One of America's great historians, Carl L. Becker, in a seminal article entitled "Every Man His Own Historian," described how everyone interprets the past, regardless of his or her knowledge or understanding of events.  My hope is that my students, who inevitably will become their own historians, become goodhistorians, a process that occurs only after diligent study, rigorous analysis, and reflection.
    Too often students respond when I suggest studying history, "What good will it do me?"  This lack of insight sometimes embarrasses me!  The questions smacks of crass materialism, almost "if it doesn't put money in my pocket, I'm not interested!"  They fail to understand that the study of history gives students perspective, something all of us need.  Studying history helps you understand the world you live in; history helps students understand their past and prepares us for understanding the future.  Knowledge of history also helps students mature intellectually.  We can truly appreciate democracy, and the way it works, only by understanding our nation's strengths and weaknesses, a maturing process which is ongoing.
    But studying history "will do you some good."  All the prognosticators predict that we are moving toward the information age.  If so, history will prepare you for the future.  Employment for a majority of Americans will require the ability to communicate, for most people through writing, for some through oral presentation of ideas.  History classes, which emphasize writing through essay tests, journals, book reports (both written and oral), and research papers, emphasize ideas and demand that students think, all skills valuable for the future.  These are skills required by all professions:  journalism, health care, social work, writing, political and legal research specialists, advertising, public relations, management, entertainment, law, medicine, the ministry, and all institutions (administrative, financial, governmental, collegial, museums, libraries).
    The study of history also fosters the cultural development of students.  Studying the great writers, musicians, dancers, and painters helps us appreciate the finer aspects of life.  Leisure is enjoyed best when it improves one's mind and environment.  Students in my classes are urged to take advantage of the cultural events offered for students.  Begin by tuning your radio to WKYU-FM radio, 88.9.  Each year WKU provides outstanding speakers, musicians, plays, and concerts for students.  Participation will make you a better student and a better citizen.
    Students interested in a History major or minor, or a Social Studies major, should investigate joining Phi Alpha Theta, the History Honor Society.

About Examinations

    Tests are designed to teach students how to organize their thoughts under pressure; how to present ideas in a logical, coherent, convincing manner, something all adults must master for success in both society in general and the business world in particular.  Knowing the "facts" and presenting them in a knowledgeable, logical manner, whether in a dorm "bull session," or presenting information during a business transaction, or representing a client in court will determine success.  I learned early in college that students with the most information scored best.  On my tests, I ask that answers satisfy these questions:  who, what, where, when, and why?  If you can answer these questions in an organized presentation on my tests, and in life, you will be a success.
    Taking good notes in class is the key to success on essays and a requirement in my class.  You must train your mind to recognize important material, your ear to hear it, and your hand to write it down.  Learn to listen, something you must do in important personal, social, and business situations.  Learn to recognize important conclusions.  What something means is always the key to analysis.  Learn to remember key points.  When you write an essay, you can say much about a topic with a parenthetical expression.  Hinting at, rather than detailing slightly related material, tips me off that you know not only the question asked but how it relates to something else we discussed in class.  How does the current topic relate to the topic we had two weeks ago?  Show such relationships in a parenthetical phrase, and continue with the essay at hand.  Think of an essay answer as having an introduction, a body (the major elements of the essay), and a conclusion in which you must explain the meaning of events.  Though dates are not crucial to a good answer, your answers must be in historical perspective, and you must write in proper English.
    Several approaches to studying for tests are helpful.  My own method, when I sat down in class rather than standing, was to develop an outline of the material to be covered, learn the outline, and then to return to the notes I had taken in class and to assigned readings to "flesh-out" the outline.  I sometimes made outlines in the margins of my notes, but typically I developed outlines on separate sheets of paper.  I found writing material down on paper helped me remember as well as organize my thoughts.  This brings me to the second method of studying for tests:  posing possible questions and writing answers to those questions.  Coming up with questions helps you focus on the material, to organize your thoughts.  As you begin writing, your will find if you studied properly that facts and ideas come to you rather quickly.
    When do you begin studying for a history test?  You should begin getting ready for a test ten days to a week before a test.  About ten days before the test, you should begin organizing your notes.  Material that is unclear to you should be looked up in the text.  If it remains unclear, ask me by e-mail, phone, or after class.  You want to have all your material in order a week before the exam.  Believe me, something will come up to take away part of the time you "intended" to study, so start early, and when that "something" interrupts your study, you will still be ready.  By the way, the night before the test, go to bed by 10:30 p.m.  A good night's rest before taking a test is often the key to success.  Another good idea is to get up early enough the day of a test to review.  A last minute review often makes the difference.
    Writing examinationsrequires budgeting your time.  The five identification questions are worth 25 points.  Each essay is worth 25 points.  Thus, for an hour test, you should allow 11 minutes for the 5 identifications.  You must in each instance place identifications in proper historical perspective; that is, you must indicate what the person, place, or event means by explaining its significance.  Upon completion of the identifications, move quickly to the essays.  You have 13 minutes for each of the remaining three essays.  I will arrive about 10 minutes early for each test, should you need extra time.  A watch will help you judge your time properly.  First, read all questions carefully before choosing the questions you intend to answer.  If you desire to make quick outlines, you may write them on the inside, front cover of your blue book.  Collect your thoughts quickly regarding the question asked.  You should not waste a lot of time on outlines, but some students find that making outlines stimulates the thought process, getting you off to a good start.
    Language to avoid when writing an essay: It was  when . . . ; it's a lot . . . ; not alot [alot is not a word] . . . ; this is when . . . ; it was how . . . .  he went and taxed . . . ; it was that . . . .  Do not begin a sentence with "Well."

An example of an excellent identification answer written by a first-year WKU History 120 student:

Queen Anne: The last of the Stuarts in England, Anne came to power in 1702 and ruled to 1714.  She was somewhat of a recluse, depressed that none of her 13 children reached adulthood.  There are two historically significant things from her reign.  First, the Act of Union was passed; it unified the Parliaments of Scotland and England, providing the foundation for a modern Great Britain.  Second, Anne took the second step toward cabinet government in England.  Instead of dealing with Parliament directly, she conferred with the 8 to 12 significant leaders of Parliament through mutual good friends such as Sarah Churchill.

An example of an excellent History 120 essay on the decline of the early Austrian Hapsburgs written by a first-year WKU student:

    The Austrian Hapsburgs were major players in European politics.  Besides being rulers of their own domains, they were also Holy Roman Emperors [with the exception of Maria Theresa.]
    Their power came from two main sources.  First, they ruled over "hereditary domains" such as Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary.  About 10 million people lived in these areas.  Second, the Austrian Hapsburgs ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which consisted of the 300 plus German states of "Germanies."  About 25 million people lived in those places.
    The might of the Austrian Hapsburgs was constantly frustrated by four things which sent them into decline.  First, the wide array of people they ruled was very diverse--and the differences in language, culture, etc.  made it difficult to rule.  Second, the Austrian Hapsburgs had feeble imperial government; the Diets of German princes were not very receptive to Hapsburg desires.  Third, France was always jealous of the Austrian Hapsburgs and wanted to curtail their power as much as possible.  Finally, the Turks from Anatolia were a nuisance to Hapsburg power.  Their repeated invasions on Hapsburg land frustrated the power of the Hapsburgs too; these invasions finally stopped in the 1680s and were largely curtailed by the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz.  However, the Hapsburgs had lost much in trying to deal with the Turks before.
    All four of these things frustrated the Austrian Hapsburgs; despite their two sources of power, they went into decline.

An example of an excellent History 241 final exam written by a second-year WKU student:

Identifications: (25 points)  Select ten (10) people who have shaped American history (that is, played a significant role) since 1865.  Write a short essay on each, showing why they were important.

1) W.E.B. DuBois - DuBois was one of the early leaders in the movement to attempt to make the lives of African-Americans and societies' attitudes them better, DuBois was instrumental in advancing the causes of the Black race, especially in his organizational and leadership abilities.  One famous movement his began was at Niagra Falls. This movement was one of the earliest that advocated a major change in society regarding Blacks.  DuBois would later obtain an important role as the leader of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored Pople). His work with this group was important in bringing about court cases plainly fighting discriminating laws and regulations.  DuBois also left a strong background on which future Black Civil Rights leaders could continue to build upon.

2) Boxer Rebellion - important event in world affairs that took place in the early 1900s.  The United States, Britain, and other European powers had envisioned the great trade and monetary rewards of a free and open China.  When the door was opened, most of the nations and their interests rushed in.  Many in China began to dislike the large amount of foreign influence that was now inside China. Hay's Open Door Policy was now in danger.  A group that wanted to rid China of this problem was the Boxers.  Their goal was to drive the foreign influence out of China. Under the leadership of T. Roosevelt, who felt the U.S. should be a major power internationally, the Boxers were stopped and once again the "Open Door" was open.  This was a sign of the early days of American imperialism of the early 1900s.

3) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - The TVA was only one of the pieces of legislation that was created by FDR and passed by the congress during the Great Depression. This piece of legislation was one part of the New Deal. The goal of the TVA was to take land in parts of Georgia, northern Alabama, and a large portion of Tennessee that was prone to flooding and create a great reservoir of water that would serve a variety of purposes.  Among these purposes was recreational, energy provided by the water, better use of the land, etc.  In addition, it created jobs for many struggling people in these communities in the 1930s.  The TVA is one of the few programs of FDR's New Deal that still exists.

4) Douglas MacArthur - MacArthur was a general in the U.S. Army that became well-known for his appearance and his personality. Famous for his pictures with a pipe and aviator sunglasses, MacArthur served in WWII in the Pacific campaign. Along with Adm. Nimitz, he helped develop a strategy to take small islands and worked towards Japan known as "island hopping."  This strategy would allow the U.S. to have places from which to bomb the Japanese mainland.  MacArthur was also famous for his first defeat in the Philippines when he left but announced "I shall return."  MacArthur eventually did so! Another famous MacArthur moment was his work in Korea. Wanting to take the fight to the Chinese, Truman ordered pulled him out. Public opnion was high for MacArthur, but over time continued to drop.

5).  Booker T. Washington - Washington was another one of the great early leaders of the Civil Rights movements for African-Americans.  Washington advocated that Blacks should not fight with the dominant white majority, but rather win their respect.  In order to do this, Washington felt it was important for blacks to learn skills and trades that would help them in society.  Tuskegee Institute was created in order to attempt to allow this to happen. Washington did, himself, win some acceptance form powerful whites, but his hopes never reached the ultimate conclusion.  Instead of acceptance, many whites were fearful that skilled blacks would take jobs away.
6) Treaty of Versailles - Treaty that ended WWI when the armistice began on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.  The Treaty was important because it did some major things.  1: It made Germany accept total responsibility for the war. This would later create problems in Germany. 2: It made Germany pay large reparation payments to France, England, and the other Allied powers.  3: It took lands away from Germany in order to keep them from being a world power ever again or a threat.  4: It stated that Germany couldn't build up a military.  In the end, this Treaty would create great problems for the world because of the injustice Germany felt it laid upon them.

7) Bonus Army - When WWI ended, a large number of soldiers were promised benefits they would receive in the future. When the Great Depression hit in 1929, many of these gentlemen wanted to get their payments then. The Congress wouldn't approve the money. The groups formed and marched into Washington D.C. The military was called out to break the riotous group apart.  The Bonus Army did finally receive some compensation later on.

8) Dust Bowl - area that comprised much of the mid-west including Oklahoma, Nebraska, and parts of the Dakotas.  Due to a variety of factors including lengthy droughts, poor farming techniques, and strong winds, the topsoil began to erode and blow.  Farmers couldn't grown crops, the dust was dark and blinding, and many of these people were forced to migrate out. Many from Oklahoma, known as "Okies" moved West towards California. One famous book about this situation is Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.

9) Social gospel - idea preached by many Progressives that those who were able to obtain wealth in the capitalist system had an obligation to help those less fortunate in society.  Many of the extremely successful people of the time did give to philanthropic activities.  Andrew Carnegie gave lots of money to universities, libraries, etc.  Rockefeller did somewhat the same. The idea was that each one had an obligation to help, because they had been granted their wealth and should share it "to create heaven on earth."

10) George Wallace - Former Governor of Alabama who supported segregation. Ran as a third party candidate in 1968 performing quite well against Nixon and Humphry.  Was shot later in the campaign and was paralyzed from the waist down.  One of the more successful third party candidates in recent times.

Question:  Write an essay comparing the presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt.  What were their major approaches to government, their programs, and their successes as well as failures?

        Three of the greatest presidencies of the century, perhaps, have been Theodore Roosevelt, W. Wilson, and FDR. Each saw a certain role for government, a certain role for the U.S. in the world, and a certain view of the presidency.  Teddy Roosevelt came into the office of Vice-President after becoming the hero in 1898 at the Spanish-American War in Cuba.  T. Roosevelt was chosen by McKinnly and when McKinnly was assassinated, Roosevelt moved into the presidency.  TR viewed the office of the President as one that was extremely powerful. To TR, government had an important role to play in business. Unlike many Republicans, the Progressive spirit seemed to rub off on TR. His major efforts were spent domestically on programs to rid the corruption that was found among big business.  Writings such as Upton Sinclair's The Jungle helped move him to do so. Under TR, the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. In addition, the Meat Inspection Act was passed. These two were done in an effort to make business more responsible for its work. TR also worked and focused on unfair business practices. Often known as a trust buster, TR worked to break up trusts that had been created by large companies such as Standard Oil. The Hepburn Act and the Elkins Act were two aimed at this. TR offered what he called a "Square Deal," and these types of efforts were aimed at providing that. One of the most famous was his desire to create a canal between both oceans fo the naval fleet.  Panama, then a part of Columbia, was the location desired.  When the Columbian government refused to sell, a revolt was encouraged and the U.S. recognized Panama as independent and began construction of the canal. TR is also remembered for the Roosevelt Corollary, which stated that the U.S., in addition to what it had said in the Monroe Doctrine, would involve itself in Latin American affairs when they couldn't work problems out internally.  By the end of TR's presidency, he realized the problems he would face in another election. TR decided to leave for Africa, but chose Taft has his successor. Taft would later anger TR and he would run under the Bull-Moose Party.
        Woodrow Wilson came into power defeating TR and Taft in a split election. Wilson, a former college president, offered what he called a "New Freedom."  This meant that his programs would focus on domestic issues and restore the prosperity that many in society were missing. Unfortunately, this wasn't necessarily the case. Wilson did see a role fo the government to play with regulating business, but not to the extreme of Teddy Roosevelt.  Wilson did pay attention to world affairs and involved the United States military many times in Latin America. In some of these cases, they bordered on illegal.  Wilson's platform focused on attempting to keep the U.S. out of the war in Europe. Successful up to this point, Wilson probably knew that the fuse was burning short.  When the Germans continued to bomb ships with their U-boats, the American government finally entered the war.  One of Wilson's biggest failures was in getting his major point of his fourteen point plan passed.  His idea of a league of Nations, to keep wars from happening like this again, was never passed by the Senate and Wilson ended up having a stroke and never compromising on the pieces of this point.
         Franklin Roosevelt came into office in 1933 determined to make the nation strong and to use the presidency to do so. Very confident and likeable, FDR pushed away from many of the solutions Hoover's administration had chosen. Instead of business fixing the depression by allowing it to administer the recovery, FDR looked to greater federal involvement. His programs domestically, called the First and Second New Deal, were created to help the people in despair and attempt to "jump start" the economy. Programs like the TVA, AAA, NYA, and the CCC were created to do this.  FDR in foreign affairs saw the need for government involvement in World affairs. Unfortunately, FDR felt constrained to keep the U.S. out of WWII until the attack on Pearl Harbor. When the Japanese attacked Manchuria, the U.S. under FDR, cut off trade with Japan.  When Hitler invaded Austria and the Sudetenland, FDR was quite silent.  As the government began to realize the military an economic consequences of a doomed Europe, FDR moved to assist the Allied powers through lend-leave programs.  This moved FDR into a major role in the war and by the time the U.S. entered, FDR had become a major foreign leader.  FDR's successes were met with a few failures.  One failure made by critics like Huey Long, Charles Townsend, and others was that FDR was not doing enough.  What hurt FDR even more was when the Supreme Court ruled some of the New Deal programs unconstitutional.  One program was the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act).  Angered by this, FDR tried to pack the court by limiting the ages of retirement for justices so he could appoint members favorable to the New Deal.  In the end, this move was one of the greatest failures for FDR as the New Deal slowly diminished in scope.

Question:  Write an essay on United States foreign policy since 1921. What were the issues of the 1920s, the causes of World War II, and the causes and consequences of the Cold War? Be sure to mention the U.S. role in the Korean and Vietnam wars.

        US foreign policy since 1921 has tended to variate between two extremes.  In the 1920s, Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and H. Hoover tended to follow the lead of many Americans in being very isolationist.  We tended not to see any role we should play in world affairs unless it was a direct threat to the U.S.  This policy would continue along with a great fear of anything foreign, which was considered radical. Immigrants were punished and persecuted, some killed like Sacco and Vanzetti, and tensions increased with the Red Scare and the Palmer Raids.  Yet, outside involvement was quite minimal.  In the 1930s, with Europe on the verge of war for the second time in one century, the U.S. stayed out.  When Hitler invaded Poland, the U.S. still remained out of the skirmish.  Maybe the thoughts of another war in Europe and the fresh memories of dead loved ones was too much for Americans.  America was eventually drawn into the war when German U2 subs continued to attack ships that were not at war.  When the Lusitania went down, some tension grew in the U.S.  Germany later agreed after the Sussex agreement that they would no longer attack these ships.  It didn't last long. In addition, Japan saw that on attack on the U.S. held islands was inevitable. On December 7, 1941, they attacked at Pearl Harbor.  This brought the U.S. into the war at full steam. When the war finally ended, a new kind of war began.  This would be known as the "Cold War."  Some of the causes include the resentment that Stalin felt because of the actions the Allies had taken.  The Soviets wanted help quickly on the Eastern Front, but instead found themselves fighting the brunt of the German force alone.  They also were being denied, in word at least, some of the things they wanted after the war.  Wanting to have a sphere of influence was important and so was the importance of buffer zones to keep out aggression from the West.  Another cause was the use of the Atomic bomb by the United States.  The Soviets feared the power of the U.S. and quickly felt they needed to counter that power.  Also, memories of American involvement in 1919 in their revolution were still fresh.  Consequences of this long Cold War are numerous.  The Army race began in full with huge increases in military nuclear testing and spending.  Fear among the people was evident as they built shelters.  This fear also grew into the McCarthy hearing where Sen. Joseph McCarthy accused almost everyone of being communists. It also increased the fear of a communist takeover. This would lead to involvement in nations like Vietnam and Korea.  Under the Truman Doctrine, we feared the communism was aggressive and had to be contained.  This containment theory became important.  Korea, divided into north and south, was the first real battle ground.  U.S. involvement grew as McCarthy tried to push the communist North back across the 39th parallel.  In Vietnam, talk of the "domino theory" grew even greater.  If Vietnam fell, then others would  follow. Involvement in Vietnam under Eisenhower, Kennedy, LBJ, and Nixon was the norm.  Finally, in 1975, the U.S. pulled out of Vietnam.  The Cold War would continue until the 1989 fall the U.S.S.R.

Question: Write an essay evaluating the programs and policies of Harry S. Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Richard Nixon. Evaluate each of these men as president.

     Under Harry S. Truman, the policy was one of creating better conditions at home economically.  After WWI ended, there was a period of transition from war production to peace-time production.  Truman did no get to stay long enough to see the great boom that would later come.  Foreign policy was one of aggressive containment of communism in Korea and other small areas.  Truman was the first in a long line of Presidents to have to spend time on this subject.  Dwight Eisenhower came into office as a military hero.  Domestically, Ike was fortunate that Americans had money they had saved and with the great technological advances were able to spend.  Home sales grew, suburbs sprang up, and money was spent everywhere. Although there was some inflation under Eisenhower, the economy was quite secure.  In foreign affairs, Eisenhower followed the containment policy, but did promise to end the conflict in Korea.  Under Eisenhower, no major Cold War events that shook the world happened until the U2 Spy Plane of Gary Powers was shot down.  All in all, Eisenhower was a president who found himself in a fortunate situation, but did a good job.  JFK only spent a short time as President, but he moved to help many in society. He advocated tax cuts to spur growth and pushed for a Civil Rights Act for blacks across America.  This would finally come under LBJ.  Foreign policy, JFK intently focused on the conflict with USSR in the Cold War.  The biggest event was the Bay of Pigs invasion of Fidel Castro's Cuba and the Cuban Missile Crisis. JFK could have possibly created a better society and ended the buildup in Vietnam, but no one ever knows.  Richard Nixon moved into the White House with a domestic intent to address the end of society of inequality, or so he said.  Protests were common under Nixon because of the continued Vietnam experience and grew with the Tet Offensive.  Finally, Nixon removed the troops and ended the conflict.  Nixon was famous as a strong anti-communist leader in Congress and the White House.  Nixon's legacy and accomplishments he could have achieved, like his opening up China, ended small because of his internal security weakness.

How Long Should You Study

    Students are expected to spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class assignment. This is a requirement!  Think of college as a similar to holding a full-time job.  Plan to spend 45 hours a week on your studies.  Fifteen hours are spent in class.  That means 30 hours of week studying.  If you follow this guideline, you will do well in all classes.  After all, you came to college to learn!  Why not accomplish your goal?  Develop a calendar for each week or for the entire semester.  When you are not in class, plan study periods.  It's amazing what good organization will do for your grades! One other suggestion; keep all your work for your entire college career on computer discs, and keep one file on ideas your heard in your classes. You will be surprised at the value is your "ideas" files later in life.
    Studying the text assignments should follow a rigorous pattern.   First, look for the idea or theme of each chapter assigned.  Here is how you accomplish that task.  Go through the assigned pages rather hurriedly, reading each heading.  Secondly, read each heading and the first and last sentence of each paragraph. The purpose of this scanning is acquire the scope and content of the entire assignment. This can be accomplished in about five (5) to ten (10) minutes!  Thirdly, read the assignment thoroughly, with proper attention to maps and pictures. Important facts and the theme of each paragraph should be noted by underlining, or writing in the book margins or on a separate piece of paper. This third process can be completed in forty-five (45) to seventy-five (75) minutes per assignment.  Be sure that the chapter theme is clear and can you can write the ideas contained in the chapter in your own words.

    Examinations for my survey classes follow a time-honored pattern.  I ask a total of four questions on each test.  Each test is worth 100 points.  Below is a sampletest for History 120.  The statement in parenthesis under Third Hour Test indicates the material covered on the test.

Hist 120                                       Third Hour Test                        Name___________________
                                        (Ind. Rev. thru Causes of WWI)

INSTRUCTIONS:  Collect your thoughts before you begin writing.  Be sure to tell who, what, where, when, and why on all questions.

I. Mandatory (total 25 points)

Carefully but succinctly identify five (5) of the following, always showing their significance and placing them in their historical context:

Hegel, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Realism in Literature, Auguste Comte, Cavour, Abdul Hamid II.

II. Answer one (1) of the following essays:  (25 points)

1. Define the term "Industrial Revolution"; then discuss the reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in England.  Which industry in England took the lead?  What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution?

2. Write an essay on France during the era of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte.  Discuss his programs and goals as well as the successes and failures of his rule.

III. Answer one (1) of the following essays:  (25 points)

1. Write an essay on the origins of the Third French Republic, and the problems which marred the Republic between 1870 and 1914.

2. Write an essay on the origins and development of the German Empire, 1870-1914.  Who were the leaders and what was their government of the German Empire like?

IV. Answer one (1) of the following essays:  (25 points)

1. Write an essay on the problems and crises of the reign of Nicholas II.  Why was Russia not ready for World War I when it began?

2. Write an essay on the causes of World War I. Analyze and evaluate.

A sample test for History 140.  The statement in parenthesis under First Hour Test indicates the material covered on the test.

Hist 140                              First Hour Test                             Name______________________
                              (Discovery to Stamp Act Congress)

INSTRUCTIONS:  Collect your thoughts before you begin writing.  Be sure to tell who, what, where, when, and why for each answer.

I. Mandatory (25 points total)

Carefully but succinctly identify five (5) of the following, always showing their significance and placing them in their historical context:

Armada, Separatist, Georgia, Albany Congress, Town Settlement Migration, New France, Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams.

II.  Mandatory Thought Question (25 points)

1. Between 1763 and 1774, the issues of "taxation without representation" and "legislative prerogative" arose between England and the colonies.  Discuss the events that led to the  rise of these issues and how were they solved.

III. Answer one (1) of the following: (25 points)

1. Write an essay in which you discuss the Spanish and English   colonial systems with regard to (1) why the Spanish system    failed and (2) why the English proved to be successful.

2. Write an essay on the founding and development of Virginia.  What were the factors that made Virginia viable as a colony?

IV Answer one (1) of the following: (25 points)

1. Write an essay on the founding and development of     Massachusetts Bay Colony.  Why did settlers go to Massachusetts, what kind of colony did they create, and with what results?

2. Write an essay on the development of English colonial policy  from 1607 to 1763.  How did it work and what were the trends  and developments?

A sample test for History 141.  The statement in parenthesis under First Hour Test indicates the material covered on the test.

Hist 141                             Second Hour Test                             Name___________________
                                       (Farmer thru TR & Prog. Repub)

INSTRUCTIONS:  Collect your thoughts before you begin writing.  Be sure to tell who, what, where, when, and why.

I. Mandatory (total 25 points)

Carefully but succinctly identify five (5) of the following, always showing their significance and placing them in their historical context:

U. S. vs. E. C. Knight Co., Chester A. Arthur, Coxey's Army, Alabama Claims, Boxer Rebellion, Hawaii, Venezuela Boundary Dispute, Jacob Riis.

II. Mandatory (25 points)

1. Write an essay on Theodore Roosevelt (TR) as a Progressive.  In analyzing his program, discuss the ways in which he was a departure from previous presidents.

III. Answer one (1) of the following essays (25 points)

1. Write an essay on the problems facing the farmer in the years after the Civil War.  Then discuss one (1) method by which farmers tried to solve their problems.

2. Write an essay on the election of 1896--conventions, candidates, campaign, results.

IV. Answer one (1) of the following essays (25 points)

1. Write an essay on the long range, short range, and immediate  causes of the Spanish-American War.

2. Write an essay on the reasons why the years 1890-1917 were a period of reform.  Be sure to include the Muckrakers and their interests.

How to Select a Book, Read it, and Write a Book Report
    There are several ways to select a bookFirst, if you are taking my History 120 class, check my list of "suggested" books on my web page.  I have suggested book I think you will find interesting.   Then go to Helm-Cravens Library (HCL) and check out the book.  Secondly, find a chapter in the textbook which looks interesting to you.  Select a book and then go to the library and check out the book.  Thirdly, stroll down the shelves in the history section in HCL and select a book which looks interesting.  Fourthly, go to the College Heights Bookstore, or to a local bookstore, and purchase a book.  The book must fit the period of history covered by the class. Ask me about a book if you have a problem, or click here for library research information.

    Begin your evaluationof a book when you pick up.  Who is the publisher?  Was it published by a reputable publisher?  You can count on university presses for publishing scholarly book by knowledgeable authors; beware of ideological presses which frequently have a non-scholarly  agenda.  Major trade presses such as Harper Collins or Free Press are, or course, acceptable.  When was the date of publication?  The newer, the better.  Look at the table of contents; read the preface.  Do you recognize the author's name?  If not, check the author out in the Reference Room of HCL, taking notes for future reference.  If your evaluation says "this looks like a good book," select it.  Get a sheet of paper, fold it, and slide it into the book.  You will use the paper to take notes.  Avoid picture books.
    When you read a book, you should be making an evaluation.  You are looking forthe author's thesis, whether or not she or he presents ideas in a logical, coherent style.  Does the author present evidence to substantiate the thesis?  Is the style readable or belabored?  Your goal is to learn to evaluate books.  Your opinion is important!  Your book report should be between three (3) and four (4) pages long.  First, number all pages, placing numbers at the top, right.  Your name and class time should be in the upper right-hand corner (first and second lines).  Properly cite the book on the next line.  Example:

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah.   Hitler's Willing Executioners:  Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust.  New York:
        Knopf & Random House, 1996.

    When writing your report your first paragraph must be on the author.  Here your research on the author will have paid off.  You are interested in the author's qualifications, not her or his family.  College degrees and professional qualifications are important.  You should not read a book which the author was not qualified to write.  Do not assume that because a book has been published the author must therefore know what she or he is talking about!
    After a clear, concise paragraph on the author, begin your analysis of the book.  A book report should have three parts:  an introduction, a body (the main part of the paper), and a conclusion.
    You can introduce your report in a couple of paragraphs.  What is the topic?  What is the thesis, the ideas of the work?  Then go on the the major three or four points the author is trying to get across to the reader.  Don't get bogged down in statements such as "the book was boring" or "the subject was dull."  Such statements tell me more about the reviewer than the book.  You should be analyzing and evaluating ideas.
    Finally, you must judge the book.  Was the author able to make her or his point?  Was the point valid?  Comment on the style, thoroughness, presentation.  Remember, you are your own historian!

Web Sites with additional suggestions for writing tests, papers, book reviews, and reports.

Book Review Tutor
History Essay Guide

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Last Modified July 2003