M. B. Lucas Class Assignments for Fall 2013

12:45-2:05  TR (Tuesday-Thursday)  CH 220 [240‑002 CRN 34013]

Each student must spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class.

Marion B. Lucas
Professor Emeritus of History
Office CH 224-B
Office Ph. (270) 745-5736
Office Fax: (270) 745-2950
Home Ph. (270) 843-8580
E-mail: marion.lucas@wku.edu
WKU History Department Home Page

Raleigh Tavern, Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Photograph by M.B

Hist 240‑002  [CRN 34013]        CLASS INSTRUCTIONS             M. B. Lucas  CH 224‑B Fall 2013                                                                                              Office Ph. 270-745-5736


Each student must spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each hour in class.

Please see my web site Study Suggestions:  http://people.wku.edu/marion.lucas/study.html


1.  Text: Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey Vol. I: To 1865 . 14 ed., New York: McGraw Hill, 2012 (paper)]

2.  Tests: All hour tests and final exams must be written in INK in BLUE BOOKS. You can purchase Blue Books (size, 8 1/2" x 7") at the book store. There will be a mid‑term exam which counts 25% of your grade.  The mid‑term will cover the lecture material to that point. The final exam, which counts 50% toward the final grade, will be semi‑comprehensive [To be explained]. You are required to take good notes. Essays and identifications on essay tests are graded with regard to content and writing style. You should write in paragraphs that have topic sentence. Students must state all answers clearly, in a coherent, logical manner. Ideas and concepts are always the key to good answers.  No outline answers. If you have any questions regarding your grade or any aspect of this class, you should come to my office for a conference. If you want to ask about your grade, please bring your blue book. Please do not wait until the last week of classes.

3.  Grading scale:   90‑100 = A / 80‑89 = B / 70‑79 ‑ C / 60‑69 = D / 0‑59 = F

4.  Writing Assignments: Three writing assignments count 25% of your grade. First, read and interpret either President Abraham Lincoln's 1st inaugural address, March 4, 1861, OR President Lincoln's 2nd inaugural address, March 4, 1865. Second,  read and interpret either Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens's Savanah, Georgia, speech March 21, 1861, OR South Carolina's Reasons for secession, and Third, TBA (read a monograph).

5.  Honor System: Each student is expected to be on his or her honor regarding to all work. Dishonest activity and plagiarism will lead to a reduction of one's grade.

 6.  Absences and excuses: There will be no make‑up tests without a written excuse. It is your responsibility to see me regarding absences. You are allowed three (3) excused absences. Missing the equivalent of eight (8) class hours constitutes a failure. You will be required to hand in a written text assignment after your three excused absence.

7.  In compliance with university policy, students with disabilities who require accommodations (academic adjustments and/or auxiliary aids or services) for this course must contact the Office for Student Disability Services in DUC A‑200 of the Student Success Center in Downing University Center. Please do not request accommodations directly from the professor without a letter of accommodation from the Office for Student Disability Services.

8. Cultural Events: Please take advantage of your time at WKU to attend University "Cultural Events." The University sponsors free events such as plays, faculty and student recitals, speakers, and orchestral concerts. You will be a better educated, cultured person if you attend these events. The Events Calendar: http://www.wku.edu/Dept/Support/AcadAffairs/pag9.htm will help you find outstanding available cultural events.

M. B. Lucas Class Assignments for  Fall 2013

12:45-2:05  TR (Tuesday-Thursday)  CH 220 [240‑001 CRN 04933]

Each student must spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class.


Text:    Text: Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey. Vol. I: To 1865. New York: McGraw Hill, 2012 (paper)]

 Text Assignments

Aug.   27--Class Instructions


Sept.  3--22-33





           Oct.      1--145-158
                         [3-4 fall break]

                      10--Mid-Term Exam


                    *[Oct. 16–Last day to drop with a “W”; You must see the professor before dropping]




        Nov.      5--277-295







                    [27--29 Thanksgiving Holiday]

         Dec.    3--374-388



Final Exam: Tuesday, 10:30 to 12:30 p.m.

*Last day to drop with W.


Mostly: For Your Information
    A research paper is an attempt to research a historical topic you have chosen or been assigned. You develop a bibliography, take notes, then organize your research notes, and finally, you write a coherent analysis of a historical problem, drawing your own conclusions. One of America’s great historians, Carl L. Becker, in a seminal article entitled “Every Man His Own Historian,” described how everyone interprets the past, regardless of her or his knowledge or understanding of events. My hope is that all students, who will inevitably become their “own” interpreter of history, will become good historians, a goal achieved only after diligent study, rigorous analysis, and intelligent writing.
    To begin a research project, you must understand certain terms that identify types of historical sources, here presented in order of importance.

[You must learn these terms for this course.]
1. Manuscripts. Manuscripts are “primary” or “original” sources of history and are usually considered by historians to be the best sources. Generally, manuscripts consist of materials that date, as nearly as possible, from a particular event or period of history. Manuscripts are letters and diaries written by the people involved or who are witnesses, in addition to material of various kinds such as birth, death, and marriage records. Primary sources may differ for various periods of history.
2. Documents. Typically, documents are “printed” primary sources that arise from the period of an event. Documents fall into several categories: published letters, diaries, government documents, official reports of many kinds, census records, interviews, memoirs, and autobiographies
3. Secondary Books. Books are a secondary source, but one must understand that books vary widely in quality. You will need to research (to look at) as many books as possible, and you can usually count on university presses to publish quality books that are written from original sources. Beware of ideological presses which frequently have a non-scholarly agenda; their books often have n footnotes and typically cite untutored authors.  Major trade presses such as Harper Collins or Free Press are, or course, acceptable. The more recent the book, the better.  Look at the table of contents, read the preface, check the footnotes and bibliography. Write down your opinion of the book on your bibliography card. Then, check the book for information on your topic.
4. Scholarly Articles. Scholarly journal contain refereed articles. They rank in source-quality with books. Indeed, journals typically have the most recent research within the scope of the journal. The footnotes in seminal journal articles may point you toward excellent sources for your paper.
5. Newspapers and Magazines. Newspapers and magazines may be your weakest sources. But in some areas of history, they may be your only sources. Information in newspapers and magazines must be scrutinized carefully, especially when researching nineteenth and early twentieth century history. Material in these older newspapers, ideally, should be confirmed by other sources. Modern major newspapers (like the New York Times or Washington Post) and magazines (like the New Yorker or Atlantic Monthly) will have quality articles.
6. The Internet. For this course, you must be extremely careful when using internet sources. Research libraries around the world are placing manuscripts, that is primary or original sources, consisting of letters, diaries, published state and local documents, books of all kinds, and entire runs of journals on their web sites. You may be able to find quite good online primary sources. But in my class you may use only authentic manuscripts, documents, certain books, and scholarly journal articles found on the Internet. And you are limited to only three Internet primary sources. When you utilize Internet sources, you must submit copies of your sources with your paper. Beware: Internet sources differ widely in quality, giving the lie to the old college-student research paper saying, “one source is as good as another.”
7. Bibliographies. Develop a system! In today’s technology, it is a good idea to take your notes on a laptop computer. Create a file for your research project. Under that file, set up files for BIBLIOGRAPHY, NOTES, VERSIONS OF YOUR PAPER, Etc. Back your files up regularly; do not discard files. Create a bibliography card for each source. Type the source in the correct style on the bibliography card. If the source comes from a library, type the library access number on the card. Sample Note:
ATMOSPHERE IN AUGUSTA AT EXPULSION OF FEE & OTHERS FROM                                                             204

“Exile” clipping from Augusta Sentinel, Jan. 26, 1860, Founders & Founding, box 1, folder 1, BCA, RG 1. (“Exile” refers to Fee followers expelled from Berea.)

Column covers “proceedings of  large and interesting meeting of the citizens of Bracken and the eastern portion of Mason county, held in the court-house, at Brooksville an [sic] Monday Jan. 23rd.  The meeting was held pursuant to a call which appeared in the Sentinel.”  “A large number of our most respectable and responsible citizens were there--the assembly was variously estimated at from 800 to 1000 persons.”  “The resolutions are moderate, but firm and explicit.”
    “At the first blush these proceedings may, to the unthinking, appear arbitrary and summary; but one moments reflection will, we are confident, bring all to the same conclusion, that they are demanded to secure the peace of our community and warranted by the exigencies of the times.”  goes on to say:
    “This meeting bore not the slightest semblance to a mob; it was the people rising in their sovereign capacity to rid themselves of an evil for which there was no remedy given in the statutes.  It is a case of emergency and demands prompt and decisive action.”
8. Footnotes.

Footnote Style for History Courses

        Students must use the proper history method for footnotes, endnotes, and bibliography citations.  The Modern Language Association (MLA) is not acceptable. For the current citation style, peruse the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, located in Helm-Cravens Library, and note citations of the leading historical journals.
        Papers should always have a title page, footnotes, and a bibliography.  Papers must be printed double-spaced in letter quality type.  Right margins must be ragged.  Pagination options:   (1) the first page number at the bottom center of the first page of text; all page numbers thereafter must be in the upper right corner through the bibliography, or (2) place all page numbers in the upper right corner beginning with the first page of text and continuing through the bibliography.  Cite titles of books in either italics or underline, but be consistent throughout the paper. Papers consisting of undetached computer paper are unacceptable.
        The following are samples of the required footnote and bibliography citations for all history papers.


 In a note:

        1John A.R. Rogers Diary, I, August 27, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding, Box 8, folder 7, Record Group 1, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.
        2Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records, Department of Library Special Collections, Manuscripts, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green,Kentucky.
        3John F. Jefferson Journal, November 23, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.
        4Hattie Means to mother, January 14, 1863, Means Family Papers, Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        5John Rogers Diary, October 8, 1862, Founders and Founding.
        6Diary of Eldress Nancy, February 13, 1863, South Union Shaker Records.
        7John F. Jefferson Journal, October 31, 1862, John F. Jefferson Papers.
        8Hattie Means to her mother, February 17, 1863, Means Family P
        9Ibid., January 5, 1864. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

John A.R. Rogers. Diary, Founders and Founding, Berea College Archives, Berea, Kentucky.
Moore, Eldress Nancy.  Diary.  South Union Shaker Records.  Department of Library Special Collections, Manuscripts,                         Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.
Jefferson, John F. Journal. John F. Jefferson papers, Manuscript Division, Filson Club, Louisville, Kentucky.
Means Family Papers.  Margaret I. King Library, Special Collections, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.


In a note:

        1The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and  Confederate Armies (128 vols., Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901), Ser. I, Vol. 4, 396-97, hereafter cited Official Records.
        2U. S. Report of the Commissioners of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands for the Year 1867.  Washington, D. C., 1867.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        3Official Records, Ser. I, Vol. 88, Part I, 199-202.
        4Ibid., Ser. II, Vol. 2, Part II, 21. Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.

In a bibliography:

U.S. The War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.  128 vols.                         Washington:  Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.


In a note:

        1Lowell H. Harrison, John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican (Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969), 28.
        2Marion B. Lucas, A History of Blacks in Kentucky: From slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891 (Frankfort, Ky.: The Kentucky Historical Society, 2003), 315.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):

        3Harrison, Breckinridge, 29.
        4Ibid., 41. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except multiple citation notes.)

In the bibliography:

Harrison, Lowell H. John Breckinridge:  Jeffersonian Republican.  Louisville, Ky.: The Filson Club, 1969.


In a note:
        1Patricia Hagler Minter, “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the Nineteenth-Century South,” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.
        2Robert Dietle, “William S. Dallam: An American Tourist in Revolutionary Paris,” The Filson Club History Quarterly 73 (1999): 139-65.

Second Citing, Short Form of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
        3Minter, “The Failure of Freedom,” 1002.
        4Ibid., 1008. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citation notes.)

In a bibliography:

Minter, Patricia Hagler. “The Failure of Freedom: Class, Gender, and the Evolution of Segregated Transit Law in the                            Nineteenth-Century South.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 70 (1995): 993-1009.


In a note:

    1New York Times, January 23, 1865.
    2The Columbia (S. C.) Record, February 17, 1865.
    3New York Tribune, December 26, 1859.
Second Citing of a previously cited work (separated by another work):
    4 New York Times, September 9, 1877.
    5Ibid., January 5, 1865. (Use Ibid or Ibid when citing the same work used in the previous footnote in all instances except previous multiple citations.)

In the bibliography:

New York Times, 1865-1877.

Web Cites

        Currently, no standard exists. However, your citation should be clear, complete, and easily followed. See Mark Hellstern, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison, The History Student Writer's Manual (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998) and Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History (Fourth Edition; 2004, or a later edition) for suggestions.

  9. Writing A Paper: Write your paper in your own words. [Review Note Taking Above] Quote your sources as little as possible. Do not string together a list of lengthy quotations interspersed by a sentence or two you wrote. Only quote material when you are unable to write an idea or statement in a better, clearer version of your own words. When you decide to use a quotation it should be no more than a seminal word or an indelible phrase, or an occasional compelling sentence. Here is an example of what I am suggesting taken from my History of Blacks in Kentucky: From Slavery to segregation, 1760-1891 (Frankfort, Ky.: The Kentucky Historical Society, 1991, 2003). The paragraph I wrote concerned the immediate end of slavery and the mass movement of Freedmen off farms. I wrote: It is difficult to assess the impact of this dispersion on Kentucky’s blacks. What one black Kentucky observer described as “chaos” for former slaves, another considered a “most wonderful shifting” of the black population in every direction.  As one black later put it:  “Better a thousand fold liberty with poverty than plenty with slavery.” [The way I saw this was: “chaos” and “most wonderful shifting” were at opposite ends of the bad and good of the era; but the longer quotation: “Better a thousand fold liberty with poverty than plenty wit slavery” represented victory over slavery in the minds of slaves. Such quotations were, or course, footnoted.]
    In every instance when you use a quotation, work the quoted word, phrase, or sentence into your paragraph so it reads as smoothly as possible. Do not make the reader stop, and perhaps skip the quotation, the fate of many long, indented quotations. In my book of 350 pages, I have only one long (3/4 page) quotation. If you read the quotation, (p. 162), you will understand why I chose to include the quotation.
    Do not write your paper from a single source, and do not cite encyclopedias, dictionaries, or anonymously written material from the Internet. The researcher’s task is to make a reasonable search for sources, master the source material, and utilize the most important sources. The cardinal rule of reach paper writing is: NEVER HAND IN A FIRST DRAFT.
    When do you place a footnote in a research paper? Do not footnote material that is general knowledge. Do not footnote your own ideas and/or conclusions you draw. You must footnote ideas and information you obtain from others, whether you paraphrase or quote their material.
    Outlines are the key to a good research paper. First, develop an outline for the entire paper. Then produce more detailed outlines for your paper as you analyze and evaluate your research notes. If you find yourself unable to proceed on a particularly difficult point, develop a paragraph outline to help you organize your thoughts. [A trick I use in my writing: If an idea comes to me while I am writing on one topic, about something that will work well in the latter part of my paper, I make several returns where I am writing, write down the idea, then go back to what I was writing and finish that paragraph or page. As I write I “push” the idea that works well later in the paper, and inject the idea into the text when I get to that part of my paper.]
    Every history research paper must possess (1) an introduction—a paragraph or two but no more than a page—(2) the body of the paper, and (3) conclusions of no more than a couple of paragraph or at most a page. The introduction should contain the thesis statement of the paper. Introduce the topic to the reader and then present the argument of your paper and what you hope to prove. The body of the paper, carefully written from your sources, is the logical proof of your research. Each paragraph of your paper must begin with a topic sentence that introduces the content of the paragraph. The final sentence of the paragraph should lead the reader to the next paragraph. Clarity is the key to everything you write. If the reader cannot understand the writer’s point, the writer failed in the writing. Your conclusions are where you prove you are “your own historian.”

11. Helpful Research Guides: Google Scholar.com  and  GoogleBooks.com  and on more modern papers,  Google News.com


Puritanism & Its Influence in America

    Bremer, Francis J. The Puritan Experiment: New England Society from Bradford to Edwards (1976)  F/7/.B77

    Daniels, Bruce Colin. Puritans at Play: Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England (1995)  GV54 .A11 D35 1995

    Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (1989).  E/169.1/.F539 1989

    Miller, Perry.  Errand into the Wilderness (1956).  E/169.1/.M628

    Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: From Colony to Province  (1953).  F/7/.M54

    Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century (1954).  F/7/.M56

    Morgan, Edmund Sears. Visible Saints: The History Of A Puritan Idea (1963). BX/9322/.M6

    *Parrington, Vernon L. Main Currents in American Thought: The Colonial Mind, 1620-1800 (1927; 1954).  PS/88/.P3

The Nature of  Slavery, 1600s & 1700s

  Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (1998)

*Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2008)  [Not in WKU Library]

*Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western culture (1966).  HT/871/.D3

  Harris, Leslie M. In the shadow of slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863 (2003).

  Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Low Country      (1998). F/232/.C43/M67/1998

American Revolution: The Nature of Radicalism

    Ferling, John. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution (2000)  E/302.5/.F46/2000

    Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (1971).  E/210/.H63

    Raphael, Ray. A People’s History of the American Revolution: How Common People shaped the Fight for Independence (2001)  E/275/.A2/R39/2001

    Royster, Charles. A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character (1979)  E/259/.R69

Wood, Gordon. The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).   JA/84/.U5/W6

Alexander Hamilton and the American Character

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton (2004). E/302.6/.H2/C48/2004

Ellis, Joseph E. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2002).  E/302.5/.E45/2002x

*Hacker, Louis M. Alexander Hamilton in the American Tradition (1957).  E/302.6/.H2/H15

  Wright, Robert E. Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic (2002)  G/181/.W746/2002

Thomas Jefferson and the American Character

  Ellis, Joseph E. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1997)  E/332.2/.E45/1997

Ellis, Joseph E. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2002).  E/302.5/.E45/2002x

    Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello : an American family (2008). E/332/.74/.G67/2008

*Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time (1948-1981)  Multi-volume Biography  E/332/.M25

Onuf, Peter S. The Mind of Thomas Jefferson (2007)  E/332.2/.O59/2007

Andrew Jackson

  Hartz, Louis. The Liberal Tradition in America: An Interpretation of American Political Thought since the Revolution. (1955 & later). E175.9 .H37

 *Howe, Daniel Walker. What God Hath Wrought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.  E/338/.H69/2007

Meacham, Jon. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House (2008). E/382/.M43/2008

Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay (1991)

Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson (2008)   E382/.R415/2008

 Richards, Leonard L. Gentlemen of Property and Standing; Anti-abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America (1970).  E/449/.R5

*Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age of Jackson (1945)  E/381/.S38

Sellers, Charles G. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846 (1994)

Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy, Jefferson to Lincoln (2005). E/302.1/.W55/2005

American Religion and Revivalism in the 1800s

    Carwardine, Richard.  Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America (1993).  BR/1642/.U/5/C378/1993

    Harlow, Luke Edward. “From Border South to Solid South: Race Religion, and the making of Confederate Kentucky 1830-1880.” PhD diss., Rice University, 2009. ( Soon to be a book; Borrow this from me if you want to read it.)

Hatch, Nathan O. Democratization of American Christianity (1989). BR/525/.H37/1989

    Haynes, Stephen R. Noah’s Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery (2002)  BS/1235.2/.H357/2002

    Miller, William L. The First Liberty: Religion and the American Republic (1987).  BR/516/.M545/1987x

    Snay, Michael. Gospel of Disunion: Religion and Separatism in the Antebellum South (1997).  BR/535/.S63/1997

The Nature of  Slavery, 1800s

  *Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2008)  [Not in WKU Library]

*Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western culture (1966).  HT/871/.D3

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women (1988).

*Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (1974).  E/443/G46

 *Jordan, Winthrop D. White over black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro, 1550-1812 (1969)  E/185/.J69/1969x

*Lucas, Marion B. History of Blacks in Kentucky: From Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891 (1992).  E/185.93/.K3/ L83/1992, 2003

    *Phillips, U. B. American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime (1918).  E/441/.P549

    *Stampp, Kenneth M.  The Peculiar Institution:  Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956). E/441/.S8/1956x

    Wallenstein, Peter. Tell the Court I Love My Wife:  Race, Marriage, and Law, an American History (2002). KF/511/.W35/2002

Tallant, Harold D. Evil Necessity: Slavery and Political Culture in Antebellum Kentucky. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2003; (307 pages).  E/445.K5/T35/2003


Antislavery v. Proslavery

    Daly, John Patrick. When Slavery Was Called Freedom: Evangelicalism, Proslavery, and the Causes of the Civil War (2002)  E/449/.D23/2002

    Dillon, Merton Lynn. Slavery attacked : Southern slaves and their allies, 1619-1865 (1990).  E/441/.D55/1990

*Harrison, Lowell H.  The Antislavery Movement in Kentucky (1978).  E/445/.K5/H37

    Miller, William Lee. Arguing about Slavery: John Quincy Adams and the Great Battle in the United States Congress (1995).

    Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (2002)  E/449/.S813/2002

    Stewart, James Brewer.  Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery (1976).  E/446/.S83/1976

    Tise, Larry E. Proslavery:  A History of the Defense of Slavery (1987).  [view online at Google Books]

    Vanderford, Chad. “Proslavery Professors: Classic Natural Right and the Positive Good Argument in Antebellum Virginia.” Civil War History 55 (2009): 5-30.

Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War

*Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln (1995).  E/457/.D66/1995x

    Fredrickson, George M. Big Enough to be Inconsistent: Abraham Lincoln Confronts Slavery and Race (2008).  E/457.2/.F786/2008

    McPherson, James. Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln As Commander in Chief (2008)  E/457.2/.M478/ 2008

    Neely, Mark E., Jr. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1991).  E/457.2/.N46/1991

Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2001).

McPherson, James and James K. Hogue. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstructon (4th edition; 2009)

Trefousse, Hans L. Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian (1997).

Lucas, Marion B. Sherman and the Burning of Columbia (2000).

[See my web page for more complete Study Suggestions:  http://people.wku.edu/marion.lucas/]

    EACH STUDENT is expected to spend at least six (6) hours in preparation for each class assignment. During study, certain purposes should be kept constantly in mind. (1) Facts must be mastered. The study of history is hard memory work. Names, dates, terms, and similar data are basic. It is assumed that the student will master the facts in each text assignment and lecture. It is impossible to draw correct conclusions about events in history if you do not know the facts of the event. (2) The idea or theme of each chapter should be acquired. Be sure that the material in each paragraph can be written in your own words before leaving it. (3) These steps, however, are merely preliminary to the final purpose of the course which is to allow each student to become his or her own historian. That is, you must learn to interpret America's past for yourself. To accomplish this end, the student should constantly keep in mind how the most important institutions and ideas have originated, and how our strong points and weaknesses have developed.
    Students often ask me, "How is all this to be accomplished?" Frankly, there is no one way for a professor to tell a student how to study. Yet, there are certain methods that students might employ to enable them to do their best on each assignment. First, it is suggested that the student go through the assigned pages rather hurriedly, reading each heading. Secondly, the student should read each heading and the first and last sentence of each paragraph. The purpose of this scanning is to give the student the scope and content of the entire assignment. This can be accomplished in about five (5) to ten (10) minutes! Thirdly, the assignment should be read thoroughly, with proper attention to maps and pictures. Important facts and the theme of each paragraph should be noted by underlining, or writing in the book margins or on a separate piece of paper. This third process can be completed in forty-five (45) to seventy-five (75) minutes per assignment.
    This brings us to the fourth step, that of study and reflection. You should not pass on to the next paragraph until you are able to summarize what you have learned in your own words. This will consume thirty (30) to forty-five (45) minutes per assignment. The remaining fifteen (15) to thirty (30) minutes of the time allotment should be spent on the parallel reading or studying for the hour tests.
    Each student is required to take lecture notes in class; the hour tests and the final are based upon the lecture material. You must develop your own method of taking notes. Do not try to take down every word, but rather train your ear to hear the main points. Remember, the better your notes, the better you will do on the hour tests. If you miss something, leave a blank space in your notes to be filled from the textbook after class. The lecture notes should be reviewed regularly and preparations for an hour test should begin at least a week before the test.
    It is the student's responsibility to know the location of the professor's office and posted hours. If you encounter any difficulty which cannot be solved by application, consult with the professor, either during regular office hours or by special appointment. Do not wait until the end of the semester or until you receive an invitation to the instructor's office.

French Huguenot Church, Charleston, South Carolina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Photograph by M.B. Lucas
Still open, the French Huguenot Church is part of a proud heritage.


    Language is essential, even vital for the study of history.  Purchase a good dictionary.  I recommend Webster's New World Dictionary (latest edition).  I also recommend that you purchase, and keep with you when studying or writing, Shirley M. Miller, comp., Webster's New World 33,000 Word Book (latest edition).  This book will give you the correct spelling and dividing of most-used words.  To improve your vocabulary, I recommend purchasing a vocabulary study book such as Norman Lewis, Word Power Made Easy (latest edition) or Wilfred Funk and Norman Lewis. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary (latest edition) and, of course, retain your English grammar book for reference.  Such works will enable you to improve your vocabulary significantly.  I suggest that you approach vocabulary study systematically.  Decide on a plan such as learning one new word a day, or perhaps more practically, three words a week.  Once you develop a plan which works for you, stick with it.
   One more tip.  Learn the key rules of grammar this semester.  Know the difference between plurals and possessives.  Know what a comma splice is.  Learn the proper use of the apostrophe. And remember: commas and periods are always inside quotation marks, [," or ."] and colons and semicolons are always outside quotation marks ["; or ":].  Learn these simple rules and you will eliminate 90 percent of the most typical errors made in grammar.  One more suggestion.  Look up "topic sentence" in your grammar book and review the ideas suggested for writing them.  And by
the way, "a lot" is two words, not one!


abated, abrogate, acrimonious, adamant, adulation, aegis, aesthetics, affable, affluent, aggrandize, aggregate, alleviation, amiable, ambiguous, ambivalent, amenable, amoral, amphibious, analogy, anonymity, antebellum, antediluvian, anti-clerical, antipathy, appeasement, articulate, assiduous, assuage, astute, austere, autonomous, avarice, baroque, bellicose, blatantly, bombastic, bulwark, capitulate,capricious, caricature, cataclysmic, cause célèbre, cholera, clandestine, cogent, collaborate, complicity, conciliation, concordat, condoned, congenial, consternation, contiguous, convivial, coterie, coup d'état, covenant, credibility, crucible, dauphin, dearth, debacle, debilitated, debilitating, decorum, defame, deistic, delineate, demographic, derisively, despot, détente, deterrent, devotion, didactic, diffidence, diffusion, dint, discursive, disparage, doggedly, dogmatism, dogmatist, doldrums, dole, dragoons, duplicity, egalitarian, egregious, electorate, elegy, elucidate, emanate, emancipate, empirical, emulators, enigmatic, enmity, entities, enunciated, epitomize, eschewed, estrangement, ethereal, ethics, euphemism, euphoria, exchequer, expropriation, extralegal, fait accompli, feints, fetters, flagrant, fledgling, flout, fluctuation, foment, freemason, galvanize, garner, hegemony, hierarchy, ideological, impecunious, imperious, impetuosity, impetus, impinged, inculcate, incumbent, indelible, indemnification, indemnity, indigenous, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptly, inequities, inexorable, inextricably, inimical, innate, insidious, instigators, interregnum, intransigent, intrusion, intuition, irony, irrational, laissez faire, lucrative, ludicrous, machinations, maldistribution, melee, mercurial, metaphysics, meticulous, monograph,
moot, mundane, neoabsolutism, nominal, oligarchy, opulent, oscillated, palatable, palpably, paradoxical, paternalism, patriarch, patronage, paucity, pecuniary, penchant, perfidy, perfunctory, prerogative, perquisite, philanderer, pietist, pilloried, pinnacle, plausible, plebiscite, pluralism, plurality, polemics, posthumous, postulate, preclude, preemptive, prerogative, prig, pristine,
prodigy, profligate, promulgated, propound, proscribe, protectorate, protracted, purveyor, putsch, quelling, rabid, rapprochement, rationality, recalcitrant, recapitulate, refractory, refractory, reminiscent, remunerate, residue, resilience, retrograde, reverberations, rigid, rudiments, sagacious, scandal, sectarian, secularism, seminal, servitude, sovereignty, spawned, spurn, status quo, sumptuary, superannuated, supranational, syllogisms, syndicates, synonymous, tantamount, technocrats, tempering, temporize, tercentenary, titular, touchstone, transcendence, transcendental, trauma, traumatic, tremulous, truculent, tutelage, ubiquitous, ulterior, unabashed, unicameral, unpalatable, usurpation, vagrancy, veneer, verbiage, verve, vilify virile, vituperate, virulent, vociferous, volatile, waning, waxing, writ

Frederick Douglass
His brilliance shocked northern abolitionists.

     Clara Barton
James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (New York, 1988), 483, called Clara Barton "a one-woman soldiers' aid society, gathering medicines and supplies and turning up on several battlefields or at field hospitals to comfort the wounded and goad careless or indifferent surgeons."


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Last Modified August 2006