FALL 2007

Marion B. Lucas
Professor of History and
University Distinguished Professor
Office CH 224-B
Office Ph. (270) 745-5736
Office Fax (270) 745-2950
Home Ph. (270 843-8580 
E-mail: marion.lucas@wku.edu
WKU History Department Home Page

Hist 241 [CRN 35228] Room: CH 239      CLASS INSTRUCTIONS       M. B. Lucas  CH 224-B

Each student must spend at least six (6) hours in preparation for each weekly class assignment.

1.  Text: Roark, James L., et al., The American Promise: A History of the American People. Vol. II: From 1865. Boston & New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. ISBN: 0-312-40689-4 (Vol. II) Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (2007, 4th or 5th edition; optional)

2.  Tests: All hour tests are written in INK in BLUE BOOKS. You can purchase Blue Books at the book store. There will be two (2) essay hour tests, each counting 1/5 (20% each) toward the final grade. The hour tests will cover the lecture material and will not be cumulative. The final exam, which counts 2/5 (20%) toward the final grade, will be comprehensive. Essays and identifications on the hour tests are graded with regard to content and writing style. This means that there is an "X-factor" involved. The student must state all answers clearly, in a coherent, logical manner. Ideas and concepts are always important. If you have any questions regarding your grade, you should come to my office and inquire. Please do not wait until the last week of classes.

3. Pop Tests: There will be twelve (12) pop quizzes. They will come from the text assignments (see assignment sheet). These quizzes count 1/5 (20%) toward the final grade. The two (2) lowest pop quiz grades will be dropped. If you miss a pop quiz, that counts as a dropped grade.

4. Research Paper: The research paper counts 1/5 (20%) of your grade. To be announced.

5. Absences and Excuses: There will be no make-up tests without a written excuse. It is your responsibility to see me regarding absences. You are allowed one (1 night equals 3 classes) excused absence. Missing the equivalent of nine (9) class hours constitutes a failure. You will be required to hand in a written text assignment after your first absence.

6. Grading scale:   90-100 = A / 80-89 = B / 70-79 - C / 60-69 = D / 0-59 = F

7.  Honor System: Each student is expected to be on his or her honor regarding to all work. Dishonest activity and plagiarism will lead to a reduction of one's grade.

8.  Parallel Reading: You must read one (1) book on American history outside of class. The book must be on topics that discusses some aspect of American history before 1865. You will have to write a three to four (3 to 4) page review-analysis of the book you read. Use the following format: Place your name and page number in the upper right-hand corner of your page. Cite your book as example given below on the top line (no cover sheets):

    Catton: Bruce. A Stillness at Appomattox. Garden City, N. J.: Doubleday & Company, 1954.

    The first paragraph of the Review should provide biographical information on the author. The review should give the thesis of the author; that is, you should describe the point the author is trying to make. You should give some examples of how he or she makes the point and then you must write your own evaluation of the book (see my web site Study Suggestions [http//www.wku.edu/~marion.lucas/study.html] & Rampola, Writing in History for more on the book report)

9.  Cultural Assignment: You are required to attend four (4) cultural events during the semester. Please write and hand in to me a one-paragraph statement on events you attend as you attend them. The Events Calendar: http://www.wku.edu/Dept/Support/AcadAffairs/pag9.htm will help you find cultural events to attend.

11.  In compliance with university policy, students with disabilities who require accommodations (academic adjustments and/or auxiliary aids or services) for this course must contact the Office for Student Disability Services in DUC A-200 of the Student Success Center in Downing University Center. Please do not request accommodations directly from the professor without a letter of accommodation from the Office for Student Disability Services.

[Please see my web page for more “study suggestions”:   http//www.wku.edu/~marion.lucas/study.html

    Each student is expected to spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class assignment.  During study, certain purposes should be kept constantly in mind.  (1) Facts must be mastered.  The study of history is hard memory work.  Names, dates, terms, and similar data are basic.  It is assumed that the student will master the facts in each text assignment and lecture.  It is impossible to draw correct conclusions about events in history if you do not know the facts of the event.  (2) The idea or theme of each chapter should be acquired.  Be sure that the material in each paragraph can be written in your own words before leaving it.  (3) These steps, however, are merely preliminary to the final purpose of the course which is to allow each student to become his or her own historian.  That is, you must learn to interpret America's past for yourself.  To accomplish this end, the student should constantly keep in mind how the most important institutions and ideas have originated, and how our strong points and weaknesses have developed.
    Students often ask me, "How is all this to be accomplished?"  Frankly, there is no one way for a professor to tell a student how to study.  Yet, there are certain methods that students might employ to enable them to do their best on each assignment.  First, it is suggested that the student go through the assigned pages rather hurriedly, reading each heading.  Secondly, the student should read each heading and the first and last sentence of each paragraph.  The purpose of this scanning is to give the student the scope and content of the entire assignment.  This can be accomplished in about five (5) to ten (10) minutes!  Thirdly, the assignment should be read thoroughly, with proper attention to maps and pictures.  Important facts and the theme of each paragraph should be noted by underlining, or writing in the book margins or on a separate piece of paper.  This third process can be completed in forty-five (45) to seventy-five (75) minutes per assignment.
    This brings us to the fourth step, that of study and reflection.  You should not pass on to the next paragraph until you are able to summarize what you have learned in your own words.  This will consume thirty (30) to forty-five (45) minutes per assignment.  The remaining fifteen (15) to thirty (30) minutes of the time allotment should be spent on the parallel reading or studying for the hour tests.
    Each student is required to take lecture notes in class; the hour tests and the final are based upon the lecture material.  You must develop your own method of taking notes.  Do not try to take down every word, but rather train your ear to hear the main points.  Remember, the better your notes, the better you will do on the hour tests.  If you miss something, leave a blank space in your notes to be filled from the textbook after class.  The lecture notes should be reviewed regularly and preparations for an hour test should begin at least a week before the test.
    It is the student's responsibility to know the location of the professor's office and posted hours.  If you encounter any difficulty which cannot be solved by application, consult with the professor, either during regular office hours or by special appointment.  Do not wait until the end of the semester or until you receive an invitation to the instructor's office.

The Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial
                                                                                                                       Slide by M.B. Lucas

"With Malice Toward None."

FALL 2007
5:15-8:15 Tuesday

M. B. Lucas  CH 224-B
Ph. (270) 745-5736
Email: marion.lucas@wku.edu
Home page: www.wku.edu/~marion.lucas
Each student must spend at least six (6) hours in preparation for each class.

Text: Roark, James L., et al., The American Promise: A History of the American People. Vol. II: From 1865. Boston & New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. ISBN: 0-312-40689-4 (Vol. II);   Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (2007, 4th or 5th edition; optional)


Aug. 28------Instructions & Lecture

Sept. 4-–----Chapters 16 & 17

Sept. 11------Chapters 18 & 19 [Research paper topic decision]

Sept. 18------Chapter 20 [Preliminary research paper bibliography due]

Sept. 25------Chapter 21 [Research paper discussion]

Oct. 2---------FIRST HOUR TEST

Oct. 9---------Chapters 22 & 23 [Research paper note cards due]

*Oct. 16–-----Chapter 24 [last day to drop with a “W”; do not drop before contacting the professor]

**Oct. 23-----Chapter 25 [Book report-analysis due]

Oct. 30--------Chapter 26

Nov. 6---------SECOND HOUR TEST

Nov. 13-------Chapters 27 & 28

***Nov. 20---Chapter 29 [Research Paper due]

Nov. 27-------Chapter 30

 ****Dec. 4---Chapter 31

FINAL EXAM: December 11, Tuesday, 6:00 to 8:00 p.m.
    *Oct. 16----Last day to with "W"; do not drop before contacting the professor

  **Oct. 23--Book report-analysis due

***Nov. 27–Research Paper due

****Dec. 4--Last day to turn in Cultural Assignments


Who won the Civil War?
Reconstruction:  Did it help or hurt the South?
Did Reconstruction Change Anything?
The Redeemers
Reconstruction: Bad or Good?
Impeachment in the U.S.: Does it Work?
The Freedmen’s Bureau in Kentucky: Success or Failure?
The Settlement of Blacks on Abandoned Lands: Good or Bad?
The Failure to Secure Civil Rights for Blacks: Who Was Responsible?
The Disputed Election of 1876: Theft or Democratic Processes at Work?
Kentucky’s Black Migration to Kansas: Why?
U. S. Post-Civil War Industrialization: Free Market or Monopoly?
Social Darwinism v. the Gospel of Wealth
Industrialists: Free Market Giants or Free Market Opponents?
Ida B. Wells and the Fight Against Lynch Law
Temperance: Success or Failure?
Tariff Policy: Important Policy or a Political Football?
Why American Conservatism: Status Quo or Progress?
Free Silver: Financial Solution or False Dream
The Old South and the Old West in American Memory
Immigrants: A Plague in the Land or America’s Future Leaders?
Sweatshop Workers: Lucky to Have a Job or Exploited?
Strikes: Criminal or Legal?
The Populist Revolt: Success or Failure?
The Vote for Women: Why the Controversy?
Coxey’s Army: Good Idea or Bad Idea?
Child Labor: Inherit Right or Exploitation?
U. S. Diplomacy 1890-1914: Economic or Idealistic?
The KKK of the 1920s: Heritage or Hate?
The U. S. Army in World War I: Prepared or Unprepared?
World War I: Truth v. Propaganda
Prohibition: Good or Bad?
Clarence Darrow v. William Jennings Brian & the Scopes Trial: Who won?
Herbert Hoover: Great Economic Thinker or Blind Idee Fixe?
Franklin D. Roosevelt: Saved Capitalism or Creeping Socialist?
The New Deal: Good or Bad for America?
Free Market Economy: Myth or Reality?
Huey Long: Reformer or Demagogue?
The U. S. A.: Capitalist or Welfare State?
American Neutrality in World War II: Good or Bad?
FDR’s Arsenal of Democracy Policy: Neutrality or War?
Pearl Harbor: What Went Wrong?
Loss of the Philippines: Who Was Responsible?
Interning the Niesei: Responsible Government or Mistaken Policy?
U. S. World War II Home Front: Rationing or Not?
Anti-Semitism in Wartime America: Real or Imagined?
Yalta: Sellout or Rational Policy?
The Atomic Bomb: Was it Necessary?
Jackie Robinson and his Role in Desegregation: Success or Failure?
Harry Truman: Contained Soviet Expansion or Created the Cold War?
McCarthyism: Patriotism or Politics?
Consumerism: Good or Bad?
Dwight D. Eisenhower: Political Thinker or Puppet?
Richard Nixon: Man of Ideas or Troubled Soul?
The Brown Decision: Timely or Too Late?
Modern American Liberalism: Improbable Dream or Realistic Progress?
Lyndon B. Johnson and the Great Society: Success or Failure?
Southern Desegregation: Caused by Internal Protests or Northern Pressure?
The Counter Culture: Real Issues or Boys & Girls Just Want to Have Fun?
Lyndon B. Johnson and the Viet Nam War: What was the Problem?
Feminism: Legitimate Movement or Irrational Provocateurs?
Viet Nam: Good Idea or Bad Policy?
U. S. Caribbean Policy: Good or Bad?
The Republican Party in the South: Racism or Real Change?
School Bussing in Boston: Racism or Just the “South” part of “South Boston”?
Jimmy Carter’s Human Rights Policy: Good or Bad?
Ronald Reagan: Genuine Conservative or Tool of the Wealthy?
The Equal Rights Amendment: Good Idea or Bad?
The Homeless: Get a Job or National Social Problem
Evacuating Viet Nam & Iraq: Similarities & Differences?

Sioux Chief Red Cloud


Sioux Chief Red Cloud fought to preserve the Buffalo range.

Footnote Style for History Courses

            Students must use the proper history method for footnotes, endnotes, and bibliography citations.  The Modern Language Association (MLA) is not acceptable. For the current citation style, peruse the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, located in Helm-Cravens Library, and note citations of the leading historical journals.

            Papers should always have a title page, footnotes or endnotes, and a bibliography.  Papers must be printed double-spaced in letter quality type.  Right margins must be ragged.  Pagination options:   (1) the first page number at the bottom center of the first page of text; all page numbers thereafter must be in the upper right corner through the bibliography, or (2) place all page numbers in the upper right corner beginning with the first page of text and continuing through the bibliography.  Papers consisting of undetached computer paper are unacceptable.

            The following are samples of the required footnote and bibliography citations for all history papers:


In a note:

                1Lowell H. Harrison, John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican (Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969), 28.

                2Marion B. Lucas, Sherman and the Burning of Columbia (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2000), 170.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

                3Harrison, Breckinridge, 29.

                4Ibid., 41. (Use ibid or ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.)

In the bibliography:

Harrison, Lowell H. John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican.  Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969.


In a note:

             1Patricia Hagler Minter, “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the Nineteenth-Century South,” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.

             2Robert Dietle, “William S. Dallam: An American Tourist in Revolutionary Paris,” The Filson Club History Quarterly 73 (1999): 139-65.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

            3Minter, “The Failure of Freedom,” 1002.

                4Ibid., 1008. (Use ibid or ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

Minter, Patricia Hagler. “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the Nineteenth-Century South.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.


In a note:

                1New York Times, January 23, 1865.

             2The Columbia (S. C.) Record, February 17, 1865.

             3New York Tribune, December 26, 1859.

Second Citing of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

New York Times, September 9, 1877.

                4Ibid., January 5, 1865. (Use ibid or ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citations.)

In the bibliography:

New York Times,  1865-1877.


 In a note:

                 1John A.R. Rogers Diary, I, August 27, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding, Box 8, folder 7, Record Group 1, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.

                2Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records, Department of Library Special Collections, Manuscripts, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

                3John F. Jefferson Journal, November 23, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.

                4Hattie Means to mother, January 14, 1863, Means Family Papers, Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

                5John Rogers Diary, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding.

                6Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records.

                7John F. Jefferson Journal, October 31, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers.

            8Hattie Means to her mother, February 17, 1863, Means Family Papers.

                9Ibid., January 5, 1864. (Use ibid or ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

John A.R. Rogers. Diary, Founders and Founding, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.

Moore, Eldress Nancy.  Diary.  South Union Shaker Records.  Department of Library Special     Collections, Manuscripts, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Jefferson, John F. Journal. John F. Jefferson papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.

Means Family Papers.  Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.


In a note:

            1The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and
Confederate Armies (128 vols., Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901), Ser. I,
Vol. 4, 396-97, hereafter cited Official Records.

            2U. S. Report of the Commissioners of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands for the Year 1867.  Washington, D. C., 1867.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
            3Official Records, Ser. I, Vol. 88, Part I, 199-202.

                4Ibid., Ser. II, Vol. 2, Part II, 21. Use ibid or ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.

In a bibliography:

U.S. The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.  128 vols. Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.

Web Cites

            Currently, no standard exists.  However, your citation should be clear, complete, and easily followed.  See Mark Hellstern, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison, The History Student Writer's Manual (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998) for suggestions.


American Memory Historical Collections for the National Digital Library
Avalon Project at the Yale Law School
The American Civil War Homepage
American Studies Web
Cold War International History Project
Documenting the American South: Beginnings to 1920
H-CIVWAR Home Page
H-Net: Humanities & Social Studies OnLine
H-South: The History of the American South
Historical Text Archive
History Links on the Internet
History Resosurces on the Internet
The History Ring
A Hypertext on American History
The Idea of the South: Electronic Resources
John Brown and the Valley of the Shadow
Making of America: University of Michigan
Making of American: Cornell University
NYPL Digital Library Collections
Old Dominion University Library Digital Services Center
Social Sciences Virtual Library
The Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities in the American Civil War
Voice of the Shuttle: History Page
U.S. Civil War Center-Index of Civil War Information available on the Internet
World War II Resources
The World Wide Web Virtual Library: History

The Book Review Tutor

American Historical Association
Organization of American Historians
Southern Historical Association

Jesse Owens


In the 1936 "Nazi" Olympics Ohio State University track star, Jesse Owens, won in spite of unfair officiating designed to give "Aryan" runners victory.


    Language is essential, even vital for the study of history.  Purchase a good dictionary.  I recommend Webster's New World Dictionary (latest edition).  I also recommend that you purchase, and keep with you when studying or writing, Shirley M. Miller, comp., Webster's New World 33,000 Word Book (latest edition).  This book will give you the correct spelling and dividing of most-used words.  To improve your vocabulary, I recommend purchasing a vocabulary study book such as Norman Lewis, Word Power Made Easy (latest edition) or Wilfred Funk and Norman Lewis. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary (latest edition) and, of course, retain your English grammar book for reference.  Such works will enable you to improve your vocabulary significantly.  I suggest that you approach vocabulary study systematically.  Decide on a plan such as learning one new word a day, or perhaps more practically, three words a week.  Once you develop a plan which works for you, stick with it.
   One more tip.  Learn the key rules of grammar this semester.  Know the difference between plurals and possessives.  Know what a comma splice is.  Learn the proper use of the apostrophe.  And remember: commas and periods are always inside quotation marks, [," or ."] and colons and semicolons are always outside quotation marks ["; or ":].  Learn these simple rules and you will eliminate 90 percent of the most typical errors made in grammar.  One more suggestion.  Look up "topic sentence" in your grammar book and review the ideas suggested for writing them.  And by
the way, "a lot" is two words, not one!


abated, abrogate, acrimonious, adamant, adulation, aegis, aesthetics, affable, affluent, aggrandize, aggregate, alleviation, amiable, ambiguous, ambivalent, amenable, amoral, amphibious, analogy, anonymity, antebellum, antediluvian, anti-clerical, antipathy, appeasement, articulate, assiduous, assuage, astute, austere, autonomous, avarice, baroque, bellicose, blatantly, bombastic, bulwark, capitulate, capricious, caricature, cataclysmic, cause célèbre, cholera, clandestine, cogent, collaborate, complicity, conciliation, concordat, condoned, congenial, consternation, contiguous, convivial, coterie, coup d'état, covenant, credibility, crucible, dauphin, dearth, debacle, debilitated, debilitating, decorum, defame, deistic, delineate, demographic, derisively, despot, détente, deterrent, devotion, didactic, diffidence, diffusion, dint, discursive, disparage, doggedly, dogmatism, dogmatist, doldrums, dole, dragoons, duplicity, egalitarian, egregious, electorate, elegy, elucidate, emanate, emancipate, empirical, emulators, enigmatic, enmity, entities, enunciated, epitomize, eschewed, estrangement, ethereal, ethics, euphemism, euphoria, exchequer, expropriation, extralegal, fait accompli, feints, fetters, flagrant, fledgling, flout, fluctuation, foment, freemason, galvanize, garner, hegemony, hierarchy, ideological, impecunious, imperious, impetuosity, impetus, impinged, inculcate, incumbent, indelible, indemnification, indemnity, indigenous, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptly, inequities, inexorable, inextricably, inimical, innate, insidious, instigators, interregnum, intransigent, intrusion, intuition, irony, irrational, laissez faire, lucrative, ludicrous, machinations, maldistribution, melee, mercurial, metaphysics, meticulous, monograph,
moot, mundane, neoabsolutism, nominal, oligarchy, opulent, oscillated, palatable, palpably, paradoxical, paternalism, patriarch, patronage, paucity, pecuniary, penchant, perfidy, perfunctory, prerogative, perquisite, philanderer, pietist, pilloried, pinnacle, plausible, plebiscite, pluralism, plurality, polemics, posthumous, postulate, preclude, preemptive, prerogative, prig, pristine,
prodigy, profligate, promulgated, propound, proscribe, protectorate, protracted, purveyor, putsch, quelling, rabid, rapprochement, rationality, recalcitrant, recapitulate, refractory, refractory, reminiscent, remunerate, residue, resilience, retrograde, reverberations, rigid, rudiments, sagacious, scandal, sectarian, secularism, seminal, servitude, sovereignty, spawned, spurn, status quo, sumptuary, superannuated, supranational, syllogisms, syndicates, synonymous, tantamount, technocrats, tempering, temporize, tercentenary, titular, touchstone, transcendence, transcendental, trauma, traumatic, tremulous, truculent, tutelage, ubiquitous, ulterior, unabashed, unicameral, unpalatable, usurpation, vagrancy, veneer, verbiage, verve, vilify virile, vituperate, virulent, vociferous, volatile, waning, waxing, writ

Thurgood Marshall, U.S. Supreme Court Justice


Thurgood Marshall, 1908-1993, civil rights lawyer and chief council for the NAACP, brought down segregation in America with his 1954 victory in Brown v. Board of Education.  Marshall was the first African American to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court.

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Last modified August 2006