Summer 1999

 The Whipping Post
south.htmlThe Whipping Post


Marion B. Lucas
Professor of History and
University Distinguished Professor
Office CH 224-B
Phone  (270) 745-5736
Fax (270) 745-2950
Home Ph. (270) 843-8580
e-mail: marion.lucas@wku.edu
WKU History Department Home Page


I. Reading:  Seminar in Slavery is essentially a reading, discussion class.  The text is Lawrence B. Goodheart and others, eds., Slavery in American Society. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1993.  Additional assigned reading will be given on topics to be discussed. Class participation and a final examination, which will cover the readings and discussions, are one-half of your grade. Topics and bibliographies are listed below.

General Information

Boles, John B. Black Southerners, 1619-1869 (1983).
Boles, John B. The South Through Time (1995).
Miller, Joseph. Slavery: A Worldwide Bibliography (1985).
Miller, Randall M. and John David Smith, eds., Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery (1988).
Roller, David C. and Robert W. Twyman, eds., The Encyclopedia of Southern History (1979).
Rose, Willie Lee, ed. A Documentary History of Slavery in North America (1976).
Slavery and Abolition: A Journal of Comparative Studies
Smith, John David. Black Slavery in the Americas: An Interdisciplinary Bibliography,
    1865-1980 (2 vols., 1982).
Wilson, Charles Reagan and William Ferris, eds., Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (1989).

H-Net Humanities & Social Studies
H-Civil War
The Idea of the South
Slave Narratives
WKU History Department Library Research Information


Origins of Race Ideology

Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony (1976).
Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988).
Eaton, Clement. The Mind of the Old South (1967).
Frederickson, George. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American
    Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (1971).
Jordan, Winthrop W. White Over Black (1968).
Malcomson, Scott L. One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race (2000).
Morgan, Edmund. American Slavery, American Freedom (1975).

The Plantation and Slave Life

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America
Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (1972).
 Breeden, James O., ed. Advice Among Masters: The Ideal in Slave Management in the Old
    South (1980).
Burton, Orville V. In My Father's House Are Many Mansions: Family and Community in
    Edgefield, South Carolina (1985).
Dusinberre, William. Them Dark Days: Slavery in the American Rice Swamps (1996).
Elkins, Stanley. Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional Life (1976).
Fogel, Robert W. and Stanley Engerman, Time on the Cross (2 vols., 1974).
Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (1972).
Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 (1977).
Joyner, Charles W. Down By the Riverside: A South Carolina Slave Community (1984).
Kay, Marvin L. Michael and Lorin Lee Cary. Slavery in North Carolina, 1748-1775 (1995).
Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery, 1619-1877 (1993).
Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the
    Chesapeake, 1680-1800 (1986).
Land, Aubrey C. Basis of Plantation Society (1969).
Litwack, Leon. North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860 (1961).
Levine, Lawrence. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought
    from Slavery to Freedom (1980).
McManus, Edgar J. Black Bondage in the North (1973).
Menn, Joseph K. The Large Slaveholders of Louisiana (1964).
Moore, John Hebron. The Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom in the Old Southwest:
    Mississippi, 1770-1860 (1988).
Owens, Leslie H. This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South (1976).
Phillips, U.B. Life and Labor in the Old South (1929).
Phillips, U.B. American Negro Slavery (1918).
Roper, John Herbert.  U. B. Phillips:  A Southern Mind (1984).
Savitt, Todd. Medicine and Slavery:  the Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum
    Virginia (1978).
Scarborough, William K. The Overseer: Plantation Management in the Old South (1966).
Schwarz, Philip J. Slave Laws in Virginia (1996).
Smith, John David. "Ulrich Bonnell Phillips' Plantation and Frontier: The Historian as Documentary
    Editor. The Georgia Historical Quarterly 77 (1993): 123-43.
Smith, Julia B. Slavery and Rice Culture in Low Country Georgia, 1750-1860 (1985).
Stampp, Kenneth. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956).
Stuckey, Sterling. Slave Culture (1987).
Van Deburg, William L. The Slave Drivers: Black Agricultural Labor Supervisors in the
    Antebellum South (1979).
Wright, Gavin. The Political Economy of the Cotton South:  Households, Markets, and Wealth
    in the Nineteenth Century (1978).

Slave Women

Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman's World in the Old South (1982).
Forx-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation: Black and White Women of the Old South
Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and the Family from
    Slavery to the Present (1985).
Malone, Ann Patton. Sweet Chariot: Slave Family and Household Structure in
    Nineteenth-Century Louisiana (1992).
McLaurin, Melton A. Celia, A Slave (1991).
McMillen, Sally G. Southern Women: Black and White Women in the Old South (1992).
White, Deborah Gray. Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South (1985).
Wood, Betty. Women's Work, Men's Work: The Informal Slave Economies of Lowcountry
    Georgia (1995).

Slave Religion and Education

Boles, John B., ed. Masters & Slaves in the House of the Lord: Race and Religion in the
    American South, 1740-1870 (1988).
Cornelius, Janet Duitsman. "When I Can Read My Title Clear": Literacy, Slavery, and Religion
    in the Antebellum South (1991).
Epstein, Dena S. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War (1977).
Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South (1978).
Webber, Thomas L. Deep Like the Rivers: Education in the Slave Quarter Community,
    1831-1865 (1978).

Slave Hiring

Lewis, Ronald L. Coal, Iron, and Slaves: Industrial Slavery in Maryland and Virginia,
    1715-1865 (1979).
Starobin, Robert S. Industrial Slavery in the Old South (1970).
Wade, Richard C. Slavery in the Cities: The South 1820-1860 (1964).

The Slave Trade

Curtain, Philip D. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (1969).
Donnan, Elizabeth. Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America
DuBois, W.E.B. The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America,
    1638-1870  (1896).
Klein, Herbert S. The Middle Passage: Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade
Rawley, James A. The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History (1981).
Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves (1989).
Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870 (1997).

Slave Resistance, Revolts, and the Underground Railroad

Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts (1963).
Blassingame, John. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and
    Autobiographies (1977).
Egerton, Douglas R. He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey (1999).
Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802
Frey, Sylvia R. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (1991).
Gara, Larry. The Liberty Line:  The Legend of the Underground Railroad (1961).
Genovese, Eugene D. From Rebellion to Revolution:  Afro-American Slave Revolts in the
    Making of the Modern World (1979).
Litwak, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long (1980).
Lofton, John. Insurrection in South Carolina: TheTurbulent World of Denmark Vesey (1964).
Martin, Waldo E., Jr. The Mind of Frederick Douglass (1984).
Mullin, Gerald. Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (1972).
Oates, Stephen B. Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion (1975).
Pease, Jane and William. They Who Would Be Free: Blacks' Search for Freedom, 1830-1861
Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists (1970).
Robertson, David. Denmark Vesey (1999).
Still, William. The Underground Rail Road (1872).
Walker, David. Walker's Appeal (1829).
Wiley, Bell I. Letters from Liberia (1980).
Wood, Peter. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the
    Stono Rebellion (1974).

Black Slaveholders

Davis, Edwin A. and William R. Hogan. Barber of Natchez (1954).
Johnson, Michael P. and James L. Roark. Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old
    South (1984).
Koger, Larry. Black Slaveowners: Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860
Whitten, David O. Andrew Durnford: A Black Sugar Planter in Antebellum Louisiana (1987).

Slave Narratives

Anderson, Robert. From Slavery to Affluence (1927).
Andrews, William L. To Tell a Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American
    Autobiography, 1760-1865 (1986).
Armstrong, Orlan K. Old Massa's People: The Old Slaves Tell their Story (1931).
Baker, Lindsay T. and Julie P. Baker, eds. The WPA Oklahoma Slave Narratives (1996).
Bibb, Henry. Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave (1849).
Bontemps, Arna. Five Slave Narratives: A Compendium (1960).
Brown, William Wells. Narrative of William Wells Brown, A Fugitive Slave (1970).
Bruner, Peter. A Slave's Adventures Toward Freedom (1918).
Burton, Thomas. What Experience Has Taught Me: An Autobiography (1910).
Campbell, Madison. Autobiography (1895).
Campbell, Israel. Bond and Free: or, Yearnings for Freedom 1861).
Clarke, Lewis. Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clark (1845).
Clarke, Lewis and Milton Clarke. Narratives of the Sufferings of Lewis and Milton Clarke
Douglass, Frederick. A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1846).
Fedric, Francis. Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky (1863).
Fleischner, Jennifer. Mastering Slavery: Memory, Family, and Identity in Women's Slave
    Narratives (1996).
Foster, Frances Smith. The Development of Ante-Bellum Slave Narratives (1976).
Frederick, Francis. Autobiography of Rev. Francis Frederick, of Virginia (1869).
Green, Elisha W. Life of the Rev. Elisha W. Green (1888).
Hayden, William. Narrative of William Hayden (1846).
Henson, Josiah. An Autobiography of Reverend Josiah Henson (1849), ed. by Robin Winks
Jackson, Andrew B. Narrative and Writings (1847).
Johnson, Isaac. Slavery Days in Old Kentucky (1901).
Northrup, Solomon. Twenty Years a Slave (1853).
Osofsky, Gilbert, ed. Puttin' On Ole Massa: The Slave Narratives of Henry Bibb, William
    Wells Brown, and Solomon Northrup (1969).
Webb, William. The History of William Webb, Composed by Himself(1873).

Slave Interviews

Escott, Paul D. Slavery Remembered: A Record of Twentieth-Century Slave Narratives
Perdue, Charles L., Jr., et al. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves (1976).
Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (41 vols., 1972).
Yetman, Norman R. Life Under the "Peculiar Institution": Selections from the Slave
    Narratives Collection (1976).
Yetman, Norman R. Voices from Slavery (1970).

Southern Defense of Slavery

Dew, Thomas R. Review of the Debates (1832).
Gillespie, Neal C. The Collapse of Orthodoxy:  The Intellectual Ordeal of George Frederick
    Holmes (1972).
Faust, Drew Gilpin. A Sacred Circle:  The Dilemma of the Intellectual in the Old South,
    1840-1860 (1977).
Faust, Drew Gilpin. James Henry Hammond and the Old South:  A Design for Mastery (1982).
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All (1857).
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South (1854).
Genovese, Eugene D. "Slavery, Economic Development, and the Law:  The Dilemma of Southern
    Political Economists, 1800-1860."  Washington and Lee Law Review 41 (Winter 1984): 1-29.
Genovese, Eugene D. "Slavery Ordained of God":  The Southern Slaveholders' View of
    Biblical History and Modern Politics (1985).
Gobineau, Joseph A. Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1855).
Horsman, Reginald.  Josiah Nott of Mobile: Southerner, Physician and Racial Theorist (1987).
Nott, Josiah and George R. Gliddon, The Types of Mankind (1854).
Tise, Larry. Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701-1840 (1987).
Wish, Harvey. George Fitzhugh, Propagandist of the Old South (1943).

The End of Slavery

Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867 (4 vols.).
Berlin, Ira. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About their Personal Experiences
    of Slavery and Emancipation (1998).
Lucas, Marion B.  A History of Blacks in Kentucky. Vol. 1: From Slavery to Segregation,
    1760-1891 (1992), Chpt. 7: "Kentucky Blacks in the Civil War."
Lucas, Marion B. "Camp Nelson, Kentucky, During the Civil War:  Cradle of Liberty or Refugee
    Death Camp?"  The Filson Club History Quarterly 63 (Oct. 1989): 439-52.

II. Research Paper:

    Each student will write a twenty to twenty-five page paper.  Manuscript records should be the basis of your paper.  Topics will be discussed at the first class period.  Each student will make periodic reports on research progress.  Each students will utilize the resources of the Kentucky Library Manuscript Division for manuscript material.  Seminar papers will be presented in class during the last four class periods.  Each student will serve as a critic of style and content on two papers.  The research paper is one-half of your grade.

Footnote Style for History Courses

        Students must use the proper history method for footnotes, endnotes, and bibliography citations.  The Modern Language Association (MLA) is not acceptable. For the current citation style, peruse the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, located in Helm-Cravens Library, and note citations of the leading historical journals.
        Papers should always have a title page, footnotes, and a bibliography.  Papers must be printed double-spaced in letter quality type.  Right margins must be ragged.  Pagination options:   (1) the first page number at the bottom center of the first page of text; all page numbers thereafter must be in the upper right corner through the bibliography, or (2) place all page numbers in the upper right corner beginning with the first page of text and continuing through the bibliography.  Cite titles of books in either italics or underline, but be consistent throughout the paper. Papers consisting of undetached computer paper are unacceptable.
        The following are samples of the required footnote and bibliography citations for all history papers.


 In a note:

        1John A.R. Rogers Diary, I, August 27, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding, Box 8, folder 7, Record Group 1, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.
        2Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records, Department of Library Special Collections, Manuscripts, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green,Kentucky.
        3John F. Jefferson Journal, November 23, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.
        4Hattie Means to mother, January 14, 1863, Means Family Papers, Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        5John Rogers Diary, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding.
        6Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records.
        7John F. Jefferson Journal, October 31, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers.
        8Hattie Means to her mother, February 17, 1863, Means Family P
        9Ibid., January 5, 1864. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

John A.R. Rogers. Diary, Founders and Founding, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.
Moore, Eldress Nancy.  Diary.  South Union Shaker Records.  Department of Library Special Collections, Manuscripts,                         Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.
Jefferson, John F. Journal. John F. Jefferson papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.
Means Family Papers.  Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.


In a note:

        1The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and  Confederate Armies (128 vols., Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901), Ser. I, Vol. 4, 396-97, hereafter cited Official Records.
        2U. S. Report of the Commissioners of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands for the Year 1867.  Washington, D. C., 1867.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        3Official Records, Ser. I, Vol. 88, Part I, 199-202.
        4Ibid., Ser. II, Vol. 2, Part II, 21. Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.

In a bibliography:

U.S. The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.  128 vols.                         Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.


In a note:

        1Lowell H. Harrison, John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican (Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969), 28.
        2Marion B. Lucas, A History of Blacks in Kentucky: From slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891 (Frankfort, Ky.: The Kentucky Historical Society, 2003), 315.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

        3Harrison, Breckinridge, 29.
        4Ibid., 41. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.)

In the bibliography:

Harrison, Lowell H. John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican.  Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969.


In a note:
        1Patricia Hagler Minter, “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the Nineteenth-Century South,” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.
        2Robert Dietle, “William S. Dallam: An American Tourist in Revolutionary Paris,” The Filson Club History Quarterly 73 (1999): 139-65.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        3Minter, “The Failure of Freedom,” 1002.
        4Ibid., 1008. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

Minter, Patricia Hagler. “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the                            Nineteenth-Century South.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.


In a note:

        1New York Times, January 23, 1865.
        2The Columbia (S. C.) Record, February 17, 1865.
        3New York Tribune, December 26, 1859.
Second Citing of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        4 New York Times, September 9, 1877.
        5Ibid., January 5, 1865. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citations.)

In the bibliography:

New York Times, 1865-1877.

Web Cites

        Currently, no standard exists. However, your citation should be clear, complete, and easily followed. See Mark Hellstern, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison, The History Student Writer's Manual (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998) and Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (Fourth Edition; 2004, or a later edition) for suggestions.

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Last Modified July 2003