss?; -Wagner; Wolf; Zemlinsky; jazz
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; Auric?; Babbitt; -Bartók; +Bennett; Blacher; Boulez; -Bridge; Britten; Crawford?; Dallapiccola; Davies; Finney; Gershwin; Ginastera; Harrison; KA Hartmann; Henze; [B Herrmann]; +Holliger; Jolivet; Kagel?; Kokkonen; Krenek; Kurtág; Larsson; Leighton; Ligeti; Maderna; Messiaen?; Penderecki; Perle; Scelsi; Schnittke; Schulhoff; Schuller?; Shostakovich; [E Wellesz]; [BA Zimmermann]; +Zwilich


Berio, Luciano (1925-2003) Italian
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde
Genre Profile:  012---1222---2211---212---12---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  works for solo player ('Sequenza' series)---music theatre & other works for solo v or vv & instrumental ensemble---chamber music---magnetic tape-based pcs---music on political subjects
Notable Works:  . . . Nones [orch.] (1954) . . . Sequenza I [fl] (1958) . . . Sequenza III [solo female v] (1965) . . . Sequenza V [trombone] (1966) . . . Sinfonia [8 solo vv & orch.] (1968, r1969) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Boulez; DALLAPICCOLA; -Mahler; +Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Webern; folksong
Has Influenced:  Andriessen; Bolcom; Crumb?; Reich?; Schnittke


Berkeley, Lennox (1903-89) British
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Best Known For:  solo piano---songs---choral music---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Sonatina for Recorder/Flute & Piano Op.13 (1939) 
Musical Influences:  +Britten; --Chopin; Fauré; ---Mozart; Poulenc; RAVEL; Stravinsky


29. Berlioz, Hector (1803-69) French; mainly Paris-based from 1821
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic (New German school)
Genre Profile:  332---0201---0001---110---03---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  dramatic music for orch.---concert overs.---operas---syms.---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---songs---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . Symphonie Fantastique Op.14 (1830) . . . Harold in Italy [sym. for va & orch.] Op.16 (1834) . . . Benvenuto Cellini [opera] (1834-7) . . . Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem) [solo v, chorus & orch.] Op.5 (1837) . . . Over. to (the opera) Benvenuto Cellini [orch.] Op.23 (1838) . . . Romeo & Juliet ['dramatic symphony' for solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.17 (1839) . . . Grande Symphonie Funèbre et Triomphale [military band, string orch. & chorus ad lib] Op.15 (1840) . . . Les Nuits d'Été [song cycle for solo v & pf/orch.] Op.7 (1840-1, 1843-56) . . . Roman Carnival Over. [concert over. based on material from the opera Benvenuto Cellini] Op.9 (1844) . . . The Damnation of Faust ['dramatic legend' for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.24 (1845-6) . . . Te Deum [solo v, chorus & orch.] Op.22 (1849) . . . L'Enfance du Christ [sacred oratorio for solo v, chorus & orch.] (1850-4) . . . Les Troyens [opera] (1856-8) . . . Béatrice et Bénédict [opera] (1860-2) 
Musical Influences:  BEETHOVEN; Cherubini; -Gluck; Halévy?; [J-F Le Sueur]; Méhul; Meyerbeer?; -Mozart; Reicha; Spontini; Weber
Has Influenced:  Alkan; ++ARNOLD; Balakirev; -Berwald?; Borodin; Busoni; G Charpentier; Delibes; Franck; Glinka; Gounod; +Honegger?; Indy; Koechlin; Liszt; Mahler; Massenet; Mussorgsky; Nielsen?; [JK Paine]; Raff; Rimsky-Korsakov; Rubinstein; Saint-Saëns; Sibelius; Smetana; Jos Strauss?; R Strauss; Sullivan; Svendsen; Tchaikovsky; Thomas; Varèse?; Verdi; Wagner


50. Bernstein, Leonard (1918-90) American; mainly New York-based
Style/Period:  American Vernacularist (w/eclectic Neoclassical, Neoromantic & Serial elements)
Genre Profile:  232---0122---1012---201---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  stage works & derivative orchestral suites---syms.---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 'Jeremiah' [solo v & orch.] (1943) . . . Fancy Free [ballet] (1944) . . . Sym. #2 'Age of Anxiety' [pf & orch.] (1949) . . . Over. to (the comic operetta) Candide [orch.] (1955-6) . . . Symphonic Dances from (the musical) West Side Story [orch.] (1960) . . . Chichester Psalms [psalm settings for solo v, chorus & orch.] (1965) 
Musical Influences:  Blitzstein; COPLAND; Gershwin; Hindemith; Ives; -Mahler; Piston; Stravinsky; Thompson; Weill; jazz; Hebrew liturgical music
Has Influenced:  Corigliano


Berwald, Franz (1796-1868) Swedish
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in G minor 'Sinfonie Sérieuse' (1842) . . . Sym. #3 in C 'Sinfonie Singulière' (1845) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; +Berlioz?; +Chopin?; Hummel; +Mendelssohn; -Mozart; Spohr; Weber


Biber, Heinrich I. F. von (1644-1704) Bohemian; Salzburg-based from c1670
Style/Period:  Middle Austrian Baroque
Best Known For:  violin sonatas---chamber ensemble pcs---sacred vocal & choral music
Notable Works:  . . . Battalia a 10 in D [strings] (p1673) . . . Mystery (Rosary) Sonatas & Passacaglia [vln & continuo] (c1676)
Musical Influences:  Buxtehude?; Schmelzer; French, German/Austrian & Italian music
Has Influenced:  Muffat


Billings, William (1746-1800) American; Boston-based
Style/Period:  "American primitive"
Best Known For:  sacred choral music (hymns, anthems, 'fuging tunes,' etc.)
Musical Influences:  18th century English church music; folk music
Has Influenced:  ++Cowell; +++Schuman


Binchois, Gilles (de) (c1400-60) Franco-Flemish; Burgundian court-based
Style/Period:  Early Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  secular songs (chansons)---mass movements & other small-scale sacred vocal music
Musical Influences:  Dufay?; DUNSTABLE; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  -Dufay?; La Rue?; Ockeghem


Birtwistle, Harrison (Paul) (1934-) British
Style/Period:  Post-Serial, with a modernist core broadened by myth, ritual, history & theatre
Best Known For:  operas---chamber music
Musical Influences:  Boulez; Messiaen; -Satie; Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Varèse; --Wagner; Webern


37. Bizet, Georges (1838-75) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Genre Profile:  232---0000---0002---200---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . Sym. #1 in C (1855) . . . The Pearl Fishers [opera] (1863) . . . Jeux d'Enfants [12 pcs for pf 4 hands (also in orch. arr.)] Op.22 (1871) . . . L'Arlésienne Suite #1 [orch. suite from incidental music to the Daudet play] (1872) . . . Carmen [opera] (1873-4; orch. suites #1 & #2 1874) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Chopin; Donizetti; GOUNOD; Halévy; Meyerbeer; --Mozart; Offenbach; Rossini; Saint-Saëns?; Verdi; Wagner?; Spanish music; Asian & Middle Eastern music
Has Influenced:  Chabrier; -Delibes; Leoncavallo; Massenet; Puccini; -Saint-Saëns?; Sullivan; Tchaikovsky


Blacher, Boris (1903-75) German; after 1922 mainly Berlin-based
Best Known For:  concs.---chamber music---ballets
Notable Work:  . . . Variations on a Theme by Niccolò Paganini [orch.] Op.26 (1947)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Hindemith; Milhaud; Ravel?; Satie; Schoenberg; STRAVINSKY; jazz
Has Influenced:  KA Hartmann


Bliss, Arthur (1891-1975) British; mainly London-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---film scores---choral music---ballets---brass (orchestral)
Notable Works:  . . . A Colour Symphony (1921-2; r1932) . . . Things to Come [film score & orch. suite] (1934-5) . . . Music for Strings [string orch.] (1935) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Elgar; +Milhaud; ---Purcell; Ravel; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; jazz


Blitzstein, Marc (1905-64) American
Style/Period:  American Vernacularist
Best Known For:  dramatic works (for stage, film & radio) featuring political satire & social criticism
Notable Work:  . . . The Cradle Will Rock ["play in music"] (1936-7) 
Musical Influences:  Eisler; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; WEILL; jazz; popular song
Has Influenced:  Bernstein


Bloch, Ernest (1880-1959) Swiss-American; mainly U.S.-based from 1916
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (w/Jewish Nationalist & Neoromantic elements)
Genre Profile:  202---2222---2212---212---02---210
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  cello (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---violin (chamber combs., w/orch.)---music on Jewish themes---quartets & quintets
Notable Works:  . . . Schelomo: Hebraic Rhapsody for Cello & Orch. (1915-6) . . . String Quartet #1 in B minor (1916) . . . Suite for Viola & Piano [also in va & orch. arr.] (1919) . . . Sonata #1 for Violin & Piano (1920) . . . Piano Quintet #1 (1921-3) . . . Baal Shem [suite for vln & pf] (1923) . . . From Jewish Life [suite for vc & pf] (1924) . . . Concerto Grosso #1 [pf & string orch.] (1924-5) . . . Violin Conc. (1937-8) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; DEBUSSY; [E Jaques-Dalcroze]; Mussorgsky; Ravel; R Strauss; Wagner; Renaissance music; Jewish religious music
Has Influenced:  Clarke; Sessions; Pizzetti?; Sculthorpe; Thompson


Blow, John (1649-1708) British; London-based from 1668
Style/Period:  Middle English Baroque
Best Known For:  anthems---odes---songs---solo keyboard (hpschd & org)
Notable Works:  . . . Venus & Adonis [masque] (c1682) . . . Ode on the Death of Mr. Henry Purcell [2 solo vv, 2 recorders & basso-continuo] (p1696) 
Musical Influences:  [C Gibbons]; Lawes?; Locke; Lully?; French & Italian music
Has Influenced:  [J Clarke]; [W Croft]; Handel?; PURCELL


105. Boccherini, Luigi (1743-1805) Italian; Spain-based after 1768
Style/Period:  Classical
Genre Profile:  201---1301---3222---000---10---210
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  cello (sonatas, concs.)---string quintets---quintets for guitar & string quartet---syms.---string quartets
Notable Works:  . . . Cello Conc. #7 in G G480 (1770) . . . Minuet from String Quintet #5 in E G275 (1771) . . . Cello Conc. #9 in B flat G482 (c1775?) . . . Quintet for Guitar & Strings #4 in D G448 (1798) . . . syms. G493-8, G503-22 (p1775-92) . . . Sonata for Cello & Continuo #4 in A G4 (d?)
Musical Influences:  --Corelli; Gluck; J HAYDN; ---Palestrina?; Sammartini; J Stamitz; Tartini; Spanish guitar music
Has Influenced:  -J Haydn?; Mozart; -Soler?; Sor


Böhm, Georg (1661-1733) German; mainly Lüneberg-based after 1697
Style/Period:  Middle German Baroque
Best Known For:  solo organ & keyboard (espec. chorale partitas, fugues & preludes)
Musical Influences:  Buxtehude; Froberger
Has Influenced:  JS Bach


Boieldieu, François-Adrien (1775-1834) French; mainly Paris-based from 1796
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  comic operas
Notable Work:  . . . Harp Conc. in C (1801)
Musical Influences:  Cherubini; Grétry; Mozart; +Rossini; +Weber
Has Influenced:  ADAM; Halévy; Weber?


Boismortier, Joseph Bodin de (1689-1755) French; Paris-based from c1724
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque (galant)
Best Known For:  chamber music (espec. w/flute or recorder)
Notable Work:  . . . 6 Sonatas for Flute & Keyboard Op.91 (p1741-2) 
Musical Influences:  Corelli; Rameau; Italian music; dance music


Boito, Arrigo (1842-1918) Italian
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Romantic (w/eclectic French, German & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  000---0000---0000---000---03---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  operas; also as librettist of Ponchielli's La Gioconda and Verdi's Otello & Falstaff
Notable Work:  . . . Mefistofele [opera] (1868, r1875-8)
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Meyerbeer; Verdi; Wagner
Has Influenced:  -Verdi


Bolcom, William (1938-) American; Ann Arbor-based from 1973
Style/Period:  American Vernacularist (w/eclectic Expressionist, Neoclassical & Neoromantic elements: Polystylistic)
Genre Profile:  211---2222---2222---220---01---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano rags---chamber music---orchestral pcs---syms.---songs
Musical Influences:  Berio; [Eubie Blake]; Boulez; --Chopin; --Gottschalk; Ives; -Joplin; Messiaen; Milhaud; Rochberg; Stockhausen; RAGTIME; JAZZ; POPULAR SONG


Bononcini, Giovanni (Battista) (1670-1747) Italian; London-based 1720-32, also for periods in Paris & Vienna
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  operas---oratorios---cantatas
Musical Influences:  [A Steffani]
Has Influenced:  Handel; -A Scarlatti?


79. Borodin, Alexander (1833-87) Russian; St. Petersburg-based
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  332---0000---1311---200---02---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known Work:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (c1850-c1885) . . . Prince Igor [opera; completed by Glazunov & Rimsky-Korsakov] (1869-70, 1874-87) . . . Sym. #2 in B minor (1869-76) . . . String Quartet #1 in A (1874-9) . . . In (the Steppes of) Central Asia [sym. poem] (1880) . . . String Quartet #2 in D (1881) . . . Sym. #3 in A minor (completed by Glazunov) (1882, 1886-7) . . . Petite Suite [pf] (1885) . . . Over. to (the opera) Prince Igor [orch.; orchestration completed by Glazunov] (1888) . . . Polovtsian Dances from (the opera) Prince Igor [orch.; orchestration completed by Glazunov & Rimsky-Korsakov] (1888) 
Musical Influences:  +Balakirev; -Beethoven; Berlioz; Chopin; Glinka; Liszt; Mendelssohn; +Mussorgsky?; +Rimsky-Korsakov; R Schumann; folksong; Central Asian music
Has Influenced:  Debussy; Glazunov; Glière; Gretchaninov; Janácek?; +Kabalevsky; +Khachaturian; +Moreno Torróba; +Prokofiev; Rachmaninov; Ravel; +Shostakovich; Sibelius; Stravinsky


Bottesini, Giovanni (1821-89) Italian
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Romantic
Best Known For:  double bass (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Gran Duo Concertante [vln, double bass & string orch.] (1880) . . . Conc. for Double Bass & Orchestra #2 in B minor [originally for double bass & pf] (p1950) 
Musical Influences:  BELLINI; Chopin; Donizetti; Mendelssohn; Verdi


Boulanger, Lili (1893-1918) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist (French Romantic)
Best Known For:  vocal- & choral-orchestral music---songs
Notable Work:  . . . Pie Jesu [v, str qtt, harp & org] (1918)
Musical Influences:  DEBUSSY; Fauré; -Wagner
Has Influenced:  -Honegger


Boulez, Pierre (1925-) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde
Genre Profile:  022---0010---2202---201---00---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  works for solo v or vv & instrumental ensemble---aleatory music---solo piano---orchestral pcs---magnetic tape-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Sonata #2 (1948) . . . Le Soleil des Eaux [secular cantata for solo v or vv, chorus & chamber orch.] (1948, r1958 & 1965) . . . Le Marteau sans Maître [secular cantata for solo v & 6 instrs.] (1953-5, r1957) . . . Piano Sonata #3 (1955-7) . . . Pli Selon Pli [song settings of Mallarmé poems for solo v & orch.] (1957-62, r1980s) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Cage; -Debussy; Maderna; MESSIAEN; Schoenberg; +Stockhausen; Stravinsky; Varèse; Webern; music of India; gamelan music
Has Influenced:  Bennett; Berio; Birtwistle; Bolcom; -Cage; Górecki; Holliger; Kagel; -Ligeti; Penderecki; Rihm?; Takemitsu; Wolff?


Bowles, Paul (1910-99) American-Moroccan; Tangier-based from 1947
Best Known For:  stage works (espec. ballets & incidental music)---songs---solo piano
Musical Influences:  Copland; Ravel; Revueltas; Stravinsky; Thomson


Boyce, William (1711-79) British; London-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  overs. & syms.---anthems
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in B flat [arr. by C. Lambert] Op.2 no.1 (p1760) . . . O Where Shall Wisdom be Found? [anthem] (1769?) . . . Voluntary #1 in D [keyb] (p1779) 
Musical Influences:  +JC Bach?; Corelli?; HANDEL; French & Italian music


5. Brahms, Johannes (1833-97) German; Hamburg-based to 1862; Vienna-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  303---3302---3333---320---00---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  important contributor to most main genres (except ballet & opera)
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1851-96) . . . 21 Hungarian Dances (in 4 books) [pf 4 hands] (1852-69) . . . Piano Sonata #3 in F minor Op.5 (1853) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in D minor Op.15 (1854-8) . . . Sym. #1 in C minor Op.68 (1855-76) . . . A German Requiem [cantata/oratorio for 2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1857-68) . . . Serenade #1 in D [orch.] Op.11 (1857-8) . . . Serenade #2 in A [small orch.] Op.16 (1858-9, r1875) . . . 25 Variations & Fugue on a Theme by Handel in B flat [pf] Op.24 (1861) . . . Piano Quartet #1 in G minor Op.25 (1861) . . . Piano Quintet in F minor Op.34 (1861-4) . . . 28 Variations on a Theme by Paganini [pf] Op.35 (1862-3) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano #1 in E minor Op.38 (1862-5) . . . String Sextet #2 in G [2 vlns, 2 va & 2 vc] Op.36 (1864-5) . . . Trio for Horn, Violin & Piano in E flat Op.40 (1865) . . . String Quartet #1 in C minor Op.51 no.1 (1865?-73) . . . Schicksalslied [secular poem setting for chorus & orch.] Op.54 (1868-71) . . . Alto Rhapsody [secular poem setting for solo v, chorus & orch.] Op.53 (1869) . . . 3 Hungarian Dances [orch. arr.] (1873) . . . Variations on a Theme by Haydn in B flat [orch. arr.] Op.56a (1873; also in 2 pf arr. as Op.56b) . . . Sym. #2 in D Op.73 (1877) . . . Violin Conc. in D Op.77 (1878) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in B flat Op.83 (1878-81) . . . 3 sonatas for violin & piano Opp. 78/100/108 (1878-9/1886/1886-8) . . . 2 Rhapsodies for Piano in B minor/G minor Op.79 (1879) . . . Academic Festival Over. in C minor [concert over.] Op.80 (1880) . . . Tragic Over. in D minor [concert over.] Op.81 (1880, r1881) . . . Gesang der Parzen [Goethe text setting for 6-part chorus & orch.] Op.89 (1882) . . . Sym. #3 in F Op.90 (1883) . . . Sym. #4 in E minor Op.98 (1884-5) . . . Piano Trio #3 in C minor Op.101 (1886) . . . Conc. for Violin, Cello & Orch. in A minor Op.102 (1887) . . . Quintet for Clarinet & Strings in B minor Op.115 (1891) . . . Trio for Clarinet, Cello & Piano in A minor Op.114 (1891) . . . 20 piano miniatures Opp. 116-9 (1892) . . . Sonata for Clarinet & Piano in F minor Op.120 no.1 (1894) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; -BEETHOVEN; ---Buxtehude; Chopin; ---F Couperin; --Handel; -J Haydn; Mendelssohn; --Mozart; --D Scarlatti; -Schubert; C Schumann; R SCHUMANN; ---Schütz; Spohr; -Viotti; folksong; gypsy music
Has Influenced:  Alfvén; +Barber; Bartók; Beach; Berg; Bridge; Busoni; Chadwick; Chausson; +Chávez; Clarke; Coleridge-Taylor; DOHNÁNYI; Dvorák; Elgar; Enescu; Fibich; Foote; Glazunov; -Goldmark; Granados?; Griffes; +Guarnieri?; ++Henze?; Hindemith; Ireland; Ives; Karg-Elert; Kodály; +Kokkonen; ++Leighton; MacDowell?; Mahler; Medtner; Nielsen; Novák; PARRY; Pfitzner; REGER; -Reinecke; Rheinberger; Rubbra?; -Rubinstein; [F Schmidt]; Schoenberg; Schreker; -C Schumann; STANFORD; Stenhammar; R Strauss; Suk; Szymanowski; Toch; Vaughan Williams?; Webern; Wolf-Ferrari; Zemlinsky


Bridge, Frank (1879-1941) British
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic to c1918; Impressionist/Expressionist thereafter
Genre Profile:  012---1100---2222---220---11---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  chamber music---orchestral pcs---string instr(s). (chamber combs., w/orch., orchestral)
Notable Works:  . . . Suite for String Orch. (1908) . . . The Sea [suite for large orch.] (1910-1) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in D minor (1913-7) . . . Piano Trio #2 (1929) 
Musical Influences:  +Bartók; +Berg; Brahms; --Chopin; Debussy; Delius; Fauré; Ravel; Scriabin
Has Influenced:  BRITTEN; Clarke


26. Britten, Benjamin (1913-76) British
Style/Period:  Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  222---2201---1212---213---23---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---orchestral pcs---vocal- & choral-orchestral music---songs---cello (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---works for solo player---music for children & amateurs
Notable Works:  . . . secular songs & song cycles [solo v & pf/orch./other accompaniment] (1929-75) . . . Simple Symphony [string orch.] Op.4 (1933-4) . . . Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge [string orch.] Op.10 (1937) . . . 3 string quartets Opp. 25/36/94 (1941/1945/1975) . . . A Ceremony of Carols [sacred text for treble chorus & harp] Op.28 (1942) . . . Serenade for Tenor, Horn & Strings [songs] Op.31 (1943) . . . Peter Grimes [opera] Op.33 (1944-5) . . . Four Sea Interludes from (the opera) Peter Grimes [orch.] Op.33a (1944-5) . . . The Young Person's Guide to the Orch. [orch.] Op.34 (1946) . . . Spring Symphony [secular cantata for 3 solo vv, choruses & orch.] Op.44 (1949) . . . Billy Budd [opera] Op.50 (1951) . . . Six Metamorphoses after Ovid [oboe] Op.49 (1951) . . . The Turn of the Screw [chamber opera] Op.54 (1954) . . . A Midsummer Night's Dream [opera] Op.64 (1960) . . . War Requiem [sacred & secular texts for 3 solo vv, choruses & orchs.] Op.66 (1961) . . . Cello Symphony [vc & orch.] Op.68 (1963) . . . Nocturnal after John Dowland [guitar] Op.70 (1963) . . . 3 cello suites Opp. 72/80/87 (1964/1967/1972) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; BRIDGE; Copland; Debussy; Delius?; ---Dowland; Holst; Ireland; -Mahler; [C McPhee]; Prokofiev?; ---Purcell; Ravel;
Schoenberg; --Schubert; Shostakovich; Stravinsky; -Verdi; Walton; gamelan music
Has Influenced:  Argento; Bennett; -Berkeley; Henze; Leighton; Musgrave; Pinkham; Rutter; Sallinen; -Shostakovich


Brouwer, Leo (1939-) Cuban
Style/Period:  Nationalist to c1964; highly eclectic thereafter (at first Avant-garde, more recently Neoromantic/Impressionist)
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Elogio de la Danza [guitar] (1964) . . . El Decamerón [guitar] (1981) . . . Canción de Cuna 'Berceuse' [guitar] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Lutoslawski; Messiaen; Penderecki; Shostakovich; Stravinsky; folk music; African & Cuban music


Bruch, Max (1838-1920) German; Berlin-based after 1891
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic
Genre Profile:  201---0302---2121---101---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  violin (w/orch.)---cello (w/orch.)---choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Violin Conc. #1 in G minor Op.26 (1866) . . . Kol Nidrei [variations for vc & orch.] Op.47 (1880) . . . Scottish Fantasy [vln & orch.] Op.46 (1880) . . . 8 Pieces [cl, va (or vc) & pf] Op.83 (p1910) 
Musical Influences:  [F Hiller]; Mendelssohn; Raff?; +Sarasate; -Schubert; R Schumann; Spohr?; folk music
Has Influenced:  Respighi; Vaughan Williams


47. Bruckner, Anton (1824-96) Austrian; Vienna-based from 1868
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic
Genre Profile:  301---0000---2111---110---00---310
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  syms.---masses---sacred motets
Notable Works:  . . . Ave Maria in F [7 vv] (1861) . . . Mass #2 in E minor [chorus, woodwinds & brass] (1866, r1876 & 1882) . . . Mass #3 in F minor [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1867-8, r1876 & 1881) . . . Locus iste in C [choral gradual] (1869) . . . Sym. #3 in D minor (1873-7, r1888-9) . . . Sym. #4 in E flat 'Romantic' (1874, 1878-80, r1886) . . . Sym. #5 in B flat (1875-6) . . . String Quintet in F (1879) . . . Sym. #7 in E (1881-3) . . . Te Deum in C [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1881-4) . . . Sym. #8 in C minor (1884-7, 1889-90) . . . Sym. #9 in D minor (1891-6) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; BEETHOVEN; -J Haydn; -M Haydn; Liszt; Mendelssohn; --Mozart; ---Palestrina; Schubert; WAGNER; Renaissance polyphony; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  +Badings; +KA Hartmann; Kreisler; Mahler; ++Penderecki; Reger; [F Schmidt]; Schoenberg?; Sibelius; Stenhammar; R Strauss; Wolf


Bruhns, Nicolaus (1665-97) German; North Germany-based
Style/Period:  Middle German Baroque
Best Known For:  solo organ---sacred cantatas
Notable Works:  . . . Prelude & Fugue in E minor #1 [org] (d?) . . . Prelude & Fugue in E minor #2 [org] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  BUXTEHUDE
Has Influenced:  JS Bach


Bull, John (c1562-1628) British; South Netherlands-based from 1613
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  solo keyboard
Musical Influences:  Byrd; Tallis
Has Influenced:  Gibbons; +++Nyman; Sweelinck


101. Busoni, Ferruccio (1866-1924) Italian-German
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (w/German Neoclassical elements)
Genre Profile:  022---2110---1212---210---02---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch., piano arrs. of J.S. Bach & other composers' works)---operas---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. in C [w/male chorus] Op.39 (1903-4) . . . Doktor Faust [opera] (1916-24) . . . Turandot [opera] (1917) . . . Sonatina #6 'Fantasia da Camera sur Carmen' [pf] (1920) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS BACH; --Beethoven?; Berlioz; Brahms; -Chopin?; LISZT; --Mozart; Rubinstein; Verdi
Has Influenced:  Casella; Dallapiccola; Grainger; Griffes?; [A Hába]; Hindemith; Krenek; LUENING; Maderna?; Malipiero?; Pizzetti?; Schoenberg?; -Sibelius; Toch?; Varèse; Weill; Wolpe


Butterworth, George (1885-1916) British
Style/Period:  English Nationalist
Best Known For:  songs & song cycles---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . A Shropshire Lad [song cycle for solo v & pf] (1911) . . . A Shropshire Lad [rhapsody for orch.] (1912) . . . The Banks of Green Willow [idyll for orch.] (1913) 
Musical Influences:  --R Schumann?; Stanford; Vaughan Williams; ENGLISH FOLKSONG
Has Influenced:  -Vaughan Williams


100. Buxtehude, Dieterich (1637-1707) Danish-German; Lubeck-based from 1668
Style/Period:  Middle German Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo organ---sacred cantatas & choral music---trio sonatas
Notable Works:  . . . Chaconne in E minor [org] Bx160 (before 1700) . . . In dulci jubilo in G [chorale prelude for org] Bx197 (before 1700) . . . Passacaglia in D minor [org] Bx161 (before 1700) . . . Prelude & Fugue in D [org] Bx139 (before 1700) . . . sacred cantatas [v or vv & 2 to 8 or 9 instrs.] (before 1700) 
Musical Influences:  Carissimi; Frescobaldi; Froberger; Monteverdi; +Purcell?; [H Scheidemann]; Scheidt; Schütz; -Sweelinck; [M Weckmann]; French & Italian music
Has Influenced:  JS BACH; Biber?; Böhm; +++Brahms; BRUHNS; Handel; +++Orff; Pachelbel; Telemann


71. Byrd, William (1539/40 - 1623) British; Essex-based from 1593
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  masses---solo keyboard---sacred motets---anthems---sacred & secular songs---consort music---madrigals
Notable Works:  . . . Mass for Four Voices [unacc. vv] (c1592-3) . . . Mass for Five Voices [unacc. vv] (c1595) . . . Great Service in F [2 choruses of 5 vv each] (before 1600) . . . Pavane & Galliard in A minor #2 'Earl of Salisbury' [keyb] (before 1600) . . . secular (consort) songs [3-6 vv, some acc. by viols] (before 1600) . . . Ave verum corpus [sacred motet for 4 vv] (p1605) . . . In dulci jubilo in G [chorale prelude for org] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Cabezón; Clemens; [A Ferrabosco I]; Lasso; TALLIS; Taverner; [C Tye]
Has Influenced:  Bull; GIBBONS; MORLEY; +++Orff?; Philips; ++Purcell; Sweelinck; TOMKINS; +++Vaughan Williams; Weelkes


Cabezón, Antonio de (c1500-66) Spanish
Style/Period:  Middle Spanish Renaissance
Best Known For:  solo organ
Notable Work:   . . . Pavana con su glosa [org] (p1578)
Musical Influences:  Josquin
Has Influenced:  Byrd; Sweelinck; Tallis


Caccini, Giulio (1551-1618) Italian; Florence- & Rome-based
Style/Period:  Early Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  songs---madrigals---operas
Notable Work:   . . . Amarilli Mia Bella [song] (p1602)
Has Influenced:  Campion


59. Cage, John (1912-92) American; mainly California- & New York-based
Style/Period:  American Avant-garde (New York school)
Genre Profile:  011---2001---2222---212---11---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  aleatory music---works accenting use of time, space and silence---solo piano, espec. prepared piano---chamber music---magnetic tape-based pcs---percussion (chamber combs.)---solo voice
Notable Works:  . . . Third Construction [perc quartet] (1941) . . . Amores [2 prepared pf & 2 perc trios] (1943) . . . Sonatas & Interludes [prepared pf] (1946-8) . . . Conc. for Prepared Piano & Chamber Orch. (1951) . . . Atlas Eclipticalis [any combination of up to 86 instrs.] (1961-2) . . . Five [5 vv or 5 instrs.] (1988) 
Musical Influences:  +Boulez; Cowell; Debussy; +Feldman; +Harrison; Ives; Satie; SCHOENBERG; Varèse; Webern; +Wolff; Wolpe; MUSIC OF INDIA; chance events; silence
Has Influenced:  Adams; Andriessen; Boulez; [E Brown]; Crumb; FELDMAN; Glass; Harrison; Kagel; Ligeti?; Lutoslawski; Maderna; -Messiaen; Nyman; Oliveros; Penderecki?; Reich; Riley; Stockhausen; Takemitsu; Tan; Wolff; [La Young]


Caldara, Antonio (1670/1 - 1736) Italian; until 1716 Venice- & Rome-based; thereafter in Vienna
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  cantatas---oratorios---arias
Musical Influences:  Fux; Legrenzi; A Scarlatti
Has Influenced:  JS Bach?; Gluck?; Handel; J. Haydn; Telemann


Campion, Thomas (1567-1620) British
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  lute songs (ayres)---masques
Notable Works:  . . . five books of ayres (publ. 1601-17)
Musical Influences:  Caccini; Dowland; French & Italian music


Canteloube de Malaret, (Marie-)Joseph (1879-1957) French
Style/Period:  French Nationalist
Best Known For:  songs
Notable Work:  . . . Chants d'Auvergne [4 vol. song collection for solo v & orch./pf] (1923-30) 
Musical Influences:  Chausson; Debussy; INDY; Ravel; FOLKSONG


Carissimi, Giacomo (1605-74) Italian; Rome-based
Style/Period:  Middle Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  sacred oratorios & cantatas
Musical Influences:  -[E Cavalieri]; [A Grandi]; Monteverdi; [L Rossi]
Has Influenced:  Buxtehude; [A Cesti]; M-A CHARPENTIER; F Couperin; +Handel; Lully; +++Pinkham?; Purcell; A SCARLATTI; -Schütz


Carpenter, John Alden (1876-1951) American; Chicago-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist (American Vernacularist)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Adventures in a Perambulator [suite for orch.] (1915) . . . Krazy Kat ["jazz pantomime" for orch.] (1921, r1940) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Elgar; Ravel; +Stravinsky; JAZZ; RAGTIME; POPULAR SONG
Has Influenced:  Gershwin?


110. Carter, Elliott (1908-2012) American; Greenwich Village-based from 1945
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical to c1950; Serial (Expressionist) thereafter
Genre Profile:  112---2122---2212---202---21---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  concs.---string quartets---sonatas
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Sonata (1945-6, r1982) . . . The Minotaur [ballet] (1947) . . . String Quartet #1 (1950-1) . . . Variations [orch.] (1954-5) . . . String Quartet #2 (1959) . . . Double Conc. [pf, hpschd & 2 chamber orchs.] (1961) . . . Piano Conc. (1964-5) . . . String Quartet #3 (1971) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Copland; Cowell; Crawford; Debussy; Harris; Hindemith; Ives; +Nancarrow; Piston; Ruggles; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; Varèse; Wolpe; Medieval, Renaissance & Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Wuorinen; Zwilich


Carulli, Ferdinando (1770-1841) Italian; Paris-based from 1808
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs., w/orch., w/voice)
Notable Work:  . . . Duo in G [2 guitars] Op.34 no.2 (d?)
Musical Influences:  Beethoven?; J Haydn; Mozart; +Rossini; cello & violin music


Casella, Alfredo (1883-1947) Italian; Paris-based 1896-1915, thereafter mainly Rome-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist to c1920; Neoclassical thereafter
Best Known For:  chamber music---concs.---orchestral pcs---piano (solo, 2 players)
Notable Work:  . . . Paganiniana [orch.] Op.65 (1942)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Busoni; Debussy; Fauré; Mahler; Ravel; Satie; Schoenberg; R Strauss; Stravinsky; ---Vivaldi; Italian Baroque music; Russian music
Has Influenced:  Dallapiccola; -Malipiero; PETRASSI; -Respighi


Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Mario (1895-1968) Italian-American; California-based after 1940
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  011---1221---2112---212---11---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---solo piano---songs---film scores---Shakespeare overs.
Notable Works:  . . . 33 Shakespeare Songs [solo v & pf] Op.24 (1921-5) . . . Capriccio Diabalico 'Omaggi a Paganini' [guitar] Op.85 (1935) . . . Guitar Conc. in D Op.99 (1939) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Pizzetti; Ravel; Respighi; Baroque & Classical music
Has Influenced:  [H Mancini]; [A Previn]; [J Williams]


Cavalli, (Pietro [Pier]) Francesco (1602-76) Italian; Venice-based
Style/Period:  Early Italian Baroque (Venetian school)
Best Known For:  operas---vocal church music
Musical Influences:  G Gabrieli; +Lully?; MONTEVERDI
Has Influenced:  Lully; Purcell; A Scarlatti


Chabrier, Emmanuel (1841-94) French; mainly Paris-based from 1856
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic
Genre Profile:  023---0010---0001---200---12---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---operas---solo piano---songs
Notable Works:  . . . 10 Pièces Pittoresques [pf] (1881) . . . España [rhapsody for orch.] (1883) . . . Gwendoline [opera] (1885) . . . Le Roi Malgré Lui [opera] (1887) . . . Joyeuse Marche [orch.] (1888) . . . Bourrée Fantasque [pf] (1891) 
Musical Influences:  Bizet; Chopin; Gounod; R Schumann; WAGNER; Spanish music
Has Influenced:  Debussy; +Françaix; Ibert; Koechlin; +Lambert; +Poulenc; RAVEL; SATIE


Chadwick, George Whitefield (1854-1931) American; Boston-based from 1880
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (New England school)
Best Known For:  orchestral music (syms., concs., symphonic poems, etc.)
Notable Work:  . . . Melpomene [concert over. for orch.] (1887)
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; Brahms; -Mendelssohn; Reinecke?; Rheinberger?; +R Strauss; Wagner; Impressionists
Has Influenced:  Ives; Still


Chaminade, Cécile (Louise Stéphanie) (1857-1944) French
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs.)---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Concertino for Flute and Orchestra Op.107 (1902) . . . Sérénade Espagnole in G [pf or vln & pf] Op.150 (1925)
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; Gounod; Liszt; Saint-Saëns; Wagner?


Charpentier, Gustave (1860-1956) French; mainly Paris-based from c1881
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (verismo)
Best Known Work:  . . . Louise [opera] (1900)
Musical Influences:  Berlioz; Gounod; Massenet; Wagner; Italian verismo opera


Charpentier, Marc-Antoine (1643-1704) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (masses, motets, oratorios, psalm settings)---stage works
Notable Works:  . . . Te Deum [8/4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] H146 (1692?) . . . Medée [opera] H491 (1693) 
Musical Influences:  CARISSIMI; ---Josquin?; +Lalande?; --Lasso; Lully; [L Rossi]; Italian music
Has Influenced:  Clérambault?; F Couperin; Lalande


Chausson, Ernest (1855-99) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) French Romantic
Genre Profile:  212---0200---2222---100---02---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known Work:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1878-98) . . . Sym. in B flat Op.20 (1889-90) . . . Concert for Violin, Piano & String Quartet in D Op.21 (1889-91) . . . Poème [vln & orch.] Op.25 (1896) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; ---F Couperin; +Debussy; Duparc; FRANCK; Massenet; --Rameau; WAGNER
Has Influenced:  Canteloube; Debussy; Loeffler?


Chávez (y Ramírez), Carlos (1899-1978) Mexican; mainly Mexico City-based
Style/Period:  Mexican Nationalist/Neoclassical
Best Known For:  syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 'Sinfonía de Antígona' (1933) . . . Sym. #2 'Sinfonía India' (1935-6) 
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; -Brahms; --Chopin; Debussy; Ponce; Schoenberg; --R Schumann; Stravinsky; Mexican Native American music


Cherubini, Luigi (1760-1842) Italian-French; Paris-based from 1786
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Genre Profile:  222---0010---2200---110---13---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas & opera overs.---masses---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Medée [opera] (1797) . . . Les Deux Journées [opera] (1800) . . . Over. to (the opera-ballet) Anacréon [orch.] (1803) . . . Requiem Mass #1 in C minor [4 vv & orch.] (1816) . . . Requiem Mass #2 in D minor [3 vv & orch.] (1836) 
Musical Influences:  GLUCK; Grétry; J Haydn; Jommelli; +Méhul; Mozart; ---Palestrina; Piccinni; [A Sacchini]; +Spontini; Viotti?
Has Influenced:  Auber; Beethoven; Berlioz; Boieldieu; HALÉVY; Kuhlau; Méhul; Mendelssohn; Schubert?; Spohr; Spontini; Wagner; Weber


10. Chopin, Fryderyk (1810-49) Polish-French; mainly Paris-based from 1831
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic (Paris virtuoso school) w/Polish Nationalist elements
Genre Profile:  000---3000---0012---300---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . over 60 mazurkas [pf] (1820-49) . . . 19 waltzes [pf] (1827-48) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in F minor Op.21 (1829-30) . . . 12 Etudes [pf] Op.10 (1829-32) . . . Piano Conc. #1 in E minor Op.11 (1830) . . . Nocturne #2 in E flat [pf] Op.9 no.2 (1830-1) . . . Andante Spianato in G & Grande Polonaise in E flat [pf & orch.] Op.22 (1830-1, 1834) . . . Ballade #1 in G minor [pf] Op.23 (1831-5) . . . 12 Etudes [pf] Op.25 (1832-6) . . . Nocturne #8 in D flat [pf] Op.27 no.2 (1835) . . . 24 Preludes [pf] Op.28 (1836-9) . . . Polonaise #3 in A 'Military' [pf] Op.40 no.1 (1838) . . . Piano Sonata #2 in B flat minor Op.35 (1839) . . . Ballade #3 in A flat [pf] Op.47 (1840-1) . . . Fantasie in F minor [pf] Op.49 no.1 (1841) . . . Ballade #4 in F minor [pf] Op.52 (1842) . . . Polonaise #6 in A flat 'Heroique' [pf] Op.53 (1842) . . . Nocturne #16 in E flat [pf] Op.55 no.2 (1843) . . . Piano Sonata #3 in B minor Op.58 (1844) . . . Barcarolle in F sharp [pf] Op.60 (1845-6) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in G minor Op.65 (1845-6) 
Musical Influences:  -CPE Bach?; --JS Bach; Beethoven; Bellini; Clementi; Donizetti; Dussek?; Field; Hummel; Meyerbeer?; -Mozart; Paganini; Rossini; --D Scarlatti; Spohr; Weber; folk & dance music
Has Influenced:  +Albéniz; ALKAN; +Arensky; Balakirev; ++Barrios; +Beach; ++Berkeley; -Berwald?; Bizet; ++Bolcom; Borodin; Bottesini; Brahms; ++Bridge; +Busoni?; Chabrier; +Chaminade; ++Chávez; ++Creston; ++Crumb; Cui; +Debussy; +Delius; +Dukas?; Dvorák; ++Falla; Fauré; Franck; Gade; +Glazunov; ++Glière; -Glinka; Gottschalk; +Granados; Grieg; -JPE Hartmann?; [F Hiller]; +Koechlin; ++Lauro?; ++Ligeti; Liszt; ++Lutoslawski; +Lyadov; ++Martin; ++Mompou; +Moszkowski; +[E Nazareth]; +Novák?; +Paderewski; ++Ponce; ++Poulenc; +Rachmaninov; ++Ravel; +Reger; Rheinberger; Rimsky-Korsakov?; -Rossini?; Rubinstein; Saint-Saëns; C Schumann; R Schumann; +SCRIABIN; Smetana; Jos Strauss?; ++Szymanowski; ++Tansman; +Tárrega; Tchaikovsky; ++Villa-Lobos; Wagner; Wieniawski; +Wolf


Cilea, Francesco (1866-1950) Italian
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (verismo)
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Works:  . . . Adriana Lecouvreur [opera] (1902) . . . L'Arlesiana [opera] (1903), incl. 'Lamento di Federico' [aria]
Musical Influences:  --Bellini; Debussy; Massenet; PUCCINI; Rimsky-Korsakov; Verdi


Cimarosa, Domenico (1749-1801) Italian; mainly Naples-based
Style/Period:  Classical
Genre Profile:  120---1022---1100---120---03---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  comic operas---keyboard sonatas---concs.---masses
Notable Works:  . . . Il Matrimonio Segreto [opera] (1792) . . . Sinfonia Concertante for 2 Flutes & Orch. in G (1793) . . . Conc. for Oboe & Strings in C (1942 arr. by A. Benjamin) 
Musical Influences:  Hasse?; J Haydn?; +Mozart; -Pergolesi; Piccinni; [A Sacchini]; D Scarlatti
Has Influenced:  -J Haydn; Mayr; Mozart?; Rossini


Clarke, Rebecca (1886-1979) British; U.S.-based from 1939
Style/Period:  Impressionist (Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  viola (chamber combs.)---songs
Notable Work:  . . . Sonata for Viola and Piano (1919)
Musical Influences:  Bloch; Brahms; Bridge; Debussy; [J Joachim]; Ravel; Stanford; Vaughan Williams; English & Irish folk songs


Clemens non Papa [Clemens, Clement, etc.], Jacob [Jacobus, Jacques, etc.] (c1513 - 1555/6) Franco-Flemish
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  masses---psalm settings---sacred motets---chansons
Musical Influences:  Josquin
Has Influenced:  Byrd; +[G Kirbye]; Lasso; Susato; +Sweelinck?


Clementi, Muzio (1752-1832) Italian-British; mainly London-based from c1766
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (London piano school)
Genre Profile:  201---1000---0012---330---00---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  keyboard (piano) sonatas---syms.---music publishing
Notable Works:  . . . Keyboard Sonata in F minor Op.13 no.6 (1785) . . . Keyboard Sonata in F sharp minor Op.25 no.5 (1790) 
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach; JC Bach; -JS Bach; +Beethoven?; J Haydn; +Mozart; D Scarlatti
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; Chopin; Czerny; Dussek; Field; -J Haydn?; Hummel; Kuhlau; Meyerbeer?


Clérambault, Louis-Nicolas (1676-1749) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque
Best Known For:  motets & French cantatas---solo organ & harpsichord---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Livre d'Orgue [album of works for org] (p1704) 
Musical Influences:  M-A Charpentier?; Corelli; -L Couperin?


Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel (1875-1912) British; London-based
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Best Known For:  vocal- & choral-orchestral music---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . The Song of Hiawatha [secular cantata for 3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.30 (1898-1900) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Delius?; DVORÁK; Elgar; Grieg; Stanford; traditional African-American music (spirituals, etc.)
Has Influenced:  Still


31. Copland, Aaron (1900-90) American; mainly New York-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical with American Vernacularist elements, turning American Nationalist c1935-c1955
Genre Profile:  232---2022---2212---210---32---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  ballets & film scores and derivative orchestral suites---orchestral pcs---syms.---songs---solo piano---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Variations [pf] (1930) . . . El Salon Mexico [orch.] (1933-6) . . . Billy the Kid [ballet & orch. suite] (1938) . . . Quiet City [English horn, trumpet & string orch. arr.; from incidental music to the I. Shaw play] (1939) . . . Piano Sonata (1939-41) . . . Fanfare for the Common Man [brass & perc] (1942) . . . Lincoln Portrait [spoken word & orch.] (1942) . . . Rodeo: Four Dance Episodes (from the ballet) [orch.] (1942) . . . Appalachian Spring [ballet] (1943-4; orch. suite 1945) . . . Sym. #3 (1944-6) . . . Clarinet Conc. (1947-8) . . . The Red Pony [film score & orch. suite] (1948) . . . 12 Poems of Emily Dickinson [solo v & pf] (1949-50) . . . Old American Songs (2 sets) [solo v & pf/orch.] (1950/1952) . . . The Tender Land [opera] (1952-4) . . . Duo [fl & pf] (1971) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Debussy; Fauré; Gershwin; Ives; Milhaud; -Mussorgsky; Schoenberg; Scriabin; Stravinsky; Thomson; NORTH AMERICANA; Latin American music; jazz
Has Influenced:  Adler; Barber; BERNSTEIN; Bowles; Britten; Carter; Corigliano; Dello Joio?; Druckman; Fine; Foss; Ginastera; Musgrave; Persichetti; Pinkham; Rorem; Schuman; Sculthorpe


94. Corelli, Arcangelo (1653-1713) Italian; Rome-based from c1675
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  concerti grossi---trio sonatas---violin sonatas
Notable Works:  . . . 12 Trio Sonatas [2 vlns & continuo] Op.2 (p1685) . . . 12 Trio Sonatas [2 vlns & continuo] Op.3 (p1689) . . . Sonata for Violin & Continuo 'La Folia' Op.5 no.12 (p1700) . . . Concerto Grosso for 2 Violins, Viola & String Orch. in G minor 'Christmas' Op.6 no.8 (p1714) 
Musical Influences:  Lully; Stradella; [G Vitali]
Has Influenced:  Albinoni; JS Bach; ++Boccherini; Boismortier; Boyce?; Clérambault; F COUPERIN; Fux; [F Gasparini]; GEMINIANI; HANDEL; LECLAIR; Locatelli; +++Martinu; MUFFAT; -[B Pasquini]?; Pergolesi; Purcell; A Scarlatti; D Scarlatti; Tartini; TELEMANN; ++Viotti; Vivaldi; Weiss


Corigliano, John (1938-) American; New York-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---stage works---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . The Ghosts of Versailles [opera] (1987) . . . Sym. #1 (1990) . . . The Red Violin [film score] (1997) 
Musical Influences:  Bernstein; Copland; Luening; ---Mozart; Stravinsky


108. Couperin, François (1668-1733) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late French Baroque (w/eclectic French & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  000---0000---2221---030---00---210
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo harpsichord---chamber music---sacred motets---solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Pièces d'Orgues [2 masses for org] (p1690) . . . Leçons de Ténèbres [3 sacred services for solo v & continuo (#1 & #2) & 2 solo vv (#3)] (1713-7) . . . Pièces de Clavecin [4 books of hpschd miniatures] (p1713-30) . . . 4 Concerts Royaux [vln, fl, oboe, viol & bassoon (or for solo hpschd)] (p1722) . . . 10 Nouveaux Concerts [instrumentation unspecified] (p1724) . . . Les Nations [trio sonatas & suites for 2 vlns & continuo] (p1726) . . . Pièces de Violes [2 suites for viola da gamba & continuo] (p1728) 
Musical Influences:  Carissimi; M-A Charpentier; CORELLI; +Lalande; Lully; Marais
Has Influenced:  JS Bach; +++Brahms; +++Chausson; +++Debussy; -Fux; Lalande?; Leclair; -Muffat?; +++Poulenc; +++Ravel; +++R Strauss; Telemann


Couperin, Louis (1626-61) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Baroque
Best Known For:  solo harpsichord---solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Pièces de Clavecins [5 books of solo hpschd pcs] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  [J Chambonnières]; Frescobaldi?; Froberger
Has Influenced:  +Clérambault?; -Froberger


Cowell, Henry (1897-1965) American; mainly New York-based from 1928
Style/Period:  Experimentalist/Exoticist
Genre Profile:  212---2112---2222---211---00---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  solo piano (incl. special techniques: tone clusters, prepared piano, etc.)---syms.---choral music---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . String Quartet #3 'Mosaic' (1935) . . . Sym. #11 'Seven Rituals of Music' (1953-4) 
Musical Influences:  --Billings; IVES; Ruggles?; [C Seeger]; East Asian music; folk music & fuguing tunes
Has Influenced:  Argento?; Cage; Carter; Crawford; Crumb; Gershwin; Harrison; Nancarrow; Partch; -Riegger; -Ruggles?


Crawford (Seeger), Ruth (1901-53) American; Washington D.C.-based from 1936
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Best Known For:  post-tonal harmonies---piano (solo, chamber combs.)---folk song arrangements
Notable Work:  . . . String Quartet (1931)
Musical Influences:  Bartók?; Berg?; Cowell; [D Rudhyar]; Scriabin; [C Seeger]
Has Influenced:  Carter; [V Fine]; Oliveros


Creston, Paul (1906-85) American
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---concs.---works for unusual instruments--explorations in rhythm
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Chopin; Debussy; Ravel; ---D Scarlatti; Vierne; popular song & dance


Crumb, George (1929-) American; Philadelphia-based 1965-97
Style/Period:  Mystical
Genre Profile:  002---0000---1222---212---00---12x
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  vocal-orchestral music (settings of verse by Lorca)---orchestral pcs---music for electric piano & other amplified instrs.---unusual timbres
Notable Works:  . . . Cello Sonata [unacc. vc] (1955) . . . Ancient Voices of Children [song cycle for 2 solo vv & 7 instrs.] (1970) . . . Black Angels [electric str qtt] (1970) . . . Makrokosmos I & II [2 vols. of works for amplified pf] (1972-3) . . . Makrokosmos III 'Music for a Summer Evening' [2 amplified pf & 2 percussionists] (1974) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; BARTÓK; Berio?; Cage; --Chopin; Cowell; -DEBUSSY; Finney; Ives; -Mahler; ---Schubert; Webern
Has Influenced:  Tan; Tower


Cui, Cesar (1835-1918) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based from 1851
Style/Period:  Middle Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  solo piano---songs---operas---orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Kaleydoskop #9 'Orientale' [vln & pf] Op.50 no.9 (1893) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; +Balakirev; Chopin; Dargomïzhsky; Glinka; Liszt; Meyerbeer; R Schumann; 19th Century opera


Czerny, C[K]arl (1791-1857) Austrian; Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (Viennese Classical)
Best Known For:  piano (solo, multiple players), incl. arrs. of other composers' works and exercises & studies
Musical Influences:  BEETHOVEN; Clementi; Hummel; +Schubert
Has Influenced:  Liszt


Dallapiccola, Luigi (1904-75) Italian; mainly Florence-based from 1922
Style/Period:  Neoclassical to c1940; Post-Webernian Serial thereafter
Best Known For:  operas---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Notable Work:  Ulisse [opera] (1960-8)
Musical Influences:  Berg; Busoni; Casella; Debussy; ---Gesualdo; Malipiero; ---Monteverdi; ---Mozart?; Ravel; Schoenberg; -Verdi?; -Wagner; Webern
Has Influenced:  Argento; BERIO; Leighton; Maderna; Nono; Rochberg


Danzi, Franz (1763-1826) German; mainly Mannheim-based to 1784, thereafter mainly in Munich, Stuttgart & Karlsruhe
Style/Period:  Classical (Mannheim school)
Best Known For:  chamber music---concs.---woodwinds (chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Work:  . . . Wind Quintet in G minor Op.56 no.2 (1821) 
Musical Influences:  Mozart; +Reicha; [G Vogler]; +Weber
Has Influenced:  Weber


Dargomïzhsky [Dargomyzhsky], Alexander (1813-69) Russian; mainly St. Petersburg-based
Style/Period:  Middle Russian Romantic
Best Known For:  operas---songs---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Rusalka [opera] (1848-55) . . . songs [solo v & pf] (early 1830s-c1866) . . . The Stone Guest (completed by Cui & Rimsky-Korsakov) [opera] (1872) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; Glinka; Meyerbeer; Wagner; folksong
Has Influenced:  Balakirev; Cui; Mussorgsky; Rimsky-Korsakov; Tchaikovsky?


Davidovsky, Mario (1934-) Argentinian-American; mainly New York- & Boston-based from 1960
Style/Period:  Post-Webernian Serial (Avant-garde)
Best Known For:  magnetic tape-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . 'Synchronism' series [8 works for instrs. & magnetic tape] (1963-74) 
Musical Influences:  Babbitt; Luening


Davies, Peter Maxwell (1934-) British; Orkney-based from 1970
Style/Period:  Serial & highly varied, with Expressionist & Neomedieval elements to c1975 but an increasingly Neoromantic emphasis thereafter: Polystylistic
Genre Profile:  222---0222---2112---222---12---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  works productively in all main genres, incl. music for children & amateurs
Notable Works:  . . . Sinfonia [chamber orch.] (1962) . . . Taverner [opera] (1962-8) . . . Eight Songs for a Mad King [music theatre for solo v & approximately 8 instrumentalists] (1969) . . . Farewell to Stromness [pf] (1980) . . . Strathclyde concertos [continuing series of concertos] (1987-) 
Musical Influences:  Berg; -Mahler; Messiaen; ---Monteverdi; Petrassi; Schoenberg; Sibelius; Stockhausen; ---Taverner; Webern;
Medieval music; English Renaissance & Baroque music


14. Debussy, Claude (1862-1918) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist
Genre Profile:  023---2120---0323---302---23---030
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs.)---orchestral pcs---songs & song cycles---chamber music---ballets---harp (chamber combs., w/orch.)---Pelléas et Mélisande (opera)---orchestration
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (c1879-1915) . . . 2 Arabesques [pf] (1888-91) . . . Clair de Lune (from 'Suite Bergamasque') [pf] (1890, r1905) . . . Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun [sym. poem] (1892-4) . . . String Quartet in G minor Op.10 (1893) . . . Pelléas et Mélisande [opera] (1893-5, 1901-2) . . . Chansons de Bilitis [song cycle for solo v & pf] (1897-8) . . . 3 Nocturnes [orch. (#1 & #2) and orch. & chorus (#3)] (1897-9) . . . Estampes [pf suite] (1903) . . . La Mer, Three Symphonic Sketches (1903-5) . . . Danse Sacrée et Danse Profane [harp & string orch.] (1904) . . . Images (2 sets) [pf] (1905/1907; orch. suite 1905-12) . . . Children's Corner [suite of 6 works for pf] (1906-8), incl. 'Golliwog's Cakewalk' . . . Preludes, Book 1 [pf] (1909-10) . . . Jeux [ballet] (1912-3) . . . Preludes, Book 2 [pf] (1912-3) . . . Syrinx [fl] (1913) . . . 12 Etudes [pf] (1915) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano in D minor (1915) . . . Sonata for Flute, Viola & Harp (1915) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in G minor (1916-7) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Alkan; ---JS Bach; Borodin; Chabrier; Chausson; -Chopin; ---F Couperin; Delibes; Fauré; Franck; Grieg; +Joplin?; Lalo; Liszt; Massenet; Mussorgsky; --Rameau; +Ravel; Rimsky-Korsakov; +Satie; -R Schumann?; Tchaikovsky; Wagner; gamelan & other East Asian music; French Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  Alain; Alwyn; -Albéniz; Barber; Bartók; Bax; Beach; Berg; Bliss; BLOCH; BOULANGER; +Boulez; Bridge; Britten; Cage; Canteloube; Carpenter; Carter; Casella; Castelnuovo-Tedesco; -Chausson; Chávez; Cilea; Clarke; Copland; Creston; +CRUMB; Dallapiccola; Delius; Dohnányi; +Druckman; Dukas; Duruflé; Dutilleux; Enescu; Falla; Gerhard; Gershwin; Ginastera; GRIFFES; Guarnieri; +[B Herrmann]; Hindemith; Honegger; Howells; Ibert; Ireland; -Janácek; Jolivet; Jongen; Karg-Elert; KODÁLY; Koechlin; +Kokkonen; +[B Kolb]; +Kraft; Lehár; +Leighton; +Ligeti; -Loeffler; Lutoslawski; Malipiero; Martin; MARTINU; Mascagni; MESSIAEN; Miaskovsky?; Milhaud; Mompou; Montsalvatge; Moreno Torróba; Novák?; Orff; Pierné; [W Pijper]; Pizzetti; Ponce; Poulenc; Prokofiev; -Puccini; Ravel; Reger; +Reich; Respighi; Revueltas; Rodrigo; +Rorem; ROUSSEL; Rubbra; Ruggles?; Satie; Schmitt; Schreker; Schulhoff; +Schuller; Schuman?; Scriabin; Stravinsky; Suk; Szymanowski; Tailleferre; +TAKEMITSU; Toch?; Tournemire; Tubin?; Turina; Varèse; Villa-Lobos; +Walker; Walton; Webern; Wolpe?; +Xenakis; 'New Age' music


Delibes, (C.P.) Léo (1836-91) French; Paris-based from 1847
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Genre Profile:  020---0000---0001---100---32---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  ballets & operas, & derivative orchestral suites
Notable Works:  . . . Coppélia [ballet] (1870; orch. suite 1883?) . . . Sylvia [ballet] (1876; orch. suite 1880?) . . . Lakmé [opera] (1883) . . . Les Filles de Cadix ["chanson espagnole"] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  ADAM; Berlioz; +Bizet; Meyerbeer; Wagner; Asian music
Has Influenced:  Debussy; Elgar; Indy; Kreisler; -Saint-Saëns; Tchaikovsky


91. Delius, Frederick (1862-1934) British; in his early years based in London, the U.S. (Florida & Virginia), Leipzig & Paris; from 1897 Grez-sur-Loing (near Paris)-based
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (Impressionist)
Genre Profile:  023---2201---0102---110---02---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  symphonic poems & other orchestral pcs---songs & song cycles---choral-orchestral music---stage works
Notable Works:  . . . Sea Drift [Whitman settings for solo v, chorus & orch.] (1903-4) . . . Brigg Fair (An English Rhapsody) [variations for orch.] (1907) . . . Interlude from (the lyric drama) A Village Romeo & Juliet [orch.] (1907) . . . In a Summer Garden [rhapsody for orch.] (1908, r1909) . . . A Song of the High Hills [chorus & orch.] (1911) . . . Summer Night on the River [sym. poem for small orch.] (1911) . . . On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring [sym. poem for small orch.] (1912) . . . North Country Sketches [suite for orch.] (1913-4) . . . Violin Conc. (1916) 
Musical Influences:  -Chopin; Debussy; Grieg; +Ravel?; +R Strauss; +Vaughan Williams?; WAGNER; folk music; traditional African American music (spirituals, etc.)
Has Influenced:  Alwyn; Bax; Bridge; Britten?; Coleridge-Taylor?; [D Ellington]; Grainger; Howells; Moeran; Schuller; Sculthorpe; -Sinding?; Sowerby?; WARLOCK


Dello Joio, Norman (1913-2008) American; mainly New York area- & Boston area-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---operas---music on religious subjects
Musical Influences:  Copland?; Gershwin?; HINDEMITH; jazz; popular song; Gregorian chant; 19th Century Italian opera


Desprez, Josquin [see under 'Josquin Desprez']


Diamond, David (1915-2005) American; Italy-based 1951-65, New York-based 1973-97
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---quartets---songs
Musical Influences:  Ravel; Satie; Sessions; Stravinsky?


Dittersdorf, K[C]arl Ditters von (1739-99) Austrian; Vienna-based to 1787
Style/Period:  Classical (Viennese Classical)
Best Known For:  syms.---concs.---chamber music---stage works
Notable Work:  . . . Sinfonia Concertante for Viola, Double-bass & Orchestra (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Gluck; J Haydn; Jommelli; +Mozart; folksong
Has Influenced:  Beethoven?; -J Haydn?; -Jommelli?; +Mendelssohn?


Dohnányi, Ernst von [Erno] (1877-1960) Hungarian; U.S.-based from 1949
Style/Period:  Late Romantic
Genre Profile:  202---2210---2222---201---12---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  chamber music---piano (solo, w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Serenade for Violin, Viola & Cello in C (1902) . . . Variations on a Nursery Song [pf & orch.] Op.25 (1914) 
Musical Influences:  BRAHMS; Debussy; Liszt; -R Schumann; R Strauss; Wagner


38. Donizetti, Gaetano (1797-1848) Italian; Naples-based 1822-38, thereafter in Paris
Style/Period:  Early Italian Romantic (bel canto)
Genre Profile:  121---0121---1212---211---13---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  operas---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . L'Elisir d'Amore [opera] (1832) . . . Lucia di Lammermoor [opera] (1835) . . . La Favorite [opera] (1840) . . . La Fille du Régiment [opera] (1840) . . . Don Pasquale [opera] (1843) 
Musical Influences:  Auber; +Bellini; MAYR; Meyerbeer; -Mozart; Paisiello; ROSSINI
Has Influenced:  Bellini?; Bizet; Bottesini; Chopin; Flotow; -Giuliani?; Glinka; Nicolai?; Suppé; Verdi


97. Dowland, John (1563-1626) British; travelled extensively in Europe for many years
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . solo lute pcs . . . 85 secular lute songs (in 4 books) [3-5 vv & lute] (p1597/p1600/p1603/p1612) . . . Lachrimae [collection of works for viol consort & lute (6 instrs.)] (p1604) . . . In Darknesse Let Mee Dwell [lute song for solo v & lute] (p1610) 
Musical Influences:  Holborne?; Marenzio; Philips?; Rore; dance music; French & Italian music; chansons
Has Influenced:  +++Britten; Campion; -Morley; -Sweelinck; Weelkes


Druckman, Jacob (1928-96) American; mainly New York area- & New England-based
Style/Period:  Serial (Expressionist, Neoromantic; 'Third Stream')
Best Known For:  vocal music---electronic & magnetic tape-based pcs---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  Bartók?; Copland; -Debussy; Persichetti; jazz


Dufay, Guillaume (c1398-1474) French; mainly Burgundy- & Italy-based
Style/Period:  Early Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  masses---sacred motets---secular songs (chansons)
Notable Works:  . . . Missa Se la face ay pale [4 vv] (c1450) . . . Alma redemptoris mater [antiphon for 3 vv] (d?) . . . secular songs (chansons) [3-4 vv] (d?) . . . Missa Ave regina celorum [4 vv] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  +Binchois?; +[A Busnois]; [J Ciconia]; DUNSTABLE; [L Power]; +Ockeghem?; plainchant; English & Italian music
Has Influenced:  Binchois?; [A Busnois]; -Dunstable?; Janequin; Josquin; Obrecht; Ockeghem


Dukas, Paul (1865-1935) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (Impressionist)
Genre Profile:  203---0000---0002---200---22---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known Work:  . . . The Sorcerer's Apprentice ['symphonic scherzo' for orch. (sym. poem)] (1897) . . . Piano Sonata in E flat minor (1899-1901) . . . Ariane et Barbe-bleue [opera] (1899-1906) . . . Villanelle [horn & pf] (1906) . . . La Péri [ballet] (1911-2) 
Musical Influences:  --Beethoven; -Chopin?; Debussy; Fauré?; Franck; Indy; Lalo; ---Rameau; Saint-Saëns; R Strauss?; WAGNER; Russian Romantics
Has Influenced:  Alain; -Albéniz; Berg?; Duruflé; Enescu?; Falla; Holst?; Ibert; Jolivet; Langlais; Martinu?; Messiaen; PISTON; Ponce; RODRIGO; Schoenberg?; Schreker; -R Strauss?; Stravinsky; Turina; Zemlinsky?


Dunstable [Dunstaple], John (c1390-1453) British; owned property in several parts of southern England & in Normandy
Style/Period:  Early English Renaissance
Best Known For:  masses & mass movements---sacred motets---antiphons
Musical Influences:  +Dufay?; [L Power]?; plainchant
Has Influenced:  BINCHOIS; DUFAY; Ockeghem


Duparc, Henri (1848-1933) French
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Best Known Work:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1868-c1886; several later orchestrated)
Musical Influences:  Fauré; Franck; Gounod; Liszt; Massenet?; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Chausson


Dupré, Marcel (1886-1971) French; mainly Paris-based from c1898
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (French organ school)
Genre Profile:  201---2000---1112---131---00---210
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo organ
Notable Work:  . . . 3 Preludes & Fugues [org] Op.7 (1912) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Franck; Guilmant; Tournemire; VIERNE; WIDOR
Has Influenced:  Alain; Langlais; Messiaen


Duruflé, Maurice (1902-86) French; Paris-based from 1919
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (French organ school)
Genre Profile:  001---0000---0011---120---00---300
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  choral-orchestral music---solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Requiem [solo vv, chorus, org & orch.] Op.9 (1947) . . . 4 Motets sur des Thèmes Grégoriens [chorus] Op.10 (1960) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Dukas; Fauré; RAVEL; Tournemire; Vierne; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Rutter


Dussek, Jan Ladislav (1760-1812) Bohemian; travelled widely in Europe
Style/Period:  Classical to c1792, Post-Classical thereafter (London piano school)
Best Known For:  piano sonatas---chamber music---concs.
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach; Clementi; J Haydn; Mozart
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; Chopin?; Hummel; Mendelssohn?; Schubert?; R Schumann?


Dutilleux, Henri (1916-2013) French; mainly Paris-based from c1933
Best Known For:  syms.---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Sonatine [fl & pf] (1943) . . . Conc. for Cello & Orch. (1968-70) . . . Timbres, Espace, Mouvement [orch.] (1978) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Debussy; Fauré; Ravel; Roussel; Stravinsky; jazz; sixteenth century contrapuntalists


21. Dvorák, Antonin (1841-1904) Bohemian; mainly Prague-based from 1857 (worked in the U.S. 1892-95)
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic/Czech Nationalist
Genre Profile:  323---2300---3332---210---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  significant or important contributor to most main genres
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1865-95) . . . Romance in F minor [vln & orch.] Op.11 (1873-7) . . . Serenade in E [string orch.] Op.22 (1875) . . . Stabat Mater [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.58 (1876-7) . . . Symphonic Variations [orch.] Op.78 (1877) . . . 3 Slavonic Rhapsodies [orch.] Op.45 (1878) . . . Bagatelles [2 vlns, vc & harmonium] Op.47 (1878) . . . Serenade for Winds [12 instrs.] Op.44 (1878) . . . String Sextet in A Op.48 (1878) . . . String Quartet #10 in E flat Op.51 (1878-9) . . . Slavonic Dances (2 series) [orch.] Opp. 46/72 (1878/1886-7) . . . Violin Conc. in A minor Op.53 (1879-80) . . . Piano Trio #3 in F minor Op.65 (1883) . . . Sym. #7 in D minor Op.70 (1884-5) . . . Piano Quintet in A Op.81 (1887) . . . Sym. #8 in G Op.88 (1889) . . . Piano Trio #4 in E minor 'Dumky' Op.90 (1890-1) . . . Carnival Over. [concert over.] Op.92 (1891) . . . Te Deum [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.103 (1892) . . . String Quartet #12 in F 'American' Op.96 (1893) . . . Sym. #9 in E minor 'From the New World' Op.95 (1893) . . . Cello Conc. in B minor Op.104 (1894-5) . . . String Quartet #13 in G Op.106 (1895) . . . String Quartet #14 in A flat Op.105 (1895) . . . Rusalka [opera] (1900) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Brahms; Chopin; --J Haydn; +Herbert; +Joplin?; Liszt; --Mozart; -Schubert; R Schumann; Smetana; Wagner; EUROPEAN & AMERICAN FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Bax; Beach; COLERIDGE-TAYLOR; Elgar; Fibich; Foote; Gretchaninov?; JANÁCEK; Martinu; Nielsen?; NOVÁK; Schoenberg; SUK; Vaughan Williams?; Zemlinsky


Eisler, Hanns (1898-1962) German-Austrian; New York-based 1937-48, Berlin-based thereafter
Best Known For:  songs---chamber music---orchestral pcs---works for stage & screen---music on political subjects
Notable Work:  . . . Divertimento [wind quintet] Op.5 (1923) 
Musical Influences:  Mahler; Schoenberg; Webern; Wolf; Wolf-Ferrari?; jazz
Has Influenced:  Blitzstein


45. Elgar, Edward (1857-1934) British
Style/Period:  Late English Romantic
Genre Profile:  223---0322---2212---220---12---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---syms.---choral & choral-orchestral music---concs.---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Serenade in E minor [string orch.] Op.20 (1892) . . . Variations on an Original Theme 'Enigma' [orch.] Op.36 (1898-9) . . . The Dream of Gerontius [sacred oratorio for 3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1899-1900) . . . Cockaigne (In London Town) [concert over.] Op.40 (1900-1) . . . Pomp & Circumstance March #1 in D [orch.] Op.39 no.1 (1901) . . . Introduction & Allegro [str qtt & string orch.] Op.47 (1904-5) . . . Sym. #1 in A flat Op.55 (1907-8) . . . Violin Conc. in B minor Op.61 (1909-10) . . . Sym. #2 in E flat Op.63 (1909-11) . . . Falstaff: Symphonic Study in C minor Op.68 (1913) . . . String Quartet in E minor Op.83 (1918) . . . Piano Quintet in A minor Op.84 (1918-9) . . . Cello Conc. in E minor Op.85 (1919) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven?; Brahms; Delibes; Dvorák; Franck; --Handel; --J Haydn; -Mendelssohn; Meyerbeer?; Parry; -R Schumann; +R Strauss; WAGNER
Has Influenced:  Arnold?; Bax; Bliss; Carpenter; Coleridge-Taylor; Finzi; Holst; Howells; Vaughan Williams; Walton


Enescu, George [Enesco, Georges] (1881-1955) Romanian-French; Romania- & Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Romantic to c1914; Impressionist thereafter
Genre Profile:  202---1200---2212---201---02---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . 2 Romanian Rhapsodies [orch.] Op.11 (1901) . . . Legend [trumpet & pf] (c1905) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano #3 in A minor Op.25 (1926) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Brahms; Debussy; Dukas?; Fauré; Franck; Massenet; Ravel; Reger?; Schoenberg?; Wagner; Romanian folk music


66. Falla, Manuel de (1876-1946) Spanish; Cadiz, Madrid, Paris, Granada & finally Argentina-based
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist (Impressionist) to c1920; Neoclassical thereafter
Genre Profile:  021---2000---1102---202---32---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known Work:  . . . La Vida Breve [opera] (1904-5) . . . Nights in the Gardens of Spain [pf & orch.] (1911-5) . . . 7 Popular Spanish Songs [solo v & pf/orch.] (1914-5) . . . El Amor Brujo [ballet] (1914-5) . . . The Three-Cornered Hat [2 suites for orch. from the ballet] (1919) . . . Homenaje 'Le Tombeau de Claude Debussy' [guitar] (1920) . . . Conc. for Harpsichord, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Violin & Cello [6 instrs.] in D (1923-6) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; ---JS Bach; --Chopin; Debussy; Dukas; Granados; Ravel; [F Pedrell]; ---D Scarlatti; +Stravinsky; SPANISH FOLK (& OTHER) MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Gerhard; Ginastera; Rodrigo; Turina


Fasch, Johann Friedrich (1688-1758) German; Zerbst-based from 1721
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque/Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  concs. (espec. for brass &/or woodwinds)---orchestral suites
Notable Works:  . . . Conc. in D [trumpet, 2 oboes & strings] (d?) . . . Conc. for Trumpet & Strings in D (d?)
Musical Influences:  [JP Krieger]; Telemann; Vivaldi; Italian music


32. Fauré, Gabriel (1845-1924) French; mainly Paris-based from 1854
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  022---2200---2223---202---02---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  chamber music---songs & song cycles---piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---sacred choral & choral-orchestral music---orchestral pcs---cello (chamber combs.)---solo harp
Notable Works:  . . . Cantique de Jean Racine [sacred cantata for chorus & org] Op.11 (1865, r1866) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano #1 in A Op.13 (1875-6) . . . Piano Quartet #1 in C minor Op.15 (1876-9) . . . Requiem [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.48 (1877, 1887-90, 1900) . . . Après un Rêve in C minor [song for solo v & pf] Op.7 no.1 (1878?) . . . Berceuse in D [vln & pf] Op.16 (1879) . . . Elégie [vc & pf] Op.24 (1880; vc & orch. arr. c1896) . . . Ballade in F sharp [pf & orch.] Op.19 (1881) . . . Clair de Lune in B flat minor [song for solo v & pf] Op.46 no.2 (1887) . . . Pavane [orch. w/chorus ad lib; also in other arrs.] Op.50 (1887) . . . La Bonne Chanson [song cycle for solo v & pf] Op.61 (1892-4) . . . Dolly [suite for pf 4 hands] Op.56 (1894-7) . . . Fantaisie [fl & pf] Op.79 (1898) . . . Suite from Pelléas et Mélisande [orch.; from incidental music to the Maeterlinck play, orch. by C. Koechlin] Op.80 (1898) . . . Impromptu [harp] Op.86 (1904) . . . Pénélope [opera] (1913) . . . Piano Trio in D minor Op.120 (1922-3) . . . String Quartet in E minor Op.121 (1923-4) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Chopin; Gounod; Liszt; Mendelssohn; SAINT-SAËNS; R Schumann; Renaissance, Baroque & Classical music
Has Influenced:  Albéniz; Berkeley; Boulanger; Bridge; Casella; Copland; Debussy; Duparc; Dukas?; Duruflé; Dutilleux; Enescu; -Franck; Ginastera; Granados?; Honegger; Ibert?; Jongen; KOECHLIN; Martin; Milhaud; Mompou; Piston; Poulenc; RAVEL; +Rutter; Schmitt; Tailleferre; Vierne; Villa-Lobos


Feldman, Morton (1926-87) American; New York-based until 1973, Buffalo-based thereafter
Style/Period:  American Avant-garde (Minimalist), New York school
Genre Profile:  012---1211---2222---211---11---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  aleatory music---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Coptic Light [orch.] (1986)
Musical Influences:  Bartók?; CAGE; VARÈSE; Webern; Wolpe
Has Influenced:  Andriessen; -Cage; Rihm; Wolff


Fibich, Zdenek (1850-1900) Bohemian; Prague-based from 1874
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) Romantic
Best Known For:  solo piano---operas & other dramatic music---orchestral pcs---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Poème [pf] Op.41 no.6 (1892-3) . . . At Twilight [sym. poem] Op.39 (1893) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Dvorák; Liszt; -Mendelssohn; -Schubert; R Schumann; Smetana; Wagner; -Weber
Has Influenced:  Janácek?


Field, John (1782-1837) Irish; London-based 1793-1802; mainly Russia-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (London piano school)
Best Known For:  piano (solo--espec. nocturnes, chamber combs., w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Rondo from Piano Sonata in E flat Op.1 no.1 (p1801) . . . Piano Conc. #2 in A flat (1811) . . . Nocturne #1 in E flat [pf] (1812) 
Musical Influences:  Clementi; Russian music
Has Influenced:  Chopin; -Hummel; Liszt; Mendelssohn; Mendelssohn-Hensel; C Schumann?; R Schumann


Fine, Irving (1914-62) American; Boston area-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Best Known For:  chamber music---choral music---orchestral pcs
Musical Influences:  Copland; Hindemith; Stravinsky


Finney, Ross Lee (1906-97) American; Ann Arbor-based 1949-74
Style/Period:  Post-Schoenbergian Serial
Best Known For:  chamber music---choral & choral-orchestral music
Musical Influences:  Berg; Sessions; American folk music
Has Influenced:  Crumb


Finzi, Gerald (1901-56) British
Style/Period:  English Nationalist (Neoromantic)
Genre Profile:  022---2220---1012---000---00---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  vocal- & choral-orchestral music---songs & song cycles---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . songs & song cycles [solo v & pf] (c1926-56) . . . 5 Bagatelles [cl & pf] Op.23 (1920s, r1941-3) . . . Dies natalis [secular cantata for solo v & string orch.] (1926-39) . . . Eclogue [pf & orch.] Op.10 (late 1920s, r. late 1940s) . . . Conc. for Clarinet & String Orch. in C minor Op.31 (1948-9) . . . God is Gone Up [anthem for mixed 4 vv chorus & org] Op.27 no.2 (1951) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Elgar; Parry; Vaughan Williams; +Walton


Flotow, Friedrich von (1812-83) German
Style/Period:  Early German Romantic (bel canto) w/eclectic French & Italian elements
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Works:  . . . Alessandro Stradella [opera] (1844) . . . Martha [opera] (1847), incl. 'Ach so Traut' [aria] 
Musical Influences:  Auber; Donizetti; +Gounod; Halévy?; Meyerbeer; +Offenbach; Reicha?; Rossini


Foote, Arthur (William) (1853-1937) American; Boston area-based
Style/Period:  Late Romantic (New England school)
Best Known For:  chamber music---music for string instrs.
Notable Work:  . . . Suite in E [string orch.] Op.63 (1907, r1908)
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Dvorák; -Mendelssohn; [JK Paine]; R Schumann; Native American themes


Foss, Lukas (1922-2009) German-American; U.S.-based from 1937
Style/Period:  Neoclassical to c1960; highly varied thereafter (w/Avant-garde, Experimentalist, Neoclassical & Minimalist elements: Polystylistic)
Best Known For:  chamber music---works for featured instr. w/orch.---aleatory music---ensemble improvisations
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Copland; Hindemith; -Mahler?; Stravinsky; Americana


Françaix, Jean (1912-97) French
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---222---22---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  wind instr(s). (chamber combs., w/orch.)---chamber music---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . Quintet for Flute, Harp & String Trio (1934) . . . Petit Quatuor [saxophone quartet] (1935) . . . Wind Quintet #1 (1948) . . . L'Horloge de Flore [suite for oboe & orch.] (1959) . . . Tema con Variazioni [cl & pf] (1974) 
Musical Influences:  -Chabrier; Poulenc; Ravel; Stravinsky


52. Franck, Cesar (1822-90) Belgian-French; Paris-based 1835-42 & from 1844
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic
Genre Profile:  202---2000---2223---230---01---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  solo organ---symphonic poems---piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---chamber music---sacred vocal- & choral-orchestral music---Sym. in D minor
Notable Works:  . . . Grand Pièce Symphonique in F sharp minor [org] Op.17 (1860-2) . . . Prelude, Fugue & Variation in B minor [org] Op.18 (1860-2) . . . Les Béatitudes [sacred oratorio for 8 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1869-79) . . . Panis Angelicus [sacred song for solo v, harp, vc, double-bass & org] (1872) . . . Les Éolides [sym. poem] (1875-6) . . . Fantaisie in A [org] Op.35 (1878) . . . Pièce Héroïque in B minor [org] Op.37 (1878) . . . Piano Quintet in F minor (1878-9) . . . Le Chasseur Maudit [sym. poem] (1882) . . . Prélude, Choral et Fugue [pf] (1884) . . . Variations Symphoniques [pf & orch.] (1885) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano in A (1886) . . . Sym. in D minor (1886-8) . . . Psyche [sym. poem w/chorus] (1887-8) . . . String Quartet in D (1889) . . . 3 Chorales [org] Opp. 38-40 (1890) 
Musical Influences:  --JS BACH; Beethoven; Berlioz; Chopin; +Fauré; -Grétry?; LISZT; Reicha; Wagner
Has Influenced:  CHAUSSON; Debussy; Dukas; Duparc; Dupré; Elgar; Enescu; ++Ginastera; Guilmant?; INDY; Jongen; Loeffler?; Martin; PIERNÉ; Roussel; +Sowerby; TOURNEMIRE; Turina; VIERNE; Widor


Franz, Robert (1815-92) German; Halle-based
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic (Biedermeier)
Best Known For:  lieder
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; --Handel; SCHUBERT; R SCHUMANN; German folksong


Frescobaldi, Girolamo (1583-1643) Italian; Ferrara-based to c1600, Rome-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Early Italian Baroque
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  solo organ---motets---instrumental ensemble canzonas---solo harpsichord---madrigals
Notable Works:  . . . solo keyboard works (2 books) (p1624 & 1627) . . . 3 Toccatas for the Elevation of the Host (from 'Fiori Musicali,' Op.12) [org] (p1635) 
Musical Influences:  A Gabrieli; G Gabrieli?; Gesualdo; [L LUZZASCHI]; [C Merulo]; Monteverdi; Sweelinck?; Franco-Flemish school
Has Influenced:  ++JS Bach; Buxtehude; L Couperin?; FROBERGER; +Fux; +Muffat?; +Pachelbel; [B PASQUINI]; [M Rossi]; +Purcell; Scheidt?; -Sweelinck?; ++Zelenka


Froberger, Johann Jakob (1616-67) German; travelled widely in Europe
Style/Period:  Early German Baroque
Best Known For:  solo keyboard/harpsichord (toccatas, suites, canzonas, etc.)
Musical Influences:  [J Chambonnières]; +L Couperin; FRESCOBALDI; [M Rossi]; +[M Weckmann]?; French lute music
Has Influenced:  +JS Bach; Böhm; Buxtehude; L Couperin; +Handel?; Pachelbel; Purcell; [M Weckmann]?


Fux, Johann Joseph (1660-1741) Austrian; Vienna-based from c1695
Style/Period:  Late Austrian Baroque
Best Known For:  church music (operas, oratorios, masses, motets, etc.)---solo keyboard
Musical Influences:  Corelli; +F Couperin; -Frescobaldi; --PALESTRINA; [B Pasquini]
Has Influenced:  JS Bach?; ++Beethoven; Caldara; Gluck; J Haydn; M HAYDN; +Mozart; +Salieri; Zelenka


Gabrieli, Andrea (c1533-85) Italian; Venice-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Renaissance (Venetian school)
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music---madrigals---instrumental ensemble canzonas
Notable Work:   . . . Concerti [various combs. of 6-16 vv & instrs.] (p1587) 
Musical Influences:  -Josquin?; LASSO; Rore; Willaert
Has Influenced:  Frescobaldi; G GABRIELI; HASSLER; -Lasso?; Marenzio; Sweelinck


Gabrieli, Giovanni (c1555-1612) Italian; Venice-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Renaissance (Venetian school)
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  instrumental ensemble canzonas & sonatas---sacred motets---solo organ---brass (chamber combs.)
Notable Works:  . . . Symphoniae sacrae [2 collections of sacred works for various combs. of 6-20 instrs.] (p1597 & 1615) . . . In ecclesiis [sacred motet for 14 vv] (p1615) . . . Timor et tremor [sacred motet for 6 vv] (p1615) 
Musical Influences:  A GABRIELI; LASSO; +Monteverdi; Willaert
Has Influenced:  Cavalli; Frescobaldi?; [A Grandi]; Hassler; +++M Haydn?; -[L Luzzaschi]; Monteverdi; Praetorius; Schein; SCHÜTZ; Sweelinck?


Gade, Niels (1817-90) Danish; mainly Copenhagen-based
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Echoes of Ossian [over. for orch.] Op.1 (1840) . . . 8 syms. (1840-71) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Chopin; Liszt; MENDELSSOHN; R Schumann; Wagner
Has Influenced:  Grieg; Nielsen


Galuppi, Baldassare (1706-85) Italian; Venice-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  operas & oratorios---harpsichord sonatas & concs.
Musical Influences:  Lotti
Has Influenced:  Grétry


Geminiani, Francesco (1687-1762) Italian; London- & Dublin-based from 1714
Style/Period:  Late Italian Baroque
Best Known For:  violin (sonatas, concerti grossi)
Notable Works:  . . . concerti grossi (4 sets) Opp. 2/3/5/7 (p1726-46) 
Musical Influences:  CORELLI; Handel?; Muffat?; A Scarlatti
Has Influenced:  Arne; Leclair?


Gerhard, Roberto (1896-1970) Spanish (Catalan)-British; Cambridge-based from 1939
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist (Serial/Neoclassical) to c1950; Serial (Expressionist) thereafter
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---ballets---orchestral pcs---rhythmicity & bright timbre
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Debussy; Falla; Granados; [F Pedrell]; Ravel; SCHOENBERG; Stravinsky; Varèse; folk music


30. Gershwin, George (1898-1937) American; New York-based
Style/Period:  American Vernacularist
Genre Profile:  032---3000---0202---200---02---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, w/orch.)---stage works---songs---orchestral pcs
Notable Works:  . . . Lullaby [str qtt] (1919) . . . Rhapsody in Blue [pf & orch.] (1924) . . . Piano Conc. in F (1925) . . . 3 Preludes [pf] (1926) . . . An American in Paris [sym. poem] (1928) . . . Cuban Over. [rhumba for orch.] (1932) . . . Variations on 'I Got Rhythm' [pf & orch.] (1934) . . . Porgy and Bess [folk opera] (1935) 
Musical Influences:  Berg; Carpenter?; Cowell; Debussy; Joplin; Milhaud; Ravel; +Shostakovich; Stravinsky; Jewish folk music; Latin dance rhythms; JAZZ; BLUES; RAGTIME
Has Influenced:  ANDERSON; Argento; Bartók?; Bernstein; Copland; Dello Joio?; Gould; -Grofé; Khachaturian; Krenek; -Loeffler; -Ravel; Walton; Weill


Gesualdo, Carlo (c1561-1613) Italian; Naples-, Ferrara- & Gesualdo-based
Style/Period:  Late Italian Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  madrigals---sacred motets
Notable Works:  . . . secular madrigals [5-6 vv] (p1594-1626) . . . Ave, dulcissima Maria [sacred motet for 5 vv] (p1603) . . . sacred madrigals [5-6 vv] (p1603-20) 
Musical Influences:  [L LUZZASCHI]; Marenzio; Rore; [G de Wert]
Has Influenced:  +++Dallapiccola; Frescobaldi; -[L Luzzaschi]?; [M Rossi]; +++Stravinsky; +++Warlock


Gibbons, Orlando (1583-1625) British; London-based from c1603
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  anthems---solo keyboard (virginal)---madrigals---consort music, espec. viol fantasias
Notable Works:  . . . anthems [4-8 vv] (c1600-25) . . . The Lord of Salisbury, his Pavan & Galliard in A minor [keyb] (p1613)
Musical Influences:  Bull; BYRD; Marenzio?; Morley; Tallis
Has Influenced:  ++Purcell


Ginastera, Alberto (1916-83) Argentinian; Buenos Aires-based to 1968, mainly Geneva-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Argentinian Nationalist to c1960; Serial (Expressionist) thereafter
Genre Profile:  122---2222---1202---212---22---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  piano (solo, concs.)---operas---chamber music---concs.
Notable Works:  . . . 3 Danzas Argentinas [pf] Op.2 (1937) . . . String Quartet #1 Op.20 (1948) . . . Piano Sonata #1 Op.22 no.2 (1952) . . . Harp Conc. Op.25 (1956) . . . Cantata para América Mágica [solo v & 53 perc instrs.] Op.27 (1960) . . . Piano Conc. #1 Op.28 (1961) . . . Bomarzo [chamber opera] Op.34 (1967) . . . Guitar Sonata Op.47 (1976) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Copland; Debussy; Falla; Fauré; --Franck; Hindemith; Schoenberg; Stravinsky; -Verdi; Argentinian folk music
Has Influenced:  Piazzolla


Giordano, Umberto (1867-1948) Italian; Milan-based from 1894
Style/Period:  Late Italian Romantic (verismo)
Genre Profile:  011---0000---0100---100---13---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Works:  . . . Andrea Chénier [opera] (1896) . . . Fedora [opera] (1898) 
Musical Influences:  Leoncavallo?; Mascagni; Massenet; Ponchielli; Verdi


Giuliani, Mauro (1781-1829) Italian; Vienna-based 1806-19
Style/Period:  Post-Classical
Best Known For:  guitar (solo, chamber combs.--espec. w/flute, w/orch., song acc.)
Notable Works:  . . . Guitar Conc. #1 in A Op.30 (1808) . . . Grande Ouverture [guitar] Op.61 (1814) . . . Grand Sonata for Flute & Guitar in A Op.85 (1817) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; +Donizetti?; +Rossini; folk music; late 18th century Neapolitan school


Glass, Philip (1937-) American; New York-based from 1967
Style/Period:  Minimalist
Genre Profile:  222---0202---2211---212---13---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas---orchestral pcs---film scores---mixed-media works---solo piano & solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Einstein on the Beach [opera] (1975) . . . Satyagraha [opera] (1980) . . . Akhnaten [opera] (1984) . . . Conc. for Violin & Orch. (1987) . . . Low Symphony (1992) 
Musical Influences:  Cage; Riley; [RAVI SHANKAR]; Stravinsky; MUSIC OF INDIA; rock music
Has Influenced:  Adams; Andriessen; [D Bowie]; [B Eno]; Nyman


Glazunov, Alexander (1865-1936) Russian; St. Petersburg-based to 1928
Style/Period:  Late (post-Brahmsian) Russian Romantic
Genre Profile:  222---2220---1202---220---20---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---ballets---concs.---chamber music---solo piano & solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #4 in E flat Op.48 (1893) . . . Sym. #6 in C minor Op.58 (1896) . . . Raymonda [ballet] Op.57 (1896-7) . . . The Seasons [ballet] Op.67 (1899) . . . Violin Conc. in A minor Op.82 (1904) . . . Saxophone Conc. in E flat Op.109 (1934) 
Musical Influences:  Balakirev; Borodin; Brahms; -Chopin; Liszt; Rimsky-Korsakov; -R Schumann; Taneyev; Tchaikovsky; Russian popular music
Has Influenced:  Glière; Khachaturian?; Miaskovsky; Prokofiev?; Shostakovich; Stravinsky


Glière, Reinhold (1875-1956) Russian; had connections with Kiev, Moscow, Berlin & the Soviet republics of Azerbaijan & Uzbekistan
Style/Period:  Late Russian Romantic (Socialist Realist)
Best Known For:  syms.---ballets---symphonic poems---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . P'esy: Prelude & Scherzo [double-bass & pf] Op.32 (1908) . . . Sym. #3 in B minor 'Il'ya Muromets' Op.42 (1909-11) . . . The Red Poppy [orch. suite from the ballet] Op.70 (1926-7, r1949) . . . Harp Conc. in E flat Op.74 (1938) . . . Conc. for Coloratura Soprano & Orch. Op.82 (1943) 
Musical Influences:  Arensky; Borodin; --Chopin; Glazunov; Ippolitov-Ivanov?; Liszt; Rimsky-Korsakov; Scriabin; Taneyev; Tchaikovsky; Wagner; folk music
Has Influenced:  Khachaturian; Miaskovsky; Prokofiev


102. Glinka, Mikhail (1804-57) Russian; travelled widely in Europe
Style/Period:  Early Russian Romantic (Nationalist; bel canto)
Genre Profile:  122---0000---2222---202---03---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operas & opera overs.---chamber music---solo piano---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Trio Pathétique for Clarinet, Bassoon & Piano in D minor (1832) . . . A Life for the Tsar [opera] (1834-6) . . . Ruslan & Lyudmila [opera] (1837-42) . . . Over. to (the opera) Ruslan & Lyudmila [orch.] (1837-42) . . . Kamarinskaya [orch.] (1848) 
Musical Influences:  Beethoven; Bellini; +Berlioz; +Chopin; Donizetti; -Gluck; -Mozart; Rossini; Weber?; FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  BALAKIREV; Borodin; Cui; Dargomïzhsky; MUSSORGSKY; ++Prokofiev; Rimsky-Korsakov; Rubinstein; +Stravinsky; Tchaikovsky


68. Gluck, Christoph W.R. von (1714-87) German; mainly Vienna-based from 1748
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Genre Profile:  000---0000---0100---000---23---110
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas & opera overs.
Notable Works:  . . . Orfeo ed Euridice [opera] (1762), incl. 'Dance of the Blessed Spirits' [fl & orch.] . . . Alceste [opera] (1767) . . . Iphigénie en Aulide [opera] (1774) . . . Over. to (the opera) Iphigénie en Aulide [orch.] (1774) . . . Iphigénie en Tauride [opera] (1779) 
Musical Influences:  +JC Bach?; Caldara?; Fux; Handel; Hasse; Jommelli; --Lully; Pergolesi; Rameau; SAMMARTINI; French & Italian opera
Has Influenced:  JC Bach; Beethoven; +Berlioz; Boccherini; CHERUBINI; Dittersdorf; +Glinka; ++Gounod; Grétry; J Haydn; Mayr; MÉHUL; +Meyerbeer; Mozart; [JG Naumann]; Piccinni; Reicha; [A Sacchini]; ++Saint-Saëns?; SALIERI; +Schubert; SPONTINI; ++Wagner; Weber


Goldmark, C[K]arl [Károly] (1830-1915) Hungarian-Austrian; mainly Vienna-based from 1844
Style/Period:  Middle German Romantic
Best Known For:  operas---symphonic poems---overs.
Notable Works:  . . . Rustic Wedding [sym. poem] Op.26 (1877) . . . Violin Conc. #1 in A minor Op.28 (p1877) 
Musical Influences:  +Brahms; Liszt; Mendelssohn; R Schumann; Spohr; WAGNER


Gombert, Nicolas (c1500-c1556) Flemish
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred motets---masses---chansons---vocal imitation technique
Musical Influences:  JOSQUIN
Has Influenced:  Lasso; +Monteverdi; Morales


Górecki, Henryk (1933-2010) Polish; mainly Katowice-based from 1955
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde to c1970; Minimalist (Neoromantic) thereafter
Best Known For:  syms.---vocal- & choral-orchestral music---orchestral pcs---music on religious subjects---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Three Pieces in Olden Style [string orch.] (1963) . . . Sym. #3 'Symphony of Lamentation Songs' [solo v & orch.] Op.36 (1976) . . . Totus tuus [chorus] Op.60 (1987) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; ---Beethoven?; Boulez; Messiaen; Nono; +Penderecki; -Scriabin?; Stockhausen; Szymanowski; Webern; Xenakis; Medieval & Renaissance music; liturgical music; folk music


Gottschalk, Louis Moreau (1829-69) American; travelled widely in Europe and North & Latin America
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic (Paris virtuoso school)/American Nationalist
Genre Profile:  201---2000---0002---300---01---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, 4 hands)
Notable Works:  . . . The Banjo [pf] Op.15 (1854-5) . . . Souvenir de Porto Rico [pf] Op.31 (1857)
. . . Sym. #1 'La Nuit des Tropiques' (1858-9) 
Musical Influences:  Chopin; Liszt; NORTH & LATIN AMERICAN FOLK & POPULAR MUSIC
Has Influenced:  ++Bolcom; Joplin; MacDowell?


Gould, Morton (1913-96) American; mainly New York-based
Style/Period:  American Vernacularist
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---brass (orchestral)---concert band music
Notable Works:  . . . American Salute (When Johnny Comes Marching Home) [orch.] (1943) . . . Fall River Legend [ballet] (1947; orch. suite 1949)
Musical Influences:  Gershwin; ragtime; jazz; Americana


56. Gounod, Charles (1818-93) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Middle French Romantic
Genre Profile:  212---1000---0112---120---23---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---masses & other church music---songs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Messe Solennelle de Sainte Cecile [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1855) . . . Ave Maria [religious song for solo v & pf, & other arrs.] (1859) . . . Faust [opera] (1859) . . . Ballet Music from (the opera) Faust [orch.] (1859) . . . Roméo et Juliette [opera] (1867) . . . Marche Funèbre d'une Marionette [orch.] (1879) 
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach; Beethoven?; Berlioz; --Gluck; Halévy?; Mendelssohn; Meyerbeer; --Mozart; ---PALESTRINA; Reicha?; Schubert; R Schumann
Has Influenced:  BIZET; Chabrier; Chaminade; G Charpentier; Duparc; Fauré; -Flotow; MASSENET; Puccini; Saint-Saëns; Sullivan; Tchaikovsky; THOMAS


92. Grainger, Percy (1882-1961) Australian-American; U.S.-based from 1914
Style/Period:  English Nationalist w/Experimentalist elements
Genre Profile:  002---2202---2122---211---00---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  folksong settings (various forces)---piano (solo, 2 players)---choral & choral-orchestral music---unusual instrumental settings
Notable Works:  . . . folksong settings [solo v & acc.] (1898-1954) . . . folksong settings [choral & choral-orchestral] (1901-1949) . . . Country Gardens [pf, orch., & pf 4 hands arrs.] (1908-18) . . . Lincolnshire Posy [6 folksong settings for large wind band] (1937-8, 1940) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Busoni; Delius; Grieg; --R Schumann; FOLKSONG
Has Influenced:  Sowerby?


109. Granados, Enrique (1867-1916) Spanish; mainly Barcelona-based
Style/Period:  Spanish Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  021---0000---1112---300---02---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  solo piano---songs
Notable Works:  . . . 12 Danzas Españolas [pf] Op.37 (1892-1900) . . . 15 Tonadillas al Estilo Antiguo [songs] (1910-1) . . . Goyescas (2 books) [pf suite] (1911) . . . Intermezzo from (the opera) Goyescas [orch.] (1916) 
Musical Influences:  Albéniz; Brahms?; -Chopin; Fauré? Grieg; Liszt; [F Pedrell]; ---D Scarlatti; --Schubert; -R Schumann; Wagner; Spanish/Andalusian folk/traditional music
Has Influenced:  Falla; Gerhard; Rodrigo


Gretchaninov, Alexander Tikhonovich (1864-1956) Russian-French-American; mainly Moscow- & St. Petersburg-based to 1925, thereafter France-based to 1939 & U.S.-based from then on
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Late Romantic)
Best Known For:  liturgical music---music for children---orchestral pcs---stage works
Musical Influences:  Borodin; Dvorák?; Rimsky-Korsakov; +Scriabin?; R Strauss?; Tchaikovsky


Grétry, André-Ernest-Modeste (1741-1813) Belgian-French; Paris-based from 1767
Style/Period:  Classical
Best Known For:  comic operas
Musical Influences:  Galuppi; Gluck; -Pergolesi; Italian comic arias; French popular song; French folk song
Has Influenced:  Boieldieu; Cherubini; +Franck?; Méhul; Mozart; Schubert?


33. Grieg, Edvard (1843-1907) Norwegian; Bergen-based from 1874
Style/Period:  Norwegian Nationalist (Romantic)
Genre Profile:  232---3000---0212---300---01---130
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known Work:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (1861-1905) . . . Lyric Pieces (10 books) [pf] (1867-1901) . . . Piano Conc. in A minor Op.16 (1868, r1906-7) . . . Incidental Music to (the Ibsen play) Peer Gynt [solo vv, chorus & orch.] Op.23 (1874-5) . . . Peer Gynt Suite #1 [orch.] Op.46 (1874-5, r1888) . . . Peer Gynt Suite #2 [orch.] Op.55 (1874-5, r1891 & 1892) . . . String Quartet in G minor Op.27 (1877-8) . . . 4 Norwegian Dances [pf 4 hands] Op.35 (1881; orch. arr. 1887) . . . Two Elegaic Melodies [string orch.] Op.34 (1881) . . . Holberg Suite [string orch. arr.] Op.40 (1885) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano #3 in C minor Op.45 (1886-7) . . . Haugtussa [song cycle for solo v & pf] Op.67 (1895) 
Musical Influences:  -Beethoven; Chopin; Gade; JPE Hartmann; Liszt; Mendelssohn; Reinecke?; R Schumann; Wagner?; NORWEGIAN FOLKSONG
Has Influenced:  Bartók; Bax; Beach?; Coleridge-Taylor; Debussy; Delius; Grainger; Granados; Hanson; Holst; Karg-Elert; MacDowell; Miaskovsky?; Nielsen; Novák; Ponce; Rachmaninov; Ravel; Reger?; Schulhoff; Sibelius; Sinding; -Tchaikovsky


Griffes, Charles Tomlinson (1884-1920) American; spent 1903-7 in Germany, thereafter Tarrytown, New York-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist
Genre Profile:  012---0020---1101---210---10---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---solo piano---songs & song cycles
Notable Works:  . . . songs & song cycles [solo v & pf] (1901-17) . . . Piano Sonata in F sharp minor (c1912) . . . The White Peacock (from 'Roman Sketches,' Op.7) [pf] (1915; orch. arr. c1919) . . . The Pleasure-Dome of Kubla Khan [orch. arr.] Op.8 (1917) . . . Poem [fl & orch.] (1918) 
Musical Influences:  Brahms; Busoni?; DEBUSSY; Humperdinck; -Mussorgsky; Ravel; Scriabin; R Strauss; -Wagner; EAST ASIAN MUSIC; Native American music


Grofé, Ferde (1892-1972) American; New York area-based to 1945; California-based thereafter
Style/Period:  American Light Classical
Best Known For:  light orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Grand Canyon Suite [orch.] (1931)
Musical Influences:  +Gershwin; jazz; popular song; Americana


Guarnieri, M(ozart) Camargo (1907-93) Brazilian; São Paulo-based
Style/Period:  Brazilian Nationalist
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---songs---solo piano---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Dança Brasileira [orch.] (1928) . . . Dança Negra [2 pf] (1946) 
Musical Influences:  -Brahms?; Debussy; Koechlin; BRAZILIAN FOLK MUSIC; blues


Gubaidulina [Gubaydulina], Sofia (1931-) Russian; Hamburg-based since 1992
Style/Period:  Experimentalist/Exoticist (Mystical)
Best Known For:  works featuring exotic instrs. & unusual instrumental settings---philosophical/spiritual symbolism-based music
Notable Works:  . . . L'Offertorium [conc. for vln & orch.] (1980, r1982 & 1986) . . . Hommage à T. S. Eliot [v & octet] (1987)
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók?; Shostakovich; Webern; Eastern folk music


Guerrero, Francisco (1528-99) Spanish; Seville-based
Style/Period:  Late Spanish Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred vocal music (motets, masses)---secular songs
Notable Work:  . . . Ave virgo sanctissima [sacred motet for 5 vv] (p1566) 
Musical Influences:  MORALES


Guilmant, (Félix-) Alexandre (1837-1911) French; mainly Paris-based from 1862
Style/Period:  Late French Romantic (French organ school)
Best Known For:  organ (solo, w/orch.)
Notable Work:  . . . Sonata # 1 in D minor [org] Op.42 (1898)
Musical Influences:  --JS Bach?; Franck?; --Handel; [J-N Lemmens]; Liszt; Saint-Saëns?; R Schumann
Has Influenced:  Dupré; Vierne


Hahn, Reynaldo (1874-1947) Venezuelan-French; mainly Paris-based after 1878
Style/Period:  Late (or Post-) Romantic
Best Known For:  songs---operas---operettas---ballets
Notable Works:  . . . Si Mes Vers Avaient des Ailes [song] (1888) . . . Piano Conc. in E (1931)
Musical Influences:  Léhar?; Massenet; --Mozart; Offenbach


Halévy, (Jacques-François-)Fromental (1799-1862) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Early French Romantic
Best Known For:  operas
Notable Work:  . . . La Juive [opera] (1835)
Musical Influences:  Auber; Boieldieu; CHERUBINI; Meyerbeer; +Rossini; French opera
Has Influenced:  Berlioz?; Bizet; Flotow?; Gounod?; -Mercadante; Wagner


8. Handel, George Frideric (1685-1759)
German-British; London-based from 1710
Style/Period:  Late English Baroque (w/eclectic English, German & Italian elements)
Genre Profile:  023---3223---2331---031---03---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  oratorios---orchestral pcs---concs. & concerti grossi---operas---cantatas---organ (concs.)---trio sonatas---solo harpsichord
Notable Works:  . . . 3 concs. for oboe, strings & basso-continuo in B flat/B flat/G minor (c1700) . . . 6 Concerti Grossi [wind & strings; 4-13 instrs.] Op.3 (c1715-22) . . . Water Music [3 orchestral suites] (1717) . . . Acis & Galatea [masque by Gay set to music for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1718) . . . 6 Trio Sonatas [2 vlns (or vln & woodwind) & continuo] Op.2 (c1718) . . . 8 Suites [keyb] (p1720), incl. 'The Harmonious Blacksmith' . . . Julius Caesar [opera] (1724) . . . 4 Coronation Anthems [sacred text for chorus & small orch.] (1727) . . . Conc. for Organ (or Harp) & 2 Recorders, 2 Violins & Basso-Continuo in B flat Op.4 no.6 (1736) . . . Concerto Grosso in C (performed in the oratorio Alexander's Feast) [orch.] (1736) . . . 6 Trio Sonatas [2 vlns & continuo] Op.5 (c1737-8) . . . Xerxes [opera] (1738) . . . 12 Concerti Grossi [2 vlns, vc & strings] Op.6 (1739) . . . Israel in Egypt [sacred oratorio for 6 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1739) . . . Ode for St. Cecilia's Day [secular cantata for 2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1739) . . . Organ Conc. #13 in F 'The Cuckoo & the Nightingale' [org & string orch.] (1739) . . . 6 Concerti for Organ, Woodwinds, Strings & Continuo Op.7 (1740-51) . . . Messiah [sacred oratorio for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1742) . . . Conc. for 2 Wind Bands & Strings #2 in F (c1746-7) . . . Music for the Royal Fireworks in D [orchestral suite] (1749) . . . Solomon [sacred oratorio for solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1749), incl. 'Sinfonia (Arrival of the Queen of Sheba)' [orch.] . . . Sonata #4 for Flute (or Recorder) & Continuo in A minor Op.1 no.4 (d?) 
Musical Influences:  Blow?; Bononcini; Buxtehude; Caldara; -Carissimi; CORELLI; -Froberger?; [F Gasparini]; [R Keiser]; Legrenzi; Lotti; Lully; Muffat; Purcell; Rameau?; A SCARLATTI; -Schütz?; [A Steffani]; -Stradella; Telemann?; Italian opera; dance
Has Influenced:  ++Alkan; Arne; JC Bach?; JS Bach; +Beethoven; BOYCE; ++Brahms; ++Elgar; ++Franz; Geminiani?; Gluck; ++Guilmant; +++Hanson; +++Harrison; J HAYDN; +++Honegger; +++Hovhaness; Leclair?; ++Loewe; ++Mendelssohn; ++Mendelssohn-Hensel; Mozart; Saint-Saëns; ++Schubert; ++Sullivan; ++Taneyev; -Telemann?
 


Hanson, Howard (1896-1981)
American; Rochester NY-based from 1924
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  212---2002---1101---200---11---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  syms.---choral & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #1 in E minor 'Nordic' Op.21 (1922) . . . Sym. #2 'Romantic' Op.30 (1930) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Grieg; ---Handel; MacDowell?; -Mussorgsky?; ---Palestrina; Respighi; SIBELIUS; Vaughan Williams?; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Argento


Harbison, John (1938-) American; Boston area-based from 1969
Style/Period:  Neoclassical (Neoromantic)
Best Known For:  chamber music---operas---vocal- & choral-orchestral music
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; ---Schütz; SESSIONS; jazz


Harris, Roy (1898-1979) American
Style/Period:  American Nationalist
Best Known For:  syms.---choral & choral-orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . When Johnny Comes Marching Home--an American Over. (1934) . . . Sym. #3 in One Movement (1937) 
Musical Influences:  [A Farwell]; Sibelius; folksong; Protestant hymns; Medieval, Renaissance & Baroque music; Americana; plainchant
Has Influenced:  Carter; Persichetti; Schickele; SCHUMAN


Harrison, Lou (1917-2003)
American; mainly California-based
Style/Period:  Experimentalist/Exoticist (Mystical)
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---222---21---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  gamelan music-influenced works---chamber music---percussion (chamber combs.)---concs.---violin (chamber combs., w/orch.)---just intonation-based pcs
Notable Works:  . . . 3 Pieces for Gamelan with Soloists [solo horn/vln/suling & gamelan orch.] (1978-9) . . . Ariadne [fl & perc instrs.] (1987) 
Musical Influences:  Berg; Cage; Cowell; ---Handel; Ives; [C McPhee]; Partch; Ruggles; Schoenberg; Thomson; Varése; SOUTHEAST ASIAN MUSIC (INCL. GAMELAN MUSIC); Medieval & Renaissance music; Chinese & Korean music
Has Influenced:  Adams; -Cage


Hartmann, Johan Peder Emilius [J. P. E.] (1805-1900) Danish; Copenhagen-based
Style/Period:  Romantic (Danish Nationalist)
Best Known For:  operas---incidental music
Musical Influences:  +Chopin?; Kuhlau?; +Liszt?; +Mendelssohn; Spohr; Danish folk music; Viennese Classical tradition
Has Influenced:  Grieg; Nielsen


Hartmann, Karl Amadeus (1905-63) German; Munich-based
Style/Period:  Expressionist
Best Known Work:  . . . 8 syms. (1936-62) . . . Concerto Funèbre [vln & string orch.] (1939)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Blacher; -Bruckner; Hindemith; Kodály; Mahler; Reger; Stravinsky; Webern
Has Influenced:  Henze


Hasse, Johann Adolf (1699-1783) German; mainly Dresden- & Venice-based
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical (Neopolitan school)
Best Known For:  opera seria & most other contemporary genres of sacred & secular vocal music---chamber music
Musical Influences:  JS Bach?; [R Keiser]; Lotti?; +Pergolesi?; A SCARLATTI; Vivaldi; Italian opera
Has Influenced:  CPE Bach; JC Bach?; -JS Bach; Cimarosa?; Gluck; J Haydn; [JA Hiller]; Jommelli; Mozart; [JG Naumann]; -Weiss?; -Zelenka


Hassler, Hans Leo (1564-1612) German; successively based in Nuremberg, Venice, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Ulm & Dresden
Style/Period:  Late German Renaissance
Best Known For:  sacred & secular vocal music (masses, madrigals, etc.)---solo organ
Musical Influences:  A GABRIELI; G Gabrieli; Lasso; Marenzio; Palestrina
Has Influenced:  Praetorius?


9. Haydn, (Franz) Joseph (1732-1809) Austrian; intermittently & after 1795 Vienna-based
Style/Period:  Classical (Viennese Classical)
Genre Profile:  322---2332---2332---330---02---330
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  syms.---string quartets---concs.---oratorios---masses---keyboard (piano) sonatas & trios---songs
Notable Works:  . . . Cello Conc. #1 in C (c1761-5) . . . Horn Conc. #3 (old #1) in D (1762) . . . Sym. #22 in E flat 'Philosopher' (1764) . . . Conc. for Violin & String Orch. #1 in C (before 1770) . . . Keyboard Sonata #33 (HXVI:#20) in C minor [pf or hpschd] (1771) . . . String Quartet in D Op.20 no.4 (1772) . . . Sym. #44 in E minor 'Trauer' (before 1773) . . . Sym. #45 in F sharp minor 'Farewell' (1772) . . . Cello Conc. #2 in D Op.101 (1783) . . . Conc. for Keyboard & Strings #11 in D Op.21 (1784 or before) . . . String Quartet in D minor Op.42 (1785) . . . Sym. #88 in G (1787?) . . . Sym. #92 in G 'Oxford' (1789) . . . Keyboard Trio #15 (HXV:#15) in G [hpschd/pf, fl & vc] (1790) . . . Keyboard Trio #16 (HXV:#16) in D [hpschd/pf, fl & vc] (1790) . . . String Quartet in D minor 'Lark' Op.64 no.5 (1790) . . . Sym. #94 in G 'Surprise' (1791) . . . Sym. #96 in D 'Miracle' (1791) . . . Sinfonia Concertante in B flat [vln, vc, oboe, bassoon & orch.] (1792) . . . Sym. #100 in G 'Military' (1793-4) . . . Sym. #101 in D 'Clock' (1793-4) . . . Keyboard Sonata #62 (HXVI:#52) in E flat [pf] (1794) . . . Sym. #102 in B flat (1794) . . . Sym. #103 in E flat 'Drumroll' (1795) . . . Sym. #104 in D 'London' (1795) . . . Missa in tempore belli in C [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1796) . . . Trumpet Conc. in E flat (1796) . . . Gott, erhalte den Kaiser! in G [song for solo v & keyb] (1796-7) . . . The Creation [sacred/secular oratorio for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1796-8) . . . String Quartet in D minor 'Fifths' Op.76 no.2 (1797?) . . . String Quartet in C 'Emperor' Op.76 no.3 (1797?) . . . String Quartet in B flat 'Sunrise' Op.76 no.4 (1797?) . . . Missa in angustiis in D minor 'Nelsonmesse' [4 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1798) . . . The Seasons [secular oratorio for 3 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1799-1801) 
Musical Influences:  CPE BACH; +JC Bach?; +Boccherini?; Caldara; +Cimarosa; +Clementi?; +Dittersdorf?; Fux; Gluck; HANDEL; Hasse; +Mozart; Pergolesi?; Sammartini; D Scarlatti; J Stamitz; popular/gypsy music
Has Influenced:  Beethoven; BOCCHERINI; +Brahms; +Bruckner; Carulli; Cherubini; Cimarosa?; Clementi; Dittersdorf; Dussek; ++Dvorák; ++Elgar; Hummel; Krommer; ++Martinu; Méhul; +Mendelssohn; Mendelssohn-Hensel?; Mozart; +++Persichetti; ++Pfitzner; [I Pleyel]; ++Prokofiev; REICHA; Rossini; Salieri; Schubert; -Soler; Sor; Viotti


Haydn, (Johann) Michael (1737-1806) Austrian; Salzburg-based from 1763
Style/Period:  Classical (Viennese Classical)
Genre Profile:  222---1222---2222---010---11---320
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  masses---concs.---syms.---music for brass instrs.
Notable Works:  . . . masses [for 4 solo vv, chorus & orch. and other combinations] (1754-1806) . . . Conc. for Trumpet & Strings in C (c1760-2) . . . Conc. for Trumpet & Strings in D (c1768-70) 
Musical Influences:  FUX; ---G Gabrieli?; --Monteverdi?; +Mozart?; ---Palestrina; Austrian folk music
Has Influenced:  +Bruckner; Mozart; Salieri; Schubert; Weber


Heinichen, Johann David (1683-1729) German; Dresden-based from 1717
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque
Best Known For:  concs. for multiple instrs.---operas
Musical Influences:  [F Gasparini]?; [JP Krieger]; [J Kuhnau]; Telemann; Vivaldi; Italian opera & cantatas; French & German music
Has Influenced:  Weiss?


Hensel, Fanny Mendelssohn [see under 'Mendelssohn-Hensel']


Henze, Hans Werner (1926-2012) German-Italian; mainly Italy-based since 1953
Style/Period:  Expressionist (Neoclassical to c1968)
Genre Profile:  222---2212---2222---212---22---12x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---syms.---orchestral pcs---music on socialist subjects
Notable Works:  . . . Sym. #5 (1962) . . . The Young Lord [opera] (1964) . . . El Cimarrón [secular songs for solo v & narr., guitar, fl & perc (4 performers)] (1969-70) . . . Violin Conc. #2 [voice, vln, 33 instrs. & magnetic tape] (1971) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; --Brahms?; Britten; [W FORTNER]; KA Hartmann; Hindemith; -Mahler; ---Monteverdi; ---Mozart; Nono?; Schoenberg; Stravinsky ; --Wagner; Weill; Italian opera; jazz; music theatre


Herbert, Victor (1859-1924) Irish-American; U.S.-based from 1886
Style/Period:  American Light Classical
Genre Profile:  012---0211---1002---100---03---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  operettas---cello (w/orch.)
Notable Works:  . . . Cello Conc. #2 in E minor Op.30 (1893) . . . Babes in Toyland [operetta] (1903)
Musical Influences:  Liszt; +R Strauss; Sullivan; Wagner; Viennese operetta
Has Influenced:  -Dvorák


Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) German; from c1150 Bingen am Rhein-based
Style/Period:  Medieval
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  monophonic chants
Notable Works:  . . . Ordo virtutum [morality play] (d?) . . . Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum [collection of 77 liturgical poems set to music] (c1150s) . . . Ave generosa [hymn] (d?) . . . O viridissima virga [sequence] (d?) 
Musical Influences:  plainchant
Has Influenced:  'New Age' music


44. Hindemith, Paul (1895-1963) German; U.S. & Switzerland-based from 1940
Style/Period:  German Neoclassical
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---223---22---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  orchestral/chamber orchestral pcs---syms.---sonatas---viola (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Kleine Kammermusik [wind quintet] Op.24 no.2 (1922) . . . Sonata for Unaccompanied Cello Op.25 no.3 (1922) . . . Das Marienleben [song cycle for solo v & pf] Op.27 (1922-3) . . . Konzertmusik for Brass & Strings Op.50 (1930) . . . Mathis der Maler [opera] (1934-5; symphonic suite 1934) . . . 3 Sonatas for Piano (1936) . . . Sonata for Oboe & Piano (1938) . . . Sonata for Trumpet & Piano (1939) . . . Violin Conc. (1939) . . . The Four Temperaments (Theme & Variations) [pf & string orch.] (1940) . . . Sonata for Alto Horn & Piano in E flat (1943) . . . Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber [sym.] (1943) . . . Die Harmonie der Welt [sym.] (1951) . . . Die Harmonie der Welt [opera version of the sym.] (1956-7) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Brahms; Busoni; Debussy; Joplin; ---Machaut; ---Mozart?; REGER; R Strauss; Stravinsky; jazz; Renaissance polyphony; Baroque music
Has Influenced:  Adler; Badings; Bernstein; Blacher; Carter; DELLO JOIO; Fine; [W Fortner]; Foss; Ginastera; KA Hartmann; Henze; Holmboe; [U Kay]; Kokkonen; Larsson; Lutoslawski?; Pärt; Persichetti; Petrassi; Piazzolla; Pinkham?; -Piston; [M Powell]; Rautavaara; Rochberg; Rubbra?; Shostakovich; Skalkottas; [S Sondheim]; Tippett; Walton; Wolpe?


Holborne, Antony [Anthony] (c1545-1602) British
Style/Period:  Late English Renaissance
Best Known For:  consort music---solo lute pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Pavans, Galliards, Almains and Other Short Aeirs [collection of works for consort] (p1599)
Has Influenced:  Dowland?


Holliger, Heinz (1939-) Swiss
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (Serial)
Best Known For:  oboe (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.]---magnetic tape-based pcs
Musical Influences:  -Berg; Boulez; Kagel; Nono; Schoenberg; --R Schumann; Stockhausen?; [S Veress]; Webern; [BA Zimmermann]


Holmboe, Vagn (1909-96) Danish; mainly Copenhagen-based
Style/Period:  Neoclassical
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music, espec. string quartets---concs.
Musical Influences:  BARTÓK; Hindemith; NIELSEN; Shostakovich; Sibelius; Stravinsky; folk music
Has Influenced:  NØRGÅRD


88. Holst, Gustav (1874-1934) British; taught at the St. Paul's Girl School, Hammersmith, from 1905
Style/Period:  English Nationalist (w/Exoticist elements)
Genre Profile:  123---0202---2011---110---22---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral & wind band suites---choral & choral-orchestral music---instrumental folk music settings---operas
Notable Works:  . . . Savitri [chamber opera] Op.25 (1908) . . . St. Paul's Suite [string orch.] Op.29 no.2 (1912-3) . . . The Planets [orch. suite w/chorus] Op.32 (1914-6) . . . Nunc dimittis [canticle for 8 vv chorus] (1915) . . . The Hymn of Jesus [sacred text for choruses & orch.] Op.37 (1917) . . . Ballet Music from (the opera) The Perfect Fool [orch.] Op.39 (1918-22) 
Musical Influences:  Dukas?; Elgar; Grieg; ---Purcell; +Ravel; Stanford; R Strauss; +Stravinsky; Sullivan; Vaughan Williams; Wagner; ---Weelkes; English folksong; ---Elizabethan music
Has Influenced:  Britten; Moeran; Rubbra; -Vaughan Williams


Honegger, Arthur (1892-1955) Swiss-French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (French Neoclassical)
Genre Profile:  222---2222---1212---212---22---12x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---dramatic works (oratorios, film scores, ballets, incidental music) & derivative orchestral suites---orchestral pcs---sonatas
Notable Works:  . . . Le Roi David [dramatic psalm for solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1921) . . . Danse de la Chèvre [fl] (1921) . . . Sonatina for Clarinet & Piano (1921-2) . . . Pacific 231: Mouvement Symphonique #1 [sym. poem] (1923) . . . Jeanne d'Arc au Bûcher [stage oratorio for 2 narrs., solo vv, choruses & orch.] (1934-5) . . . Sym. #2 [string orch.] (1941) . . . Sym. #3 'Liturgique' (1945-6) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS BACH; --Beethoven; -Berlioz?; +Boulanger; Debussy; Fauré; ---Handel; Milhaud; Reger; Schoenberg; R Strauss; Stravinsky; -Wagner; Baroque & Classical music
Has Influenced:  Badings; [W Fortner]; HUSA; Xenakis?


Hovhaness, Alan (1911-2000) American; mainly Massachusetts- & New York-based to 1966, Seattle-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Exoticist/Mystical)
Genre Profile:  202---2222---2222---222---12---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  immense
Best Known For:  syms.---works for featured instr(s). w/orch.---solo piano---orchestral pcs---works for exotic instrs.---sacred choral-orchestral music---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Alleluia and Fugue [string orch.] Op.40b (1941) . . . Prayer of St. Gregory [trumpet & string orch.] Op.62b (1946) . . . Sym. #2 'Mysterious Mountain' Op.132 (1955) . . . Magnificat [4 solo vv, chorus & chamber orch.] Op.157 (1958) . . . And God Created Great Whales [taped whale sounds & orch.] Op.229 (1970) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; [F Converse]?; ---Handel; Martinu?; Sibelius; SOUTH & EAST ASIAN MUSIC; Renaissance & Baroque music; ARMENIAN FOLK & RELIGIOUS MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Argento


Howells, Herbert (1892-1983) British
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Genre Profile:  002---2202---1202---120---00---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  choral music (anthems, masses, motets, hymns, songs)---solo organ & solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Hymnus Paradisi [2 solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1938) . . . Like as the Hart [anthem for 4 vv & org] (1941) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Delius; Elgar; Parry; Ravel; Stanford; Stravinsky; VAUGHAN WILLIAMS; +Walton; plainchant; folksong; Tudor music
Has Influenced:  Rutter


Hummel, Johann Nepomuk (1778-1837) Slovakian-Austrian; travelled widely in Europe
Style/Period:  Post-Classical (Viennese Classical)
Genre Profile:  022---2221---2222---210---12---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---concs.---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Quintet for Piano & Strings in E flat Op.87 (1802) . . . Trumpet Conc. in E flat (1803) . . . Bassoon Conc. in F (c1805) . . . Piano Conc. in A minor Op.85 (c1816) . . . Piano Conc. in B minor Op.89 (1819) 
Musical Influences:  CPE Bach; --JS Bach?; Clementi; Dussek; +Field; J Haydn; MOZART; Salieri
Has Influenced:  Alkan; Berwald; Chopin; Czerny; Liszt; Mendelssohn; Saint-Saëns?; Schubert; R Schumann


Humperdinck, Engelbert (1854-1921) German
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) German Romantic
Genre Profile:  022---0000---1201---100---02---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  children's operas---incidental music
Notable Works:  . . . Hansel und Gretel [opera] (1893) . . . Incidental Music to (the Rosmer melodrama) Die Königskinder [orch.] (1897; recast as opera in 1910) 
Musical Influences:  +Mahler?; +R Strauss; WAGNER; +Wolf; German folksong
Has Influenced:  Griffes; Weill


Husa, Karel (1921-) Bohemian-American; U.S.-based from 1954
Style/Period:  Expressionist (Neoromantic)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---winds (chamber combs., orchestral)
Notable Works:  . . . Music for Prague [wind orch. & orch. arrs.] (1968) . . . Apotheosis of this Earth [chorus & wind orch.] (1970; chorus & orch. arr. 1972) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; HONEGGER; Janácek; Novák; Stravinsky; Suk; folk music


Ibert, Jacques (1890-1962) French; mainly Paris- & Rome-based
Style/Period:  French Neoclassical (Impressionist)
Genre Profile:  222---0220---2222---212---22---02x
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---chamber music---flute (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---harp (chamber combs.)---stage works
Notable Works:  . . . Escales [sym. poem] (1922) . . . Divertissement (from the incidental music to the Labiche play Chapeau de Paille d'Italie) [chamber orch.] (1930) . . . Trois Pièces Brèves [wind quintet] (1930) . . . Flute Conc. (1934) . . . Pìece for Unaccompanied Flute (1936) . . . Entr'acte [fl & harp, or vln & guitar] (1937) 
Musical Influences:  Chabrier; Debussy; Dukas; Fauré?; +Poulenc?; Ravel; Stravinsky; jazz


Indy, Vincent d' (1851-1931) French; Paris-based
Style/Period:  Late (post-Wagnerian) French Romantic
Best Known For:  symphonic/orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Symphony on a French Mountain Air in G [pf & orch.] Op.25 (1886) . . . Istar: Symphonic Variations Op.42 [orch.] (1896) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; -Beethoven; Berlioz; Delibes; FRANCK; Lalo?; Liszt; --Rameau; WAGNER; Medieval & Renaissance music, incl. Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Albéniz; CANTELOUBE; Dukas; Moore; ROUSSEL; Satie; Sowerby; Turina


Ippolitov-Ivanov, Mikhail M. (1859-1935) Russian; Moscow-based from 1893
Style/Period:  Russian Nationalist (Romantic)
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs
Notable Work:  . . . Caucasian Sketches Suite 1 [orch.] Op.10 (1894) 
Musical Influences:  Balakirev; RIMSKY-KORSAKOV; Tchaikovsky; folk music
Has Influenced:  Glière?


Ireland, John (1879-1962) British; mainly London-based c1893-1953
Style/Period:  Late English Romantic (Celtic revival/Impressionist)
Best Known For:  piano (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---orchestral pcs---choral music---songs---solo organ
Notable Works:  . . . Greater Love Hath No Man [motet for 2 solo vv, chorus & org] (1912) . . . Piano Conc. in E flat (1930) . . . Legend [pf & orch.] (1933) 
Musical Influences:  +Bartók; Brahms; Debussy; Ravel; Scriabin?; Stanford; +Stravinsky; Celtic music
Has Influenced:  Britten; [G Bush]; MOERAN; Rubbra?


Isaac, Heinrich (c1450-1517) Flemish; mainly Florence- & Germany-based from c1484
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Best Known For:  masses & sacred motets
Musical Influences:  [A Busnois]?; Josquin?; +Obrecht?; plainchant; Italian, German & Netherlandish music
Has Influenced:  La Rue?; SENFL; +++Webern; 16th cent. German music


43. Ives, Charles (1874-1954) American; mainly Connecticut- & New York-based
Style/Period:  American Nationalist (w/eclectic post-Brahmsian Romantic, Impressionist & Experimentalist elements: Polystylistic)
Genre Profile:  202---0001---2222---220---00---230
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  syms.---orchestral pcs---songs---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . songs [solo v & pf] (c1887-1926) . . . Variations on 'America' [org] (1891?) . . . Sym. #3 'The Camp Meeting' [small orch.] (1904) . . . Symphony 'Holidays' (1904-13) . . . The Unanswered Question [small orch.] (1906) . . . String Quartet #2 (1907-13) . . . First Orchestral Set 'Three Places in New England' [small orch.] (1908-14?) . . . Piano Sonata #1 (1909) . . . Sym. #4 (1909-16) . . . Piano Sonata #2 'Concord, Mass., 1840-1860' (1910-5) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; --Beethoven; Brahms; Chadwick; Joplin; [JK Paine]; [H Parker]; Tchaikovsky; jazz; AMERICAN POPULAR MUSIC; AMERICAN FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Adams; Bernstein; Bolcom; Cage; Carter; Copland; COWELL; Crumb; Harrison; Musgrave; Riegger; Rochberg; Ruggles?; Schnittke


64. Janácek, Leos (1854-1928) Moravian; Brno-based from 1880
Style/Period:  Czech Nationalist
Genre Profile:  022---0200---2202---210---13---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---orchestral pcs---solo piano---string quartets & other chamber music---vocal- & choral- orchestral music
Notable Works:  . . . Jenufa [opera] (1894-03, r1908 or before) . . . Piano Sonata 'From the Street' (1905) . . . In the Mists [4 movements for pf] (1912) . . . Sonata for Violin & Piano (1914-21) . . . Taras Bulba [orchestral rhapsody] (1915-8, 1927) . . . Kát'a Kabanová [opera] (1919-21) . . . The Cunning Little Vixen [opera] (1921-3) . . . String Quartet #1 'Kreutzer' (1923) . . . Sextet for Wind Quintet & Bass Clarinet 'Youth' (1924) . . . Capriccio for Piano Left Hand, Flute & Brass 'Defiance' [8 instrs.] (1926) . . . Sinfonietta [orch.] (1926) . . . Glagolitic Mass [sacred cantata for 4 solo vv, org, chorus & orch.] (1926, 1929) . . . String Quartet #2 'Intimate Letters' (1928) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach?; Borodin?; +Debussy; DVORÁK; Fibich?; Mussorgsky; +PUCCINI; +Schoenberg; +Schreker?; R Schumann; Smetana; Tchaikovsky; Wagner; Expressionists; MORAVIAN/SLAVIC FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  [A Hába]; Husa; Schulhoff?


Janequin, Clément (c1485-1558) French; associated with Bordeaux, Angers & Paris
Style/Period:  Late French Renaissance
Best Known For:  polyphonic chansons---chansons spirituelles & psalm settings
Notable Work:  . . . La Bataille de Marignan (La Guerre) [chanson for 4 vv] (c1520?)
Musical Influences:  Dufay; Josquin; Ockeghem


Jolivet, André (1905-74) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Mystical (Impressionist/Exoticist)
Best Known For:  flute (solo, chamber combs., w/orch.)---concs.---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Chant de Linos [fl & pf] (1944; arr. for fl, string trio & harp 1945) 
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Debussy; Dukas; +Messiaen; Ravel; Schoenberg; VARÈSE; jazz; music of the Near & Far East
Has Influenced:  Messiaen


Jommelli, Nicolò (1714-74) Italian; associated with Naples, Rome, Vienna & Stuttgart
Style/Period:  Pre-Classical
Best Known For:  operas---sacred vocal music
Musical Influences:  +Dittersdorf?; Hasse; Martini; Pergolesi; Rameau; A Scarlatti; Mannheim school
Has Influenced:  Cherubini; Dittersdorf; Gluck; J Stamitz; Mannheim school


Jongen, Joseph (1873-1953) Belgian; mainly Liège-, Paris- & Brussels-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  organ (solo, w/orch.)---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Symphonie Concertante [org & orch.] Op.81 (1926) . . . Sonata Eroïca [org] Op.94 (1930) 
Musical Influences:  Debussy; Fauré; Franck; +Ravel; +Stravinsky; Wagner; plainchant


Joplin, Scott (1867? - 1917) American; Mid-South-based to 1907, thereafter New York-based
Style/Period:  American Light Classical
Genre Profile:  000---0000---0000---300---12---010
Quantity of Work Produced:  modest
Best Known For:  piano rags
Notable Works:  . . . Maple Leaf Rag [pf rag] (1899) . . . The Entertainer [pf rag] (1902) . . . Solace, A Mexican Serenade [pf] (1909) . . . Treemonisha [ragtime opera] (1911, r1911-5) 
Musical Influences:  -[S Foster]; Gottschalk; [JP Sousa]; marches, ballroom dance & other popular music
Has Influenced:  +Bolcom; -Debussy?; -Dvorák?; Gershwin; Hindemith; Ives; +Schuller; jazz


78. Josquin Desprez [des Prez, etc.] (c1450-1521) French; France- & Italy-based
Style/Period:  Middle Franco-Flemish Renaissance
Genre Profile:  [not used]
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  masses---sacred motets---secular songs (chansons)
Notable Works:  . . . Ave Maria [sacred motet for 4 vv] (c1490) . . . Missa La sol fa re mi [4 vv] (c1490) . . . Missa de beata virgine [4-5 vv] (c1510) . . . Missa Pange lingua [4 vv] (c1510) . . . Missa L'homme armé (2 works) [4 vv] (p1502/1502) . . . Planxit autem David [sacred motet for 4 vv] (p1504) 
Musical Influences:  [A Busnois]; Dufay; +Obrecht; Ockeghem; Italian music
Has Influenced:  Cabezón; +++M-A Charpentier; Clemens; +A Gabrieli?; GOMBERT; Isaac?; Janequin; La Rue?; Morales; [J MOUTON]; +Palestrina; Rore; SENFL; Taverner; Willaert


Kabalevsky, Dmitri (1904-87) Russian; Moscow-based from 1918
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Socialist Realist)
Best Known For:  stage works & derivative orchestral suites---concs.---music for children---piano (solo, w/orch.)---syms.
Notable Works:  . . . Over. to (the opera) Colas Breugnon [orch.] (1938) . . . The Comedians [suite for small orch. from incidental music to the play Inventor & Comedian] Op.26 (1940) . . . 24 Preludes [pf] Op.38 (1943-4) . . . Violin Conc. in C Op.48 (1948) . . . Cello Conc. #2 in G Op.77 (1964) 
Musical Influences:  -Borodin; MIASKOVSKY; -Mussorgsky; Prokofiev; Rachmaninov; Scriabin; -Tchaikovsky; folk music


Kagel, Mauricio (1931-2008) Argentinian; Cologne, Germany-based from 1957
Style/Period:  European Avant-garde (Experimentalist)
Best Known For:  multi-media dramatic music/music theatre/film scores---chamber music---magnetic tape-based pcs---socio-political themes
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; ---Beethoven; Berg?; Boulez; Cage; ---Monteverdi; Partch?; -Satie; Schoenberg; --R Schumann?; Webern
Has Influenced:  Holliger; [J Zorn]


Karg-Elert, Sigfrid (1877-1933) German; Leipzig-based from c1883
Style/Period:  Impressionist
Best Known For:  solo organ & harmonium---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . Nun danket alle Gott [org] Op.65 no.59 (1908-10) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Brahms; Debussy; Grieg; Reger; Schoenberg; Scriabin; Baroque music


Khachaturian, Aram (1903-78) Armenian; Moscow-based from 1921
Style/Period:  Neoromantic (Socialist Realist)
Genre Profile:  222---2200---0112---202---20---020
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  concs.---ballets---syms.---solo piano
Notable Works:  . . . Piano Conc. in D flat (1936) . . . Violin Conc. in D minor (1940) . . . Sabre Dance (from the ballet Gayane) [orch.] (1942, r1957) . . . Cello Conc. (1946) . . . Spartacus [ballet] (1954, r1968), incl. 'Adagio of Spartacus & Phrygia' [orch.] 
Musical Influences:  -Borodin; Gershwin; Glazunov?; Glière; MIASKOVSKY; Prokofiev; Rachmaninov; Ravel; Rimsky-Korsakov; +Shostakovich; -Tchaikovsky; ARMENIAN & OTHER FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  Shchedrin


74. Kodály, Zoltán (1882-1967) Hungarian; mainly Budapest-based from 1900
Style/Period:  Hungarian Nationalist
Genre Profile:  122---0002---0222---222---12---220
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  orchestral pcs---sacred & secular vocal- & choral-orchestral music, incl. many works for children---folksong settings---cello (solo, chamber combs.)---operas---chamber music---music education
Notable Works:  . . . unacc. secular choral music (1898-1965) . . . Sonata for Cello & Piano Op.4 (1909-10) . . . Duo for Violin & Cello Op.7 (1914) . . . Sonata for Unaccompanied Cello Op.8 (1915) . . . Psalmus Hungaricus [solo v, chorus & orch.] Op.13 (1923) . . . Háry János [opera] Op.15 (1925-7; orch. suite 1927) . . . Dances of Galanta [orch.] (1933) . . . Variations on a Hungarian Folksong 'Peacock' [orch.] (1938-9) . . . Conc. for Orchestra (1939-40) . . . Missa brevis [chorus & org, or solo vv, chorus & orch.] (1944) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Brahms; DEBUSSY; Liszt; ---Palestrina; Gregorian chant; HUNGARIAN FOLK MUSIC
Has Influenced:  -Bartók; KA Hartmann; Ligeti; Tubin


Koechlin, Charles (1867-1950) French; mainly Paris-based
Style/Period:  Impressionist (French Neoclassical)
Best Known For:  winds (solo, chamber combs.)---symphonic poems---songs---music inspired by film personalities
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Berlioz; Chabrier; -Chopin; Debussy; FAURÉ; Massenet; +Ravel?; Satie; Gregorian chant
Has Influenced:  Guarnieri; Milhaud; Poulenc; Tailleferre


Kokkonen, Joonas (1921-96) Finnish; mainly Helsinki-based
Style/Period:  Neoromantic
Best Known For:  syms.---chamber music
Notable Work:  . . . The Last Temptations [opera] (1973-5)
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; Bartók; Berg; -Brahms; -Debussy; Hindemith; ---Mozart; Shostakovich; Sibelius; Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  -[E Bergman]; Sallinen


Korngold, Erich Wolfgang (1897-1957) Austrian-American; mainly Vienna-based to 1934, Hollywood-based thereafter
Style/Period:  Late German Romantic
Genre Profile:  222---2200---2222---200---12---120
Quantity of Work Produced:  considerable
Best Known For:  film scores---operas---concs.---orchestral pcs---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Die Tote Stadt [opera] Op.12 (1920) . . . film scores (1934-54) . . . Violin Conc. in D Op.35 (1945) 
Musical Influences:  Mahler; Puccini; R STRAUSS; -Wagner; Zemlinsky


Kraft, William (1923-) American; Los Angeles-based from 1955
Style/Period:  Expressionist
Best Known For:  percussion (chamber combs., w/orch.)---concs.---chamber music
Musical Influences:  -Debussy; STRAVINSKY; VARÈSE; jazz


Krebs, Johann Ludwig (1713-80) German; Leipzig- & South Germany-based
Style/Period:  Late German Baroque
Best Known For:  solo organ & solo harpsichord---chamber music w/organ
Musical Influences:  JS BACH


Kreisler, Fritz (1875-1962) Austrian-American
Style/Period:  Viennese Light Classical
Genre Profile:  010---0000---0213---102---01---000
Quantity of Work Produced:  small
Best Known For:  violin (w/piano), incl. works composed in the style of Baroque & Classical masters
Notable Works:  . . . Tambourin Chinois [vln & pf] Op.3 (1910) . . . Liebesfreud [vln & pf] (p1910) . . . Liebesleid [vln & pf] (p1910) . . . Caprice Viennois [vln & pf] (p1913) . . . Schön Rosmarin [vln & pf] (p1910) 
Musical Influences:  Bruckner; Delibes; Sarasate?; Wieniawski; Baroque & Classical music


Krenek, Ernst (1900-91) Austrian-American; U.S.-based from 1938
Style/Period:  Expressionist to c1925; German Neoclassical (Vernacularist) c1925-c1934; Post-Webernian Serial thereafter
Genre Profile:  222---2222---2222---222---12---22x
Quantity of Work Produced:  extensive
Best Known For:  operas---chamber music---solo piano---concs.
Notable Work:  . . . Jonny Spielt Auf [opera] (1925-6)
Musical Influences:  Bartók; Berg; Busoni; Gershwin; Mahler; ---Ockeghem; SCHOENBERG; Schreker; --Schubert; Stravinsky; Webern; ragtime; jazz; Medieval & Renaissance music
Has Influenced:  Perle; Shostakovich


Krommer, Franz (1759-1831) Moravian-Austrian
Style/Period:  Late Viennese Classical
Best Known For:  woodwinds (chamber combs., w/orch.)---chamber music
Notable Works:  . . . Conc. for Two Clarinets & Orchestra Op.35 (1802?) . . . Conc. for Clarinet & Orchestra in E flat Op.36 (1803) . . . Conc. for Oboe & Orchestra in F Op.52 (1805) 
Musical Influences:  J Haydn; Mozart


Kuhlau, Friedrich (Daniel Rudolph) (1786-1832) German-Danish; Copenhagen-based from 1810
Style/Period:  Late Viennese Classical
Best Known For:  chamber music (espec. w/flute)---operas---piano (solo & 4 hands)
Musical Influences:  BEETHOVEN; Cherubini; Clementi; Mozart; Weber
Has Influenced:  JPE Hartmann?


Kurtág, György (1926-) Romanian-Hungarian
Style/Period:  Experimentalist
Best Known For:  chamber music---works for solo player---secular vocal music
Notable Work:  . . . Játékok [8 books of pcs for pf combs.] (1973-) 
Musical Influences:  ---JS Bach; BARTÓK; --Beethoven; Berg; Messiaen; Milhaud; ---Monteverdi; Nono; ---Schütz; Stravinsky; Webern; Medieval & Renaissance music

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