For My Students | Admin/Research | PSY | FaCET | WKU 

Key Events in Psychological Measurement

Measurement tries to answer the questions who, what, when, where, and how about the universe. Psychological measurement is primarily concerned with these questions for humans.

The manner in which we approach these questions is typically driven by our beliefs concerning why we exist. As you study the events in this timeline, keep in mind that humans of different eras answered the question of why in different ways. Their answer directs the questions they asked and tried to answer. Think in terms of broad sweeps of history when looking at this timeline. It is common for an event to require 40 to 100 years for its full implications to be revealed.

I begin with the development of language because that is a precursor to many types of measurement. I also include odds and ends of cultural events to provide context or contrast to events in assessment.

A bibliography for the chart is at the end.

I constructed this table for use by primarily undergraduate and graduate students.

To undergraduates: Don't try to memorize this table. Just visit it periodically to put material into context or to find pertinent links. Remember to use the "Edit...Find" feature of your browser to quickly move to an item of interest.

Like everything on the Internet, this is an ongoing project. If you have suggestions for corrections, clarity or additions or links I would be delighted to have them. I am especially interested in examples of events significant to measurement concerning women and diverse cultures. See info at end for emailing me.

If you have more general questions about tests I recommend you visit Frequently Asked Questions about Psychological Tests (, provided by APA's Science Directorate.

or, for my own FAQ click here (testfaq.htm).

Thought questions to play with as you use the chart

Key: Mg=Measuring; SS=Standardization Sample; " " indicate a book or article; APA=American Psychological Association (; SIOP=Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychologists (; CEEB=College Entrance Examination Board (; NCME=National Council on Measurement in Education (

Date Event in Assessment Attributed to World Event or More Info
c250,000 speech and language emerge ???  
c40,000 images on cave walls   symbolism
8,500 BCE clay tablets & pictures used for record keeping   Notice the concept of record keeping.
3,000 BCE first maps drawn on clay   Eventually maps evolve into graphs. next
2697 BCE India ink invented Tien-Lcheu, China  
2200 BCE Civil Service Exam China officials examined every 3 years for fitness. next
2000 BCE Earliest writing on papyrus, considered by some the oldest book. the sage, Ptah-hotep, Egypt "Prisse Papyrus"
17-1500 BCE early alphabet   Symbols replace pictures
1600 BCE Sumerian scribes have responsibility for measuring (e.g., surveying, arbitrating disputes) Amat-Mamu, priestess in Sippar, is an example of a career scribe. She was a contemporary of Hammurabi and his famous Code of Laws.
1200 BCE Indian ink in common use    
1115 BCE Chinese exam revised   music, writing, arithmetic, horsemanship, ceremonial rites of public/ private life
600 BCE Hebrew alphabet    
400 BCE Greek alphabet   written from left to right
347-323 BCE "father of psychology". De Anime. Aristotle other bio
220-206 BCE test batteries used in exam for civil service. China, Han law, revenue, military, agriculture, revenue, geography, moral standard. next
c100s proto-9 point rating scale suggested Galen, physician for perceived body temperature. next
105 AD Wood-fiber paper invented China It is kept a secret
400 AD Stable ink created   iron salts, gum, nut-galls gum; used for centuries.
600 AD lowercase letters first used   required refined writing instruments
700 AD Quill pen introduced   dominates for 1,000 years
711 Spain gets secret of wood-pulp paper by way of Japan   not widespread in Europe until 1300s
859 University of Al-Karaouine Fez, Morocco world's oldest universit, according to Guinness Book of World Records (1998)
988 Al-Azhar University, Cairo Ismaili Fatimids named after Mohammed's daughter. 2nd oldest university
c1000 oldest known time series graph   (1 dimension is time). next
1008   Murasaki Shikibu, Japanese aristocrate she wrote "The Tale of Genji" considered the first fully realized novel.
1064 University of Parma Parma, Italy 3rd oldest university
1088 "First modern university": University of Bologna, It was a law school Bologna, Italy 4th oldest university
1095 First Crusade. contact w/East brought algebra and other imports to West. Pope Urban II  
1117 earliest reported nautical compass China enables voyages of discovery. (measuring direction).
1169   Ibn Rushd translates Aristotle to Arabic. From there translated to Latin and helped instigate the Renaissance.
1211   Genghis Khan largest (in terms of territory) empire ever. Introduced East and West.
1219 University of Bologna uses formal essay-type exams   oral law exams. probably 1st formal tests in the West


Clothes of victims turned to pulp for paper thus increasing number of manuscripts available. The Black Plague, worldwide Kills 1/3rd of Europeans. W/shortage, people are valued more.
late 1300s Paper mills built, paper widely available Europe  
c1350 Clothing begins to express individuality rather than group membership. Bodies must be measured. Europe Buttons are introduced and allow individuality in clothes.
1368-1644 Multistage testing program. 3 stages, only 2 of 10,000 passed. China, Ming next
1398 Sungkyunkwan University Seoul, Korea Oldest University in Asia.
1441 4 categories for students Catholic University of Louvain honor men; satisfactory; charity passes; failures
c1450   Sufis in Yemen coffee first brewed.
1455 Invents practical, efficient system of printing


accelerates Western Renaissance
1492   C. Columbus "discovers" Western hemisphere
c1510 Proposed a test of mentality Fitzherbert count, tell own age, identify father
1522   Magellan circumnavigates Earth.
1537   Gonzalo Quesada Introduces potato to Europe, eventually enabling more children to survive & some to work in factories.
1538 Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo Dominican Republic Oldest university in Americas
1540 Jesuits use written exams in their universities for placement and instruction   had to wait for readily available paper.
1543 Introduces idea of collecting data directly from object of study. Vesalius Dissects cadavers for knowledge of anatomy. "On the Structure of the Human Body." Answers: What are we?
1551 National University of San Marcos Peru First university in South America
1565 1st description of a pencil Conrad Gleser "Treatise on Fossils". History of pencil.
1575 Suggested idea of mental testing Huarte, Sp. physician intelligence= "docility in learning from a master"
1578 1st known use of rating scale Johann Hasler, physician 9 point, for perception of body temperature. next
1582   Pope Gregory XIII Established current Western calendar system (measuring time).
1599 Rules for written exams published Jesuits  
1600s 1st data maps. quantity replaces a name   Map shaded to reflect data. next.
1605   Miguel de Cervantes writes "Don Quixote" first modern novel. Can download from above link.
c1610 Suggested examining mental ability of persons accused of crime Swinburne "name days of week"
1633   Johan Comenius Suggests that children need to play to learn and that affection was good for them.
1656 First accurate timepiece (pendulum clock) Christiaan Hugens, Dutch astronomer Enabled scientific experiments. Punctuality is now possible. Answers: When are we.
1666   Isaac Newton Law of gravity; Also figured out how to express change in math (calculus).
1674   Antonie van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch linen merchant, he was first to see microscopic animals.
1679 Mg visual acuity proposed Hook  
1686 use of symbols on a map   showed trade winds. next.

Collected quantitative data on psychological variables. 1st known psychology rating scale

Christian Thomasius, German philosopher 12 point scale, provided reliability data. next
1700     End of medieval era, beginning of scientific era
1708 Mg aesthetics proposed DePiles  
1733 Idea of sampling error DeMoivre  
1750 Mg reaction time proposed Caldenius  
1761 First clock that worked accurately at sea. John Harrison, England Enabled calculation of longitude and thus location. Answers: Where are we?
1765 theory for graphing data in relational fashion (x & y) John Lambert done without analogy to physical world.
1769   James Watt invents improved steam engine, starts the Industrial Revolution.
1776   USA independence declared
1779 time series graph of soil temperature Johann Lambert back to 1st
1780s Described mathematical properties of normal curve Gauss et al zscores, standard deviation developed in this era
1781 Digit span used as memory test Bonnet  
1786 Bar chart invented William Playfair next
1787   Quakers, England launch 1st modern antislavery campaign
1795 #2 pencil designation invented (medium hardness) Nicolas-Jacques Conté (No official standard for hardness exists today.)
1799 Measured normal vs abnormal cognitive functioning Jean Itard working with "Wild Boy of Aveyron"
1801 Pie chart invented William Playfair back.
1803 Earliest written exams at Oxford    
1805 12 point rating scale for perceived wind strength Admiral Beaufort, British navy 0=calm, 12=hurricane. next
1809 Theory on error in observation Gross  
1812     First canned foods. No can opener until 1885.
1812 foundation for probability theory Pierre Laplace Théorie Analytique des Probabilités
c1825 Showed that biodata fell into normal curve Adolphe Quetelet used heights of French army conscripts; he was astronomer
1826 Scale of Human Faculties used to evaluate children's progress Robert Owen New Harmony, IN, a utopian community. next
1826   Joseph-Nicephore Niepce, French First photograph. A measure of place, freezes time.
1832 Used exam to select employees English East India Co copied idea from Chinese exam next
1834 Studied how people detect differences between stimuli E. H. Weber  
1837   Friedrich Froebel, Germany first kindergarten
1837 Seguin Form Board Seguin, French M.D. ran 1st successful school for mentally retarded, trained them
1838 Differentiated mental retardation from mental illness Jean Esquirol, French M.D. language was key
1830s-40s     begining of labor and women's rights movements. Notion of individualism.
1844   Samuel Morse, USA practical telegraph. The world begins shrinking more rapidly.
1850 University of Sydney Australia Oldest university Australia
1850s written exams being used to decide award of degrees, entry to profession, government posts    
1851 7 point rating scales used by phrenologists O.S. Fowler, phrenologist in Practical Phrenology. Phrenology was discredited in 1830s. next
1854 plotted cholera deaths on map John Snow, MD located contaminated pump. back to 1st
1855 Competitive Civil Service Exam England next
1856 Eagle Pencil company Alfred Berol  
1859   Charles Darwin "Origin of Species"
1860 Relationship between stimulus strength and strength of sensation. G. T. Fechner  
1863   USA slavery in US ends with end of Civil War.
1864 performance examples provided for teacher ratings of students George Fisher, England to improve reliability. 5 point scale on academic subjects. next
1866   Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk Discovers basic laws of heredity
1869 "Classification of Men According to their Natural Gifts" & "Hereditary Genius" Francis Galton founder of individual psychology, related to Darwin. other bio.
1876   A.G. Bell invents telephone, basis for Internet.
1876   Thomas Edison Menlo Park built. First institute created just for Research and Development. The first think tank.
1879 1st psych lab, U. of Leipzig, Germany Wilhelm Wundt founder of science of psychology. "Outlines of Psychology"
1880 US Census data analyzed with punched cards Herman Hollerith, statistician Hollerith 80 column cards used for extensive data analysis. next
1880 rating scale methodology introduced to mainstream psychology. Francis Galton "Statistics of mental imagery" Mind, 19, 21-318. possibly from interest in meteorology. next.
1883 The questionnaire is invented Francis Galton "Inquiries into the Human Faculty."
1883 American Civil Service Commission USA

Sample essays;

sample questions for LA, next.
1884 1st practical fountain pen Lewis Edson Waterman replaced quill pen after 1000 years on top.
1884 Lab in Kensington, England Francis Galton  
1886   John Pemberton, Atlanta First Coca Cola bottled.
1888 Testing lab at U. of Pennsylvania, USA James McKeen Cattell established mental measurement in USA
1890 "Mental tests & measurement" Mind, 15, 373-381 J.M. Cattell 1st use of "mental test" term
1891 Use of test-criterion method Boulton  
1895   Auguste & Louis Lumiere First movie premiere. Now easy to share culture world-wide.
1895 criticize tests for lack of relation to everyday beh or to school success Alfred Binet & Henri another bio
1895 Discovers X-rays. Wilhelm Rontgen, German physicist Enables us to literally look inside ourselves. Not enough for psychologists.
1896     First modern Olympics
1896 Pearson product-moment correlation developed Karl Pearson other bio
1896 Tabulating Machine Co. est: sells Hollerith cards Herman Hollerith 100 years later H. cards lead to Y2k problem. 1924 part of IBM.
1897 Studied tests of sentence completion, memory span Hermann Ebbinghaus  
1898 "Physical and Mental Tests" J. M. Cattell  
1900   Sigmund Freud "The Interpretation of Dreams"
1900 College Entrance Examination Board USA see SAT
1901   USA National Bureau of Standards established, now NIST
1901 "Psychograph" phrenology measuring device Henry C. Lavery Curiosity that didn't work. Example of measurement deadend.
1903   Wright brothers fly.
1904 Applications of correlation Karl Pearson  
1904 worked out fundamentals of reliability theory Charles Spearman "Proof & Measurement of Assoc. betw. 2 things" Am. J. of Psych.
1904 "Intro to Theory of Mental & Social Measurements" Edward L. Thorndike  
1904 2 factor theory of intelligence; conceptualization of factor analysis Charles Spearman general factor (g) & specific factors (s)
1905   Albert Einstein Theory of Relativity
1905     Huge growth in education
1905 Binet-Simon Scale, first IQ test. 30 ordered items Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon, MD for screening school children. Representative SS. rev.
1907 Reliability coefficient introduced    
1907 1st use of rating scale in research on intelligence Karl Pearson "On the rel. of int. to size...of the head." Biometrika, 5, 106-146. Back to 1st.
1908   Henry Ford Builds Model-T car using idea of standardization and the assembly line. Mass consumerism is possible.
1908 Binet-Simon, 2nd Ed. Alfred Binet Concept of Mental Age; 200 in SS. rev.
1910     Most industrialized nations have adequate water treatment and sewers.
1910 "The association method." American Journal of Psychology, 31, 219-269. Carl Jung  
1911 3rd revision of Binet-Simon IQ test Alfred Binet rev.
1912     Titanic sinks.
1912 Most successful English translation of Binet scale Terman & Childs on to Stanford-Binet versions. or Back to first
1912 Measures for evaluating emotionally impaired Kraepelin  

Concept of Mental Quotient (Mental Age divided by Chronological Age)

William Stern at German Congress of Psychology
1913 "Psych as the behaviorist views it" Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. John Watson Behaviorism
1914     World War I begins. 1st "modern" war with mass produced, assembly line, (?standardized) death. 5,600 every day.
1914 "The psychological methods of testing intelligence" William Stern paper on mental quotient
1915 First published multiple choice items   Kansas Silent Reading Test
1916 Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. Stanford University.

Lewis Terman & Maud Merrill

2nd Terman bio

first English individual IQ test.1000 in SS. rev.

"The uses of int. tests" The measurement of intelligence (chapter 1). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

1917     USA enters World War I. Russian revolution begins. next
1917 Army Alpha & Beta. group IQ tests for military recruits. Yerkes (APA pres.) & committee Otis & Terman helped; based on Binet test.
1918   end WWI next. 90 million soldiers died.
1918 Absolute Point Scale Otis group intelligence scale

major immigration to USA

1919 Illinois Examination Monroe & Buckingham group achievement test
1919 Use of tests in selection of persons for telegraphy jobs L.L. Thurstone  
1920s   USA The toilet becomes standard in most newly built homes.
1920 Woodworth Personal Data Sheet Woodworth 1st structured personality test. developed to screen military in WWI
1920 Seashore's Measures of Musical Talent    
1921 Notion of validity    
1921 idea of maximum likelihood Ronald Fisher  
1921 Inkblots first published in Germany Rorschach projective rationale. next
1921 Psychological Corporation founded James McKeen Cattell, Robert Sessions Woodworth, and Edward Lee Thorndike 1st major test publisher
1922 redefines statistics Ronald Fisher sample stats, also invents ANOVA
1922 Lippman/Terman debate on testing    
1923 "IQ is what IQ tests measure" Boring  
1923 Stanford Achievement Test Kelly, Ruch, & Terman  
1923 Kohs Block Design Test Kohs test of nonverbal reasoning
1924 Rorschach blots introduced to US   next
1926 Porteus Maze Test Porteus  

Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)

CEEB to predict college success. see norms rev.
1926 Draw-A-Man Test Florence Goodenough  
1927 Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) Strong rev.
1927 Test of physical/motor development Gessell  
1929     stock market crashes
1930   world Great Depression begins
1930 Notion of content validity    
1930s Standardized achievement tests considered superior to essay tests    
1930s Increasing disatisfaction with structured (aka objective) personality tests   transparent to taker. projective tests increasingly popular through 1940s
1932-3   Ukraine 5 million starved under Stalin during forced collectivization
1932 Investigation of Rorschach test Beck his dissertation for doctorate. next.
1932 "A technique for the measurement of attit." Rensis Likert Archives of Psychology, No. 40
1933 Multiple factor analytic approach suggested L.L. Thurstone  
1933 Progressive Achievement Test Tiegs & Clark later called California Achievement Tests
1935 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Henry Murray & Christina Morgan Example
1936 Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic Skills Lindquist later named Iowa Tests of Basic Skills
1936 Vineland Social Maturity Scale Doll rev.
1937 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Parallel Forms L & M Lewis Terman & Maud Merrill Forms named L for Lewis and M for Maud (Merrill). SS=3000 rev.
1937 KR20 & other measures of internal consistency reliability Kuder & Richardson "Theory of the estimation of reliability" Psychometrika, 2, 151-160.
1938   B.F. Skinner operant conditioning
1938 1st ball point pen Ladislo Biro, Hungarian journalist  
1938 "Primary Mental Abilities" L.L. Thurstone  
1938 Raven Progressive Matrices   . Sample item.
1938 Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Loretta Bender  
1938   Henry Murray "Explorations in Personality"
1938 "Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY) Buros Institute. Reviews for tests. next vers.
1939   World War II begins. end.
1939 Wechsler-Bellvue Intelligence Test David Wechsler for adults. profile of scores, Performance rev. Eventually published by Psychological Corporation
1940 "Second Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY) Buros Institute. Each MMY reviews new tests. next
1940s     growth of applied psychology
war years Office of Strategic Services (CIA predecessor) assessment center run by many prominent psychologists of day    
1941 Norm group for SAT collected. CEEB N=10,000 from selective schools. until rev.
1943 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory   empirical, structured personality test (MMPI) rev.
1945   World War II ends with atomic bombs. 17 million soldiers and 60 million civilians died. Assembly line killing of 6 million civilian "undesirables"
1947   Bell Labs, NJ, USA 1st primitive transistor demonstrated
1948   Brothers McDonald standardize restaurant business.
1948   world Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1949 Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC) David Wechsler rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1949 "Third Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1949 Formal University training standards established for clinical psychologists   primarily testers
1949 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) rev. R. B. Cattell based on factor analysis
1950     Bic starts selling pens.
1950 classical test theory in "Theory of mental tests" Harold Gulliksen NY: Wiley
1950 "Ethical standards for the distribution of psychological tests & diagnostic aids" APA missing how to. supplied here
1950-60s   USA Civil Rights movement
1950 Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank J. Rotter & J. Rafferty a projective measure
1951 "Coefficient alpha & the internal structure of tests" L. Cronbach Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. reliability measure
1952 Rod & Frame test   field dependence. description.
1952 General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) normed U.S. Employment Service used within group norming. Back to first
1952-3 1st ethical code APA many revisions (not all listed).
1953   James Watson & Francis Crick; Rosalind Franklin Mapped the basic structure of DNA.
1953 "Fourth Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1954   Elvis Presley knocks on Sun Record's door. First "Elvis" sighting.

"Technical recommendations for psychological tests & diagnostic aids"

APA, chaired by Lee Cronbach adopted by National Education Association. rev.
1955 "Construct validity in psychological tests" Cronbach & Meehl in Psy. Bull., 52,281-302. idea of nomological network

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

David Wechsler rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1955 "Antec. prob. & the efficiency of ...cutting scores" Meehl & Rosen classic paper on base-rates. in Psy Bull, 52, 194.
1956 Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery   rev.
1957   Soviet Union Sputnik is first satellite. In US touches off emphasis on science education.
1957 American Guidance Service established.   test publisher.
1957 In-Basket Test   for evaluating managers
1957 California Psychological Inventory (CPI)   empirical scoring, structured personality test. rev.
1957 "Reliability & beh. domain validity..." Psy Bull, 54, 229-249 Tyron Integration of methods of estimating reliability
1959 "Conv. & discr val by the multitrait-multimethod matrix" DT Campbell & DW Fiske Psy Bull, 56, 81-105. construct validity
1959 "3 faces of intellect" Am Psy, 14, 469-79 J.P. Guilford Structure of Intellect model of intelligence, factor analytic model
1959 American College Testing Program founded   (ACT)
1959 "Fifth Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1960 Stanford-Binet revision   rev.
1961 "Tests in Print" Oscar Buros first of many.
1962   Rachel Carson, USA, marine biologist "Silent Spring" initiates modern environmentalism movement. Ended blind faith in science and industry.
1963   Joseph Licklider, psychologist suggests idea of computer network: the Internet
1963 Strong Vocational Interest Blank rev.   vocational interest; rev.
1963 Myart v Motorola   1st court case mentioning psychological testing.
1963 Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence R.B. Cattell obit.
1964   USA Civil Rights Act; Surgeon General warns that cigarette smoking causes cancer
1965 "Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook" O.K. Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1965 "Psychological Tests and Personnel Decisions" LJCronbach & GCGleser book; U of Ill press
1965 criterion-referenced testing    
1965 "Standards for Ed & Psych Testing" 1st pub. APA, rev.
1965   USA Congress. hearings on testing
1966 "Standards for Ed & Psych Testing" revised   rev.
1967 Personality Research Form   (PRF)
1968 Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Adultos   (EIWA) rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1968 Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scales of Intelligence David Wechsler (WPPSI) rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1968 SPSS is developed Nie, Hull & Bent They were Stanford U grad students
1969   Neil Armstrong walks on moon.
1969 "How much can we boost IQ & scholastic achiev?" Arthur Jensen Harvard Ed Rev, 39, 1-123
1969 public outcry against Jensen   not just the ideas but the person
1969 Bayley Scales of Infant Development Nancy Bayley individual test of development. rev.
1970 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire R. B. Cattell based on factor analysis (16PF)
1970   USA The first Earth Day; Environmental Protection Agency; Clear Air Act; and first liquid crystal display watch.
1972 "Trad vs behavioral prslty assessment..." M Goldfried & R Kent Psy Bull, 77, 409-420
1972 "The dependability of beh. mts: Theory of generalizability..." Cronbach, Gleser, Nanda, & Rajaratnam book: NY: Wiley
1972 Stanford-Binet revised   rev.
1972 "Seventh Mental Measurement Yearbook" Oscar Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1972 Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH) Williams an intentionally culture-specific test
1973   Org. or Petroleum Exporting Countries quadrupled price of oil and instituted oil embargo.
c1973 Scantron Company est.    
1973 Theory of vocational choice Holland  
1974 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised David Wechsler (WISC-R) rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1974 "Standards for Ed & Psych Testing" revised APA, rev.
1974 Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory   revision of SVIB rev.
1974 Revision Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery   Back to first.
1974 Improved research foundation for Rorschach interpretation J. Exner Back to first.
1975-78   Cambodia 1.5 million killed by Khmer Rouge "Killing Fields"
1975 Explicit criteria for evaluating low performing children USA Public Law 94-142, right to equal ed for all handicapped children
1975 Eysenck Personality Inventory H. J. Eysenck obit.
1977 "Componential theory of intelligence" Robert Sternberg book
1978 "Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures" Fed. Reg., 43(166), 38296-38309 EEOC, Dept Justice, Labor, USA standards gov. uses in evaluating personnel testing programs
1978 "Eighth Mental Measurement Yearbook" Oscar Buros (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1978 System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) Jane Mercer & J. Lewis, social work  
1979 Larry P. case banning testing in California USA Judge rules: cultural bias against black children
1980     Smallpox is first disease officially eradicated. Killed 60 million in 1700s.
1980 Parents in Action on Special Ed v. Joseph P. Hannon USA Judge rules: no racial or cultural bias against black children in tests
1980 Assessment Centers popular   for evaluation of managers
1981     M.D.s first identify AIDs
1981 Speciality Guidelines for various providers APA came with revision of ethical principles of psychologists
1981 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised David Wechsler rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1982   Michael Jackson Thriller album sells 25 million in the USA. World pop figure.
1983 Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos--Revisada   (EIWN-R) rev. Published by Psychological Corporation
1983 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). (It's purple.) Alan Kaufman & Nadeen Kaufman Announced at a press conference with media hoopla-- portends a new era?
1983 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Millon (MCMI) rev.
1984   Bhopal, India worst-ever industrial accident. 10,000 killed.
1985 1st "Test Critiques" D Keyser & R Sweetland reviews tests. from Gale Research reference works.
1985 "Standards for Ed & Psych Testing" revised APA,

Commented on types of validity. Back to first

1985 "Ninth Mental Measurement Yearbook" James Mitchell (Ed.) (MMY).Buros Institute. next
1985 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Sara Sparrow, David Balla, Domenic Cicchetti Back to first. Another desc.
1986   Chernobyl, Soviet Union Meltdown of nuclear power plant releases radioactive materials
1986     Space shuttle, Challenger, explodes.
1986 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale IV. Other info. R. L. Thorndike, Elizabeth Hagen, & Jerome Sattler point scale replaces age scale. Added performance tests. Back to first.
1986 "Guidelines for computer-based tests and interpretation" APA  
1987     First global agreement to stop making ozone depleting chemicals
late 1980s-90s Item Response Theory    
1987 "Principles..Personnel Selection Procedures" SIOP  
1987 California Psychological Inventory-2   empirically scored. Back to first.
1987 "General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services" APA  
1988 "Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education" Joint Com. on Testing Practices AERA, APA, NCME
1988 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II   Back to first
1988-90 Norms collected for new SAT   N=1,000,000+. see SAT I
1989     Exxon Valdez runs aground in Alaska. Pro-democracy demonstrators are massacred in Tiananmen Square, PRC.
1989-92     end of Communism in the West
1989 "Tenth Mental Measurement Yearbook" Jane Conoley & Jack Kramer (Eds.) (MMY).Buros Institute. rev.
1989 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 J. N Butcher

Back to first.

1989 "Guidelines and ethical considerations for assessment center operations" Task Force on Assessment Center Guidelines  
1990   USA Human Genome Project: effort to decipher human DNA chemistry
1990-1     Iraq invades Kuwait. Desert Storm.
1990   Tim Berners-Lee World Wide Web invented
1990 Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scales of Intelligence-Revised   (WPPSI-R). Back to first. Published by Psychological Corporation
1990 "Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations" APA  
1990 Connor's Rating Scales C. Connor scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity.
1990 Disabilities and testing. USA Americans with Disability Act passed.
1990 "Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students" AFT, NCME, NEA  
1991 Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-III Aurelio Prifitera

(WISC-III). rev. Published by Psychological Corporation

1992   Whitney Houston "The Bodyguard" album sells 16 million in USA.
1992 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" APA Am Psy, 47, 1597-1611.
1992 "11th Mental Measurement Yearbook" Jack Kramer & Jane Conoley (Eds.) (MMY).Buros Institute. rev.
1993 Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos--Revisada de Puerto Rico   (EIWN-R PR) Back to first. Published by Psychological Corporation
1993 "Guidelines for computer-based tests and interpretations." APA  
1993 Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd Ed. James Gyurke . Back to first.
1994   Hootie & the Blowfish "Cracked Rear View" album sells 15 million in USA.
1994   Rwanda, Africa 1 million Tutsi murdered by Hutu.

Strong Interest Inventory.


  latest revision of SVIB; 1 of most researched tests. Back to first.
1994 Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings APA  
1994-5 Scholastic Aptitude Test I (SAT I). Sample items. CEEB new norms used. M=500, sd approx 110. SAT II is subject area tests
1995 "12th Mental Measurement Yearbook" Jane Conoley & James Impara (MMY).Buros Institute. rev.
1995 "Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement " NCME  
1995 "Guidelines for computerized-adaptive test (CAT) development and use in education" American Council on Education  
1996 Statement on the Disclosure of Test Data APA  
1996 Tests, vol. 4 Taddy Maddox  
1997     IBM computer beats human chess champion, Kasparov.
1997 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) David Tulsky & Jianjun Zhu Sample Verbal items. Prfce items. Back to first. Published by Psychological Corporation
1997 "Competency Standards in Student Assessment for Educational Administrators" AASA, NAESP, NASSP, NCME  
1998 "13th Mental Measurement Yearbook" James Impara & Barbara Plake (MMY).Buros Institute. Back to first.
1998 Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Decline APA  
1998 Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters APA  
2000   World unified celebration of millenium (1 year early). (Y2K "bug" causes few problems as programmers worked around the clock. see.)
2000   USA Presidential election stymied by punch card voting. see.
2001 Terrorists fly two planes into Twin Towers in New York City, one into the Pentagon, another crashes in Pennsylvania. World  
2003 Paul Meehl dies   Information on Paul Meehl


Bellis, Mary. (1999). Individual inventions. A brief history of writing instruments. The battle of the ball-point pens. The fountain pen. The history of the pencil. (19 Jan. 1999)

Friedman, R. (Ed.) The Life millenium: The 100 most important events and people of the past 1,000 years. NY: Life Books.

Kaplan, R. & Saccuzzo, D. (1997). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues. Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub.

Leon, V. (1995). Uppity women of ancient times. New York: MJF Books.

McReynolds, P. & Ludwig, K. (1987). On the history of the rating scale. Personality and individual differences, 8(2), 281-283.

Murphy, K. & Davidshofer, C. (1998). Psychological testing: Principles and applications, 4th Ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

O'Connor, J. & Robertson, E. (1996). MacTutor history of mathematics archive. (24 Jan. 1999).

Plucker, J. (1998). History of influences in the development of intelligence theory and testing. (17 Jan. 1999).

Rogers, T. (1995). The psychological testing enterprise: An introduction. Pacific Groves, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub.

Sattler, J. (1988). Assessment of children. San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Pub.

Tufte, E. (1983). The display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press.

For My Students | Admin/Research | PSY | FaCET | WKU 

Contact the author with comments or questions about this site by following the directions at this page (which will open in a new window.)

All contents © since 1996 by Sally Kuhlenschmidt. Copy only with permission.
Website created: June 1996. Page Created: February 1999. Last Modified: August 3, 2007.

Visitors since October 31, 2002: Counter