Marion B. Lucas
Professor of History, Emeritus
Office Cherry Hall 224-B
Office Ph. (270) 745-5736
Office Fax: (270) 745-2950
WKU History Department Home Page

Prof. Marion B. Lucas

For Classes: 10:20-11:15 MWF CH 215  [120-014 CRN 30541]
12:40-1:35 MWF CH 239 [120-016 CRN 04897]
M. B. Lucas   Office Ph (270) 745-5736          Fax (270) 745-2950                     Office CH 224-B
Marion B. Lucas Home Page:

Students are required to spend two (2) hours studying for each hour spent in class.

1. Text: Text: Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization: Since 1500, Vol. II, 8th Edition, Paperback. Thomson-Wadsworth, 2012 [ISBN-13: 9780495913283]

2. Tests: There are two (2) hour tests and a final exam. All hour tests are essay exams written in INK, in Blue Books. Each hour test counts 20%. The Final counts 40%. The hour tests are not cumulative, but the final will be comprehensive. The essay tests and final exam come from class lectures. You are required to take good notes. We will discuss the textbook periodically during class. Essays are graded with regard to content and writing style. Paragraphs should have topic sentences. You must state your answers clearly and coherently in complete sentences. Ideas and concepts are keys to excellent answers. “Bare bones” outlines are unacceptable answers. If you have any questions regarding your essays, drop by my office with your blue book, but please do not wait until the last week of the semester. Class participation and map assignments are required for this class.

3. Pop Tests: 10% of your grade. There are twelve (12) pop tests. The pop tests will consist of short answer questions [multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, true-false] and are based on the text assignments. The two lowest pop tests will be dropped. If you miss a pop text, the missed test will count as a dropped pop quiz.

4. Grading Scale: 90-100 = A / 80-89 = B / 70-79 = C / 60-69 = D / 0-59 = F

5. Additional Assignments are 10% of your grade. All papers must be in 12 point print, Times Roman font, double spaced, and one inch margins. Place the page number in the upper, right-hand corner, along with your name and class time. This requirement consists of four assignments. (1) participate in class discussions, (2) writing a two-page analysis of one document [see text, pages 628, 693, 695, 733, 827, 956], (3) read a monograph that discusses some aspect of European history since 1648 and write a three and one-half to four page analysis of  the book. Properly cite the book on the first line of the first page using this example:

    Beck, Earl R. Under The Bombs: The German Home Front, 1942-1945. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1986; (252 pages).

    The first paragraph must be about the author, giving qualifications for writing the book (not wife/husband, family, etc.). Look up the author in the Helm-Cravens Library reference room or on the Internet.  The report should explain the author's thesis and give several major points used by the author to support the thesis. The final paragraph must be your evaluation of the book. See the library research page:   for WKU library research information.  See   for web writing tutor assistance.  (4) You must attend four cultural events [no sports, religious, or pop culture events, unless approved] and type a 100 word account of each event attended. You may hand in your account of cultural events as you attend them. For a list of cultural events, click on  “Calendar of Events” on WKU’s web page. Please begin your cultural development by setting your radio dial on WKYU-FM 88.9 [you may count one hour of WKYU-FM as a cultural event].

6. Absences and Excuses: There will be no make-up tests without a valid, written excuse. You are allowed three (3) excused absences. Following your fourth absence, you are required to turn in within a week a three-page written analysis of the text assignment you missed. You are responsible for turning in missed assignments. Students who miss (8) classes will be dropped from the class with a failing grade.  If you arrive late for class, it is your responsibility to see me at the end of class so I can mark you present. Please be prompt for class.

7. Honor System: You are expected to be on your honor regarding all work. Student work may be checked using plagiarism detection software. Plagiarism or dishonest activity will lead to an “F” grade and expulsion from the class.

Course Purpose:      General Education and Course Goals:

    This course helps fulfill the requirements for Category C: Social and Behavioral Sciences in Western Kentucky University’s General Education program. It will help you attain:
    * an informed acquaintance with major achievements in the arts and the humanities.
    * a historical perspective and an understanding of connections between past and present.
    * an understanding of society and human behavior.
    This course uses lectures, readings, and class discussions to introduce you to major phases in the history of western civilization from the Early Modern era through the Twentieth Century.  The course is designed to develop your ability to identify ideas and achievements characteristic of different historical periods. Exploring change over time will be a major theme of this course. Historians are most frequently involved in answering the question, “How did this develop from that?” Class assignments are designed to help you answer this question for a variety of ideas and institutions, thereby strengthening your grasp of historical perspective and causation. This course will also encourage you to think analytically about how people have created and adapted societies and institutions in response to the challenges and opportunities that have confronted them in the past.
    In compliance with university policy, students with disabilities who require accommodations (academic adjustments and/or auxiliary aids or services) for this course must contact the Office for Student Disability Services in DUC A-200 of the Student Success Center in Downing University Center. Please do not request accommodations directly from the professor without a letter of accommodation from the Office for Student Disability Services.

M. B. Lucas Text Assignments for Fall 2013:
10:20-11:15 MWF CH 215  [120-014 CRN 30541]
12:40-1:35 MWF CH 239 [120-016 CRN 04897]

Each student must spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class.

Text:    Text: Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization:  Since 1500, Vol. II, 8th Edition. Tomson-Wadsworth, 2012 [ISBN-13: 9780495913283].


Aug.     26--Instructions & Lecture

Sept.     4–499-512

           *11–542-558  [maps due]


             23–No Text Assignment
             25–No Text Assignment
             27–FIRST HOUR TEST

Oct.        2–636-651
               [3-4 Fall Break]          


          **16–720-735 [Oct. 16–Last day to drop with a “W”; You must see the professor before dropping]


No Text Assignment
No Text Assignment


        ***11– [Document Analysis due]

      ****20–885-898 [Book Review due]

              [27-29 Thanksgiving]

  Dec.      2–931-945
      *****4–947-962 [Last day to turn in cultural events]

FINAL:  10:20 Class, Thursday, Dec. 12, from 10:30-12:30
               12:40 Class, Tuesday, Dec. 10, from 1:00-3:00


      *Sept. 11----Maps due

      **Oct. 16----Last day to with “W”; do not drop before contacting the professor.

   ***Nov. 11--Document Analysis due

 ****Nov. 20----Book Review-Analysis due

*****Dec. 4----Last day to turn in Cultural Assignments


Course Purpose:      General Education and Course Goals:

Course Purpose:      General Education and Course Goals:
    This course helps fulfill the requirements for Category C: Social and Behavioral Sciences in Western Kentucky University’s General Education program. It will help you attain:
    * an informed acquaintance with major achievements in the arts and the humanities.
    * a historical perspective and an understanding of connections between past and present.
    * an understanding of society and human behavior.
    This course uses lectures, readings, and class discussions to introduce you to major phases in the history of western civilization from the Early Modern era through the Twentieth Century.  The course is designed to develop your ability to identify ideas and achievements characteristic of different historical periods. Exploring change over time will be a major theme of this course. Historians are most frequently involved in answering the question, “How did this develop from that?” Class assignments are designed to help you answer this question for a variety of ideas and institutions, thereby strengthening your grasp of historical perspective and causation. This course will also encourage you to think analytically about how people have created and adapted societies and institutions in response to the challenges and opportunities that have confronted them in the past.


    In compliance with university policy, students with disabilities who require accommodations (academic adjustments and/or auxiliary aids or services) for this course must contact the Office for Student Disability Services in DUC A-200 of the Student Success Center in Downing University Center. Please do not request accommodations directly from the professor without a letter of accommodation from the Office for Student Disability Services.



Critical Reading: How to Read a Document

1. Who wrote this document?

2. Who is the intended audience?

3. What is going on in the document?

    The ideas presented here are but a small part of my overall program for performing college-level work successfully.  Click here for more complete study suggestions.

    EACH STUDENT is required to spend at least two (2) hours in preparation for each class assignment. During study, certain purposes should be kept constantly in mind. (1) Facts must be mastered. The study of history is hard memory work. Names, dates, terms, and similar data are basic. It is assumed that the student will master the facts in each text assignment and lecture. It is impossible to draw correct conclusions about events in history if you do not know the facts of the event. (2) The idea or theme of each chapter should be acquired. Be sure that the material in each paragraph can be written in your own words before leaving it. (3) These steps, however, are merely preliminary to the final purpose of the course which is to allow each student to become his or her own historian. That is, you must learn to interpret America's past for yourself. To accomplish this end, the student should constantly keep in mind how the most important institutions and ideas have originated, and how our strong points and weaknesses have developed.
    Students often ask me, "How is all this to be accomplished?" Frankly, there is no one way for a professor to tell a student how to study. Yet, there are certain methods that students might employ to enable them to do their best on each assignment. First, it is suggested that the student go through the assigned pages rather hurriedly, reading each heading. Secondly, the student should read each heading and the first and last sentence of each paragraph. The purpose of this scanning is to give the student the scope and content of the entire assignment. This can be accomplished in about five (5) to ten (10) minutes! Thirdly, the assignment should be read thoroughly, with proper attention to maps and pictures. Important facts and the theme of each paragraph should be noted by underlining, or writing in the book margins or on a separate piece of paper. This third process can be completed in forty-five (45) to seventy-five (75) minutes per assignment.
    This brings us to the fourth step, that of study and reflection. You should not pass on to the next paragraph until you are able to summarize what you have learned in your own words. This will consume thirty (30) to forty-five (45) minutes per assignment. The remaining fifteen (15) to thirty (30) minutes of the time allotment should be spent on the parallel reading or studying for the hour tests.
    Each student is required to take lecture notes in class; the hour tests and the final are based upon the lecture material. You must develop your own method of taking notes. Do not try to take down every word, but rather train your ear to hear the main points. Remember, the better your notes, the better you will do on the hour tests. If you miss something, leave a blank space in your notes to be filled from the textbook after class. The lecture notes should be reviewed regularly and preparations for an hour test should begin at least a week before the test.
    It is the student's responsibility to know the location of the professor's office and posted hours. If you encounter any difficulty which cannot be solved by application, consult with the professor, either during regular office hours or by special appointment. Do not wait until the end of the semester or until you receive an invitation to the instructor's office.


Anderson, M.S. Eighteenth-Century Europe (1982).
Ash, T.G. The Polish Revolution: Solidarity (1984).
Avery, Richard. Why The Allies Won
Beck, Earl R. Under the Bombs: The German Home Front, 1942-1945 1986).
Behlmer, G. Child Abuse and Moral Reform in England, 1870-1908 (1982).
Bartov, Omer. Hitler's Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich (1992).
Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad (1998).
Browning, Christopher R. Ordinary Men: Reserve police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1992).
Burke, P. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (1978).
Clark, R. W. Lenin (1988).
Crankshaw, E. Bismarck (1981).
Davies, Norman. God's Playground (2005).
Dockril, M. The cold War 1945-1963 (1988).
Doyle, F. Origins of the French Revolution (1988).
Ellis, John. Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War (1990).
Ferro, Marc. Nicholas II: Last of the Tsars (1993).
Fest, J. Hitler (1974).
Figes, Orlando. A People's tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution (1996).
Fischer, Klaus P. Nazi Germany: A New History (1995).
Fraser, David. Knight' Cross: A Life of Erwin Rommel
Fritz, Stephen G. Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East (2011).
Fuhrmann, Joseph T. Rasputin: A Life (1990).
Gilbert, M. The First world War (1994).
Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996).
Hastings, Max. Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944 (2005).
Hastings, Max. Retribution: The Battle for Japan, 1944-45 (2007)
Hilburg, Raul. Destruction of the European Jews (3rd ed., 1985).
Hunt, Lynn. Inventing Human Rights (2007).
Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of Anglo-German Antagonism (1982).
Large, David Clay. Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936 (2007).
Edward J. Evolution: The Remarkable History of A Scientific Theory (2004).
Loomis, Stanley.  Paris in the Terror (1964).
Lyons, Michael J. World War I: A Short History
Lyons, Michael J. World War II: A Short History
Maiolo, Joseph. Cry Havoc: How the Arms Race Drove The World to War, 1931-1941 (2010).
Mason, H.T. Voltaire: A Biography (1981).
Massie, Robert K. Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea (2003).
Massie, Robert K. Dreadnought:  Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War (1991).
Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra (1967).
Massie, Robert K. Peter the Great: His Life and World (1980).
Massie, Robert K. The Romanovs: The Final Chapter (1995).
Milward, A.S. War, Economy and Society, 1939-1945 (1977).
Montefiore, Simon S. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (2003).
Morgan, K.O. The People's Peace: British History 1945-1990 (1992).
Overy, Richard. 1939: Countdown to War (2010).
Rapport, Mike. 1848: Year of Revolution (2009).
Roberts, Andrew. The Storm of War: A New History of the Second World War (2011).
Rhodes, Richard. Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust (2002).
Ryan, Cornelius. A Bridge Too Far (1974).
Schiebinger, L. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (1989).
Schwartz, R.M. Policing the Poor in Eighteenth-Century France (1988).
Scott, J.W. Women, Work, and Family (1978).
Service, Robert. The Bolshevik Party in revolution: A Study in Organizational change, 1917-1923 (1979).
Service, Robert. Lenin: A Political Life (1985).
Service, Robert. Stalin: A Biography (2005).
Smith, B.G. Women in European History since 1700 (1989).
Smith, Denis Mack.  Garibaldi (1969).
Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini (1982).
Spicer, Kevin P. Hitler's Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism ().
Spielvogel, Jackson J.  Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History
Stearns, P. 1848: The Revolutionary Tide in Europe (1974).
Stevenson, David. With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and defeat in 1918  (2011).
Tomblin, Barbara Brooks. With Utmost Spirit: Allied Naval Operations in the Mediterranean, 1942-1945 (2004).
Toland, John.  Battle:  The Story of the Bulge (1959)
Tuchman, Barbara W. The Guns of August (1962).
Tuchman, Barbara W. The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World Before the War 1890-1914 (1966).
Wachsmann, Nikolaus. Hitler's Prisons: Legal Terror in Nazi Germany (2004).
Wade, Rex. The Russian Revolution, 1917 (2000).
Westfall, R.S. The Life of Isaac Newton (1993).


    Language is essential, even vital for the study of history.  Purchase a good dictionary.  I recommend Webster's New World Dictionary (latest edition).  I also recommend that you purchase, and keep with you when studying or writing, Shirley M. Miller, comp., Webster's New World 33,000 Word Book (latest edition).  This book will give you the correct spelling and dividing of most-used words.  To improve your vocabulary, I recommend purchasing a vocabulary study book such as Norman Lewis, Word Power Made Easy (latest edition) or Wilfred Funk and Norman Lewis. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary (latest edition) and, of course, retain your English grammar book for reference.  Such works will enable you to improve your vocabulary significantly.  I suggest that you approach vocabulary study systematically.  Decide on a plan such as learning one new word a day, or perhaps more practically, three words a week.  Once you develop a plan which works for you, stick with it.
   One more tip.  Learn the key rules of grammar this semester.  Know the difference between plurals and possessives.  Know what a comma splice is.  Learn the proper use of the apostrophe.  And remember: commas and periods are alwaysinside quotation marks, [," or ."] and colons and semicolons are always outside quotation marks ["; or ":].  Learn these simple rules and you will eliminate 90 percent of the most typical errors made in grammar.  One more suggestion.  Look up "topic sentence" in your grammar book and review the ideas suggested for writing them.  And by the way, "a lot" is two words, not one!


abate, abrogate, acrimonious, adamant, adulation, aegis, aesthetics, affable, affluent, aggrandize, aggregate, alleviation, amiable, ambiguous, ambivalent, amenable, amoral, amphibious, analogy, anonymity, antebellum, antediluvian, anti-clerical, antipathy, appeasement, articulate, assiduous, assuage, astute, austere, autonomous, avarice, baroque, bellicose, blatantly, bombastic, bulwark, capitulate, capricious, caricature, cataclysmic, cause célèbre, cholera, clandestine, cogent, collaborate, complicity, conciliation, concordat, condoned, congenial, consternation, contiguous, convivial, coterie, coup d'état, covenant, credibility, crucible, dauphin, dearth, debacle, debilitated, debilitating, decorum, defame, deistic, delineate, demographic, derisively, despot, détente, deterrent, devotion, didactic, diffidence, diffusion, dint, discursive, disparage, doggedly, dogmatism, dogmatist, doldrums, dole, dragoons, duplicity, egalitarian, egregious, electorate, elegy, elucidate, emanate, emancipate, empirical, emulators, enigmatic, enmity, entities, enunciated, epitomize, eschewed, estrangement, ethereal, ethics, euphemism, euphoria, exchequer, expropriation, extralegal, fait accompli, feints, fetters, flagrant, fledgling, flout, fluctuation, foment, freemason, galvanize, garner, hegemony, hierarchy, ideological, impecunious, imperious, impetuosity, impetus, impinged, inculcate, incumbent, indelible, indemnification, indemnity, indigenous, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptly, inequities, inexorable, inextricably, inimical, innate, insidious, instigators, interregnum, intransigent, intrusion, intuition, irony, irrational, laissez faire, lucrative, ludicrous, machinations, maldistribution, melee, mercurial, metaphysics, meticulous, monograph, moot, mundane, neoabsolutism, nominal, oligarchy, opulent, oscillated, palatable, palpably, paradoxical, paternalism, patriarch, patronage, paucity, pecuniary, penchant, perfidy, perfunctory, prerogative, perquisite, philanderer, pietist, pilloried, pinnacle, plausible, plebiscite, pluralism, plurality, polemics, posthumous, postulate, preclude, preemptive, prerogative, prig, pristine, prodigy, profligate, promulgated, propound, proscribe, protectorate, protracted, purveyor, putsch, quelling, rabid, rapprochement, rationality, recalcitrant, recapitulate, refractory, refractory, reminiscent, remunerate, residue, resilience, retrograde, reverberations, rigid, rudiments, sagacious, scandal, sectarian, secularism, seminal, servitude, sovereignty, spawned, spurn, status quo, sumptuary, superannuated, supranational, syllogisms, syndicates, synonymous, tantamount, technocrats, tempering, temporize, tercentenary, titular, touchstone, transcendence, transcendental, trauma, traumatic, tremulous, truculent, tutelage, ubiquitous, ulterior, unabashed, unicameral, unpalatable, usurpation, vagrancy, veneer, verbiage, verve, vilify virile, vituperate, virulent, vociferous, volatile, waning, waxing, writ

Lectures--Terms for History 120

Topics and Terms:  Treaty of Westphalia, Thirty Years' War, Hugo Grotius, Power Vacuum, Papacy, Holy Roman Empire, Autonomous State, Austrian Hapsburgs, Divine Right Monarchy, Balance of Power.


Topics and Terms:  Absolute Monarchy, Tudors, Stuarts, James I, Charles I, Parliament, Puritans, Petition of Right (1628), Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Declaration of Breda, Cavalier Parliament, Feudalism, Clarendon Code, Anglican Church (C of E), dissenters, nonconformists, CABAL, Court (Tory) Party, Country (Whig) party, Exclusion Bill, Habeas Corpus Act (1679), James II (1685-88), Glorious Revolution (1688-89), Revolutionary Settlement, Bill of Rights (1689), John Locke's "contract," Religious Settlement, Toleration Act (1689), William and Mary, Bank of England, National Debt, Act of Settlement (1701), Oueen Anne, Act of Union (1707), Sarah Churchill, The Hanoverians, George I, George II, George III, Prime Minister, William Pitt, the Younger, Cabinet.

Dynasties and dates
Henry VII,  1485-1509
Henry VIII,  1509-1547
Edward VI,  1547-1553
Mary,  1553-1558
Elizabeth I,  1558-1603

James I,  1603-1625
Charles I,  1625-1649
Charles II,  1660-1685
James II,  1685-1688
William III & Mary II,  1689-1694
William III alone, 1694-1702
Anne,  1702-1714

(from 1917, Windsors)
George I,   1714-1727
George II,  1727-1760
George III,  1760-1820
George IV,  1820-1830
William IV,  1830-1837
Victoria,  1837-1901
Edward VII,  1901-1910
George V,  1910-1936
Edward VIII,  1936
George VI,  1936-1952
Elizabeth II,  1952-


Topics and Terms:  Louis XIV (1643/1661-1715), First Estate, Second Estate, Third Estate, Colbert, mercantilism, Intendent, Huguenots, Edict of Nantes (1598), Jansenists, Versailles, Moliére, Tartuffe, "natural boundaries," Louvois, Vauban, War of Devolution (1667-68), Dutch War (1672-78), William of Orange, War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97), "Chambers of Reunion," War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713), Charles II of Spain (1655-1700), Philip of Anjou (V), Archduke Charles, Grand Alliance, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Elector of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia.

Henry IV  1589-1610
Louis XIII  1610-1643
Louis XIV  1643-1715
Louis XV   1715-1774
Louis XVI  1774-1792


Topics and Terms:  Austrian Hapsburgs, Leopold I (1658-1705), Holy Roman Empire, Diet, the Germanies, Ottoman Empire, Hungary, Vienna, Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), Spanish Hapsburgs, Charles II of Spain (1665-1700), The Inquisition, Cervantes, Don Quixote, Philip V, Bourbons.

Hapsburgs & Holy Roman Emperors:
Leopold I,  1658-1705
Joseph I,  1705-1711
Charles VI,  1711-1740
Charles VII,  1742-1745
Francis I,  1745-1765
Maria Theresa,  1740-1780 (not Holy Roman Emperor)
Joseph II,  1780-1790
Leopold II,  1790-1792
Francis II,  1792-1806

Philip V,  1700-1746
Ferdinand VI,   1746-1759
Charles III,  1759-1788
Charles IV,  1788-1808
Ferdinand VII,  1808
Joseph Bonaparte, 1808-1813
Ferdinanad VII,  (restored) 1814-1833
Isabella II,  1833-1868
Amadeo,  1870-1873
Alfonso XII,  1874-1885
Alfonso XIII,  1886-1931
Juan Carlos I,   1975-


Topics and Terms:  "The Time of Troubles," Tsar, the Romanovs, Michael Romanov (1613-1645), Peter the Great (1696-1725), western technology, Duma, Patriarch of Moscow, Holy Synod, Nobles, "State Service," Table of Ranks, serfs, secret police, "Windows to the West," Sweden, Great Northern War (1702-1721), Charles XII, Denmark, Poltava (1709), St. Petersburg, Turkey, Peter III (1762), Catherine the Great, II (1762-1796), Poland, "elective monarchy," "liberum veto," Turkey, Russo-Turkish War (1766-1774), Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774), Black Sea, Paul (1796-1801).

Russian: Romanov
Michael,  1613-1645
Alexius,  1645-1676
Theodore III,  1676-1682
Ivan IV and Peter I, 1682-1689
Peter I "the Great" alone, 1689-1725
Catherine I,  1725-1727
Peter II,  1727-1730
Anna,   1730-1740
Ivan VI,  1740-1741
Elizabeth,  1741-1762
Peter III,   1762
Catherine II "the Great," 1762-1796
Paul,   1796-1801
Alexander I,  1801-1825
Nicholas,  1825-1855
Alexander II,  1855-1881
Alexander III,  1881-1894
Nicholas II,  1894-1917

Swedish: Adolphus
Gustavus,  1611-1796
Charles XII,  1697-1718


Topics and Terms:  "The Germanies," [East] Prussia, Hohenzollern, Elector of Brandenburg, Cleves Mark, Junkers, Realpolitik, Frederick II (the Great), War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), Maria Theresa, Pragmatic Sanction, Diplomatic Revolution, Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Treaty of Paris (1763).

Frederick William the Great Elector, 1640-1688
Frederick I,  1701-1713
Frederick William I,  1713-1740
Frederick II "the Great," 1740-1786
Frederick William II,  1786-1797
Frederick William III,  1797-1840
Frederick William IV,  1840-1861
William I,  1861-1888
Frederick III,  1888
William II,  1888-1918


Topics and Terms:  "Century of Genius" (1600s), Francis Bacon and "inductive reasoning," René Descartes and "deductive reasoning," Isaac Newton, Principia, Royal Society of London, Academe Francaise, Deism, The Enlightenment, John Locke, "Old Regime" (Ancien Regime), Philosophes, Salons of Paris, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Social Contract, "General Will," Physiocrats, Quesnay, laissez faire, Encyclopedists, Diderot, British Constitution, British Parliament, House of Lords, House of Commons, Freemen, Rotten Borough, Pocket Borough, George III, John Wilkes, Enlightened "Despots," Frederick II the Great, Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790), Catherine the Great?


Topics and Terms:  Confusion in Frace, no budget, Louis XVI, "farming out taxes," Estates General, cahiers, Marie Antoinette, Third Estate, National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, Bastille (July 14, 1789), Paris Commune, bourgeoisie, March on Versailles, Lafayette, "The Great Fear," Legal destruction of Feudalism and serfdom, "August Days," Declaration of the Rights of Man, Reform of Local Administration, The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, assignats, Constitution of 1791, Limited Monarchy, Legislative Assembly, Reactionaries, emigres, "Flight to Varennes," Radicals, proletariat, Cordelier, Jacobins, Danton, Robespierre, Declaration of Pillnitz, Girondins, France Declares War 1792, Duke of Brunswick's Proclamation, Second Revolution Aug. 9-10, 1792, "September Massacres," National Convention, The [First] French Republic (1792-1795), The Mountain, The Plain, Battles of Valmy, Carnot, levée en masse, deputies on mission, The Committee of Public Safety, the "Reign of Terror," reform legislation, Thermidorian Reaction, The Directory, Napoleon, Egyptian Campaign, Egyptology, The Consulate (1799-1804), plebiscite, Trafalgar (1805), Treaty of Tilsit (1807), Grand Empire, Weaknesses of Napoleon's Empire, Nationalism, Invasion of Russia, Smolensk (1812), Borodino (1812), Battle of Leipzig or Nations (1813), Elba, The Hundred Days, Waterloo (1815), St. Helena, appraisal of Napoleon.

Louis XIV,  1643-1715
Louis XV,   1715-1774
Louis XVI,  1774-1792

Post 1792:
Napoleon I, Emperor,  1804-1814
Louis XVIII (Bourbon),  1814-1824
Charles X (Bourbon),  1824-1830
Louis Philippe (Bourbon-Orleans),  1830-1848
Napoleon III, Emperor, 1851-1870


Topics and Terms:  Congress of Vienna, Metternich, Talleyrand, Second treaty of Paris (1815), Legitimacy, Compensation, Security, Quadruple Alliance, Congress System [or Concert of Europe], Verona (1822), Louis XVIII, Charles X, July Ordinances, Lafayette, Louis Philippe, the Germanies, Revolutions of 1830, Greek Revolt, Ypsilanti, Belgian Revolt, Revolutions of 1848, Louis Philippe, "banquets," Revolution in France, Louis Blanc, "June Days" Revolt, Significance of Revolutions of 1848, Conservatism in Britain, Peterloo Massacre (1819), Six Acts (1819), Robert Peel, Catholic Emancipation Act (1829), Reform Bill of 1832, Poor Law of 1834, Factory Act (1833), Mines Act (1842), Chartist Movement, "Six Points," Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846).


Topics and Terms:  Kay's Flying Shuttle (1738), Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny (1767), Arkwright Water Frame (1769), Crompton's Mule (1779), Cartwright's Power Force (1785), Whitney's Cotton Gin (1792), James Watt, steam engine, "self-made men," Social and Economic Consequences, "Classical Economists," Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (1876), laissez faire, "invisible hand," David Ricardo, "iron law of wages," Thomas Malthus, Essay upon Principles of Popularion (1798), Jeremy Bentham, "principle of utility," John Stuart Mill, On Liberty 1859), "economic individualism," growth of cities, Industrial Revolution second phase, dominance of Britain, urbanization, agricultural revolution, arms industry.


Topics and Terms:  Evolution, Darwin, Origin of Species (1859), Descent of Man (1870), Religious Response, Social Darwinism, Thomas Huxley, Herbert Spencer, Marx, Communist Manifesto (1848), bourgeoisie, dictatorship of the proletariat, the "Isms," Anarchism, Mikhail Bakunin, Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Socialism, Utopian Socialists, Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, Christian Socialism, Charles Kingsley, Frederick Maurice, Hegel, Hegelian Triad, Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Planck, Einstein, Wundt, Pavlov, Freud, Comte, Realism Balzac, Zola, Flaubert, Madam Bovary, Anatole France (Thibault), Dickens, Hardy, G.B. Shaw, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Impressionism, Wagner, the Russian masters.


Topics and Terms:  Louis Napoleon,  coup d'etat, Eugenie, Baron Haussman, Crimean War, Peace of Paris 1856, Polish Insurrection (1863), Mexican Expedition (1862-1867), Maximillian, Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), Mazzini, Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, Garibaldi, Austro-Sardinian War (1859), Kingdom of Italy (1861), Occupation of Rome, Zollverein (1833), Bismarck, William I, Danish War (1864), Schleswig-Holstein, Austro-Prussian War (1866), North German Confederation, Franco-Prussian war (1870-71), Treaty of Frankfurt, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William E. Gladstone, Reform Bill of 1867, Gladstone's Middle Class Reform, Disraeli and Tory Democracy, unemployment, Labour Party, "welfare state," the Irish Problem.

Victor Emmanuel II,  1861-1878
Humbert I,   1878-1900
Victor Emmanuel II,  1900-1946
Humbert II,  1946


Topics and Terms:  The Franco-Prussian War, the Peace of Frankfurt (1871), Paris Commune Revolt (March-May 1871), Communards, Bloody Week (May 21-28, 1871), The National Assembly, The Third French Republic, Wilson Scandal, Boulanger Crisis, The Panama Scandal, The Dreyfus Affair, Separation of Church and State, Societal Volatility, Action Francais.


Topics and Terms:  The government, Bundesrat, Reichstag, Bismarck, Kulturkampf, Catholic Center Party, Socialist Workingmen's Party, Bismarck's anti-Socialist Program, "Place in the Sun," William II, characteristics, German society.


Topics and Terms:  Alexander II, Alexander II, Nicholas II, peasant government, Witte, Radicals, Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Revolution of 1905, "Bloody Sunday," Duma, Social Revolutionary Party, Black Hundreds, Rasputin, Dual Monarchy, Francis Joseph I, the nationalities, the "Sick man," Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909), von Sanders, Young Turks, Mustapha Kemal.

Alexander II,  1855-1881
Alexander III,  1881-1894
Nicholas II,  1894-1917

Austrian Hapsburgs:
Francis Joseph, 1848-1916
Charles I,  1916-1918


Topics and Terms:  Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, "New Navalism," A.T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power on History, Nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Economic Imperialism, "Yellow Press," Press Lords, Continuing Crisis, Assassination of Francis Ferdinand (1914), Sarajevo, mobilization, war!


Topics and Terms:  Central Powers, Germany, Allies, von Schlieffen Plan, Plan 17, Luxembourg, Belgium, Liege, Mons, von Moltke, Alsace-Lorraine, Joffre, Battle of the Marne, "Miracle of the Marne," "Race to the Sea," trench warfare, Tannenburg, Masurian Lakes, Flanders, Verdun, the Somme, Battle of Jutland, Ludendorff, Hindenburg, submarines, "unlimited submarine warfare," Russia, German assault, Armistice, Wilson's 14 Points, Paris Peace Conference, Treaty of Versailles.


Topics and Terms:  Nicholas II, March 1917 Revolution, Petrograd Soviet (Council), Duma, Provisional Government, Kerensky, Kornilov Revolt, Bolshevik Leadership, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, October [Nov.] Revolution, Constituent Assembly, Peace-Bread-Land, "War Communism," Cheka, Counter Revolution, Civil War, Red Army, Red Terror, USSR, Constitution, Communist Party, Secretariat, Central Committee, Orgburo, Politburo, New Economic Program (NEP), Stalin-Trotsky, "Socialism in one country," Five Year Plans, Kulaks, Constitution of 1936, the Purges, Education, Religion, foreign policy.


Topics and Terms:  Totalitarian Dictatorship, Post-war Problems, Socialists, Benito Mussolini, Fascist Party, Fasces, Blackshirts, March on Rome, Electoral Law of 1923, Fascist Theory, Cult of Leadership and Patriotism, Il Duce (The Leader), Lateran Treaties (1929), Fascist Foreign Policy, Evaluation of Fascism.


Topics and Terms:  Weimar Republic, Reichstag, Reichsrat, Post-war Problems, Kapp Putsch, Munich Beer Hall Putsch, Ludendorff, Hitler (1889-1945), Mein Kampf, Nazi Party, Prophet, Cult of Leadership, der Fuhrer, Hindenburg, "National Awakening," Reichstag Fire, Election, Enabling Act, Hitler Youth, Ladies Auxillary, Storm Troops (SA), Elite Guards (SS), People's Court, Gestapo, Anti-semitism, Crystal Night, Concentration Camps, Four Year Plans, Religion and Education, Culture and Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, Lebensraum, Disarmament, Rhineland, Rome-Berlin Axis, Spanish Civil War, Anschluss, Munich, Poland Invaded.


Topics and Terms:  Labour Party, Ramsay MacDonald, Liberal Party, Conservative Party, Edward VIII, Abdication Crisis (1936), Womens' Suffrage, General Strike (1926), National (Coalition) Government, Ireland, Easter Rebellion (1916), Sinn Fein, I.R.A., Black and Tans, Dominion 1921, Appeasement, Oxford Poll, Churchill.

Reconstruction, Reparations, Depression, Political Instability, Stavisky Case, Popular Front, Leon Blum, Edouard Daladier, Security, Disarmament, Alliances, Maginot Line, Appeasement.


Topics and Terms:  Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Schrodinger, Alexander Fleming, Penicillin, Miles van de Rohe, Le Corbusier, Otto Wagner, Frank Lloyd Wright, Cezanne, Picasso, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Derain, Dufy, Fauvist, Cubism, Modigliani, Chagall, Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky, Max Beckmann, Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Juan Grio, Oskar Kokoschka, Franz von Lizst, Smetana, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Jan Sibelius, Finlandia, Bela Bartok, Alexander Scriabin, Arnold Bennett, Old Wives' Tale, John Galsworthy, The Forsythe Saga, H.G. Wells, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Ulysses, Aldous Huxley, A.E. Housmann, W.B. Yeats, Dylan Thomas, T.S. Eliot, Thomas Mann, Erich Maria Remarque, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorki, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Sholokhov, Andre Malraux, Andre Gide, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, O'Neill, Fry, O'Casey, Lorca, Brecht.


Topics and Terms:  Treaty of Versailles, Security & Disarmament, Ethiopian Crisis, Washington Naval Conference, London Naval Conference, Locarno Pact, Pact of Paris, Aristide Briand, Frank Kellogg, Alliance Systems, Little Entente, Rome-Berlin Axis (1936), Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (1937), Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939), Maginot Line, Manchuria, Lytton Report, Remilitarization, Hoare-Laval Pact (1936), Rhineland, Spanish Civil War, Anschluss (March 1938), Munich Crisis, Poland, Mein Kampf, Lebensraum, Czechoslovakia, Memel.


Topics and Terms:  Blitzkrieg, Nazi-Soviet Pact, SitzKrieg, Maginot Line, Denmark, Norway, Chamberlain, Churchill, Holland, France, Dunkirk, Vichy France, Mussolini, Charles DeGaulle, Battle of Britain, Luftwaffe, R.A.F., Spitfire, Hurricane, Radar, Mediterranian, North Africa, Libya, Egypt, Africa Korps, Rommel, Barbarossa, Finland, Lend Lease, Pearl Harbor, Philippines, Atlantic Charter, Stalingrad, Kursk, El Alamein, Italy Invaded, D-Day, Strategic bombing, The battle of the Bulge, Coral Sea (May 1942), Midway (June 1942), Leyte Gulf, Island Hopping, Iwo Jima (1945), Okinawa (April-June 1945), Kamikaze, Atomic Bomb, Planning, Cost.


Topics and Terms:  Destruction, Confusion, "democracy," Soviet sphere, Yugoslavia, "Western democracy," France, Italy, Germany divided, Japan, Indochina, China.


Topics and Terms:  US, USSR, Communism v. Capitalism, Greece, Truman Doctrine, Berlin Blockade, Korea, Nuclear Stalemate, Alliance Systems, Warsaw Pact, NATO.
Britain:  Clement Attlee, "Welfare State," Churchill, Labour, Harold Wilson.
France:  Fourth Republic, DeGaulle, Foreign Policy, "Third Force," Georges Pompidou, Francois Mitterand.
Germany:  Federal Republic, Economic Miracle, Konrad Adenauer, Willy Brandt, Berlin Wall, Terrorism, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut Kohl.


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Last Modified August 2006