Marion B. Lucas
Professor of History, Emeritus
Office Cherry Hall 224-B
Office Ph. (270) 745-5736
Office Fax: (270) 745-2950
WKU History Department Home Page
1. Who wrote this document?
What was the author’s social background and position?
To what groups did the author belong (e.g., class, race, gender, nationality, and so on)?
What most vividly characterizes the author’s identity for you?
When was the document written?
Where was the document written?
2. Who is the intended audience?
What is the relationship between the author and the audience?
Does the language of the document seem consistent with or appropriate to that relationship?
Does the document appear to be directed to more than one audience?
What knowledge is the author assuming that the audience shares?
3. What is the story line?
What is going on in the document?
Can you distinguish between the details of the document and what it is about?
Can you identify the author’s point, thesis, or intention and the proof she or he offers?
1. Why was the document written?
Was the document written for a public or a private purpose?
If the document was written to convince, what logic does it employ? Are you convinced? Why or why not?
If the document was written to entertain, how did the author try to accomplish that purpose? Was the author successful?
If the document was written to motivate, to what emotions does it seem to appeal? Was it successful or not?
Can you discern the contours of another side of the story?
2. What type of document is this?
What language is the text written in? Is it a translation? Is the language archaic? Has it been modernized?
What are the conventions of the genre in which the document is written?
Does the document conform to your expectations for the genre or does it modify expected conventions?
3. What are the basic assumptions made in this document?
What assumptions are central to the document and stated explicitly by the author?
What central assumptions are left unstated?
How does the author use these assumptions to make his or her point persuasive?
1. Can I believe this document?
Treat the claims of the document skeptically: what is the other side of the story?
What information, which you possess, does the author of the document appear to lack, ignore, or suppress?
2. What can I learn about the society that produced this document?
Many things that are incidental to the author’s purpose--language, structure, assumptions, errors--are significant for understanding the subject, period, or event under study: what are some of them? How do they illuminate or even stimulate your researches?
Based on what else you know, what meaning can you read into this document?
3. What does this document mean to me?
Every historical document had meaning for the society that produced it and for you: is the meaning you attach to the document the same as the meaning it held when it was produced? Related? Quite different? Can you account for the similarities and/or differences?
What significance do you attach to these similarities and/or differences?
*The material was largely taken from "How to Read a Document," by Mark A. Kishlansky, et al., Sources of the West: Readings for Western Civilization, vol. 1, From the Beginning to 1648 (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), pp. xi - xix, as found on the Lewis and Clark College Critical Thinking Page.
is required to spend at least two (2) hours
in preparation for each class assignment. During study, certain
should be kept constantly in mind. (1) Facts must be mastered. The
of history is hard memory work.
Names, dates, terms, and similar data are basic. It is assumed that the
student will master the facts in each text assignment and lecture. It
impossible to draw correct
about events in history if you do not know the facts of the event. (2)
The idea or theme of each chapter
be acquired. Be sure that the material in each paragraph can be written
in your own words before leaving it. (3) These steps, however, are
preliminary to the final purpose of the course which is to allow each
student to become his or her own
That is, you must learn to interpret America's past for yourself. To
this end, the student should constantly keep in mind how the most
institutions and ideas have originated, and how our strong points and
Students often ask me, "How is all this to be accomplished?" Frankly, there is no one way for a professor to tell a student how to study. Yet, there are certain methods that students might employ to enable them to do their best on each assignment. First, it is suggested that the student go through the assigned pages rather hurriedly, reading each heading. Secondly, the student should read each heading and the first and last sentence of each paragraph. The purpose of this scanning is to give the student the scope and content of the entire assignment. This can be accomplished in about five (5) to ten (10) minutes! Thirdly, the assignment should be read thoroughly, with proper attention to maps and pictures. Important facts and the theme of each paragraph should be noted by underlining, or writing in the book margins or on a separate piece of paper. This third process can be completed in forty-five (45) to seventy-five (75) minutes per assignment.
This brings us to the fourth step, that of study and reflection. You should not pass on to the next paragraph until you are able to summarize what you have learned in your own words. This will consume thirty (30) to forty-five (45) minutes per assignment. The remaining fifteen (15) to thirty (30) minutes of the time allotment should be spent on the parallel reading or studying for the hour tests.
Each student is required to take lecture notes in class; the hour tests and the final are based upon the lecture material. You must develop your own method of taking notes. Do not try to take down every word, but rather train your ear to hear the main points. Remember, the better your notes, the better you will do on the hour tests. If you miss something, leave a blank space in your notes to be filled from the textbook after class. The lecture notes should be reviewed regularly and preparations for an hour test should begin at least a week before the test.
It is the student's responsibility to know the location of the professor's office and posted hours. If you encounter any difficulty which cannot be solved by application, consult with the professor, either during regular office hours or by special appointment. Do not wait until the end of the semester or until you receive an invitation to the instructor's office.
Anderson, M.S. Eighteenth-Century Europe (1982).
Ash, T.G. The Polish Revolution: Solidarity (1984).
Avery, Richard. Why The Allies Won
Beck, Earl R. Under the Bombs: The German Home Front, 1942-1945 1986).
Behlmer, G. Child Abuse and Moral Reform in England, 1870-1908 (1982).
Bartov, Omer. Hitler's Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich (1992).
Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad (1998).
Browning, Christopher R. Ordinary Men: Reserve police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1992).
Burke, P. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe (1978).
Clark, R. W. Lenin (1988).
Crankshaw, E. Bismarck (1981).
Davies, Norman. God's Playground (2005).
Dockril, M. The cold War 1945-1963 (1988).
Doyle, F. Origins of the French Revolution (1988).
Ellis, John. Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War (1990).
Ferro, Marc. Nicholas II: Last of the Tsars (1993).
Fest, J. Hitler (1974).
Figes, Orlando. A People's tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution (1996).
Fischer, Klaus P. Nazi Germany: A New History (1995).
Fraser, David. Knight' Cross: A Life of Erwin Rommel
Fritz, Stephen G. Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East (2011).
Fuhrmann, Joseph T. Rasputin: A Life (1990).
Gilbert, M. The First world War (1994).
Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996).
Hastings, Max. Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944 (2005).
Hastings, Max. Retribution: The Battle for Japan, 1944-45 (2007)
Hilburg, Raul. Destruction of the European Jews (3rd ed., 1985).
Hunt, Lynn. Inventing Human Rights (2007).
Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of Anglo-German Antagonism (1982).
Large, David Clay. Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936 (2007).
Larson, Edward J. Evolution: The Remarkable History of A Scientific Theory (2004).
Loomis, Stanley. Paris in the Terror (1964).
Lyons, Michael J. World War I: A Short History
Lyons, Michael J. World War II: A Short History
Maiolo, Joseph. Cry Havoc: How the Arms Race Drove The World to War, 1931-1941 (2010).
Mason, H.T. Voltaire: A Biography (1981).
Massie, Robert K. Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea (2003).
Massie, Robert K. Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War (1991).
Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra (1967).
Massie, Robert K. Peter the Great: His Life and World (1980).
Massie, Robert K. The Romanovs: The Final Chapter (1995).
Milward, A.S. War, Economy and Society, 1939-1945 (1977).
Montefiore, Simon S. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (2003).
Morgan, K.O. The People's Peace: British History 1945-1990 (1992).
Overy, Richard. 1939: Countdown to War (2010).
Rapport, Mike. 1848: Year of Revolution (2009).
Roberts, Andrew. The Storm of War: A New History of the Second World War (2011).
Rhodes, Richard. Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust (2002).
Ryan, Cornelius. A Bridge Too Far (1974).
Schiebinger, L. The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science (1989).
Schwartz, R.M. Policing the Poor in Eighteenth-Century France (1988).
Scott, J.W. Women, Work, and Family (1978).
Service, Robert. The Bolshevik Party in revolution: A Study in Organizational change, 1917-1923 (1979).
Service, Robert. Lenin: A Political Life (1985).
Service, Robert. Stalin: A Biography (2005).
Smith, B.G. Women in European History since 1700 (1989).
Smith, Denis Mack. Garibaldi (1969).
Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini (1982).
Spicer, Kevin P. Hitler's Priests: Catholic Clergy and National Socialism ().
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History
Stearns, P. 1848: The Revolutionary Tide in Europe (1974).
Stevenson, David. With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and defeat in 1918 (2011).
Tomblin, Barbara Brooks. With Utmost Spirit: Allied Naval Operations in the Mediterranean, 1942-1945 (2004).
Toland, John. Battle: The Story of the Bulge (1959)
Tuchman, Barbara W. The Guns of August (1962).
Tuchman, Barbara W. The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World Before the War 1890-1914 (1966).
Wachsmann, Nikolaus. Hitler's Prisons: Legal Terror in Nazi Germany (2004).
Wade, Rex. The Russian Revolution, 1917 (2000).
Westfall, R.S. The Life of Isaac Newton (1993).
Language is essential, even vital for the study
history. Purchase a good dictionary. I recommend Webster's
New World Dictionary (latest edition). I also
that you purchase, and keep with you when studying or writing, Shirley
M. Miller, comp., Webster's New World
Word Book (latest edition). This book will give
the correct spelling and dividing of most-used words. To improve
your vocabulary, I recommend purchasing a vocabulary study book such as
Norman Lewis, Word Power Made Easy
(latest edition) or Wilfred Funk and Norman Lewis. 30
Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary (latest edition)
of course, retain your English grammar book for reference. Such
will enable you to improve your vocabulary significantly. I
that you approach vocabulary study systematically. Decide on a
such as learning one new word a day, or perhaps more practically, three
words a week. Once you develop a plan which works for you, stick
One more tip. Learn the key rules of grammar this semester. Know the difference between plurals and possessives. Know what a comma splice is. Learn the proper use of the apostrophe. And remember: commas and periods are alwaysinside quotation marks, [," or ."] and colons and semicolons are always outside quotation marks ["; or ":]. Learn these simple rules and you will eliminate 90 percent of the most typical errors made in grammar. One more suggestion. Look up "topic sentence" in your grammar book and review the ideas suggested for writing them. And by the way, "a lot" is two words, not one!
WORDS YOU SHOULD KNOW: VOCABULARY FOR HISTORY 120
abate, abrogate, acrimonious, adamant, adulation, aegis, aesthetics,
affable, affluent, aggrandize, aggregate, alleviation, amiable,
ambivalent, amenable, amoral, amphibious, analogy, anonymity,
antediluvian, anti-clerical, antipathy, appeasement, articulate,
assuage, astute, austere, autonomous, avarice, baroque, bellicose,
bombastic, bulwark, capitulate, capricious, caricature, cataclysmic,
célèbre, cholera, clandestine, cogent, collaborate,
conciliation, concordat, condoned, congenial, consternation,
convivial, coterie, coup d'état, covenant, credibility,
dauphin, dearth, debacle, debilitated, debilitating, decorum, defame,
delineate, demographic, derisively, despot, détente, deterrent,
devotion, didactic, diffidence, diffusion, dint, discursive, disparage,
doggedly, dogmatism, dogmatist, doldrums, dole, dragoons, duplicity,
egregious, electorate, elegy, elucidate, emanate, emancipate,
emulators, enigmatic, enmity, entities, enunciated, epitomize,
estrangement, ethereal, ethics, euphemism, euphoria, exchequer,
extralegal, fait accompli, feints, fetters, flagrant, fledgling, flout,
fluctuation, foment, freemason, galvanize, garner, hegemony, hierarchy,
ideological, impecunious, imperious, impetuosity, impetus, impinged,
incumbent, indelible, indemnification, indemnity, indigenous,
ineptitude, ineptitude, ineptly, inequities, inexorable, inextricably,
inimical, innate, insidious, instigators, interregnum, intransigent,
intuition, irony, irrational, laissez faire, lucrative, ludicrous,
maldistribution, melee, mercurial, metaphysics, meticulous, monograph,
moot, mundane, neoabsolutism, nominal, oligarchy, opulent, oscillated,
palatable, palpably, paradoxical, paternalism, patriarch, patronage,
pecuniary, penchant, perfidy, perfunctory, prerogative, perquisite,
pietist, pilloried, pinnacle, plausible, plebiscite, pluralism,
polemics, posthumous, postulate, preclude, preemptive, prerogative,
pristine, prodigy, profligate, promulgated, propound, proscribe,
protracted, purveyor, putsch, quelling, rabid, rapprochement,
recalcitrant, recapitulate, refractory, refractory, reminiscent,
residue, resilience, retrograde, reverberations, rigid, rudiments,
scandal, sectarian, secularism, seminal, servitude, sovereignty,
spurn, status quo, sumptuary, superannuated, supranational, syllogisms,
syndicates, synonymous, tantamount, technocrats, tempering, temporize,
tercentenary, titular, touchstone, transcendence, transcendental,
traumatic, tremulous, truculent, tutelage, ubiquitous, ulterior,
unicameral, unpalatable, usurpation, vagrancy, veneer, verbiage, verve,
vilify virile, vituperate, virulent, vociferous, volatile, waning,
Topics and Terms: Treaty of Westphalia, Thirty Years' War, Hugo Grotius, Power Vacuum, Papacy, Holy Roman Empire, Autonomous State, Austrian Hapsburgs, Divine Right Monarchy, Balance of Power.
THE TRIUMPH OF PARLIAMENT IN ENGLAND
Topics and Terms: Absolute Monarchy, Tudors, Stuarts, James I, Charles I, Parliament, Puritans, Petition of Right (1628), Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Declaration of Breda, Cavalier Parliament, Feudalism, Clarendon Code, Anglican Church (C of E), dissenters, nonconformists, CABAL, Court (Tory) Party, Country (Whig) party, Exclusion Bill, Habeas Corpus Act (1679), James II (1685-88), Glorious Revolution (1688-89), Revolutionary Settlement, Bill of Rights (1689), John Locke's "contract," Religious Settlement, Toleration Act (1689), William and Mary, Bank of England, National Debt, Act of Settlement (1701), Oueen Anne, Act of Union (1707), Sarah Churchill, The Hanoverians, George I, George II, George III, Prime Minister, William Pitt, the Younger, Cabinet.
Dynasties and dates
Henry VII, 1485-1509
Henry VIII, 1509-1547
Edward VI, 1547-1553
Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
James I, 1603-1625
Charles I, 1625-1649
Charles II, 1660-1685
James II, 1685-1688
William III & Mary II, 1689-1694
William III alone, 1694-1702
(from 1917, Windsors)
George I, 1714-1727
George II, 1727-1760
George III, 1760-1820
George IV, 1820-1830
William IV, 1830-1837
Edward VII, 1901-1910
George V, 1910-1936
Edward VIII, 1936
George VI, 1936-1952
Elizabeth II, 1952-
FRANCE IN THE AGE OF LOUIS XIV
Topics and Terms: Louis XIV (1643/1661-1715), First Estate, Second Estate, Third Estate, Colbert, mercantilism, Intendent, Huguenots, Edict of Nantes (1598), Jansenists, Versailles, Moliére, Tartuffe, "natural boundaries," Louvois, Vauban, War of Devolution (1667-68), Dutch War (1672-78), William of Orange, War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97), "Chambers of Reunion," War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713), Charles II of Spain (1655-1700), Philip of Anjou (V), Archduke Charles, Grand Alliance, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Elector of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia.
Henry IV 1589-1610
Louis XIII 1610-1643
Louis XIV 1643-1715
Louis XV 1715-1774
Louis XVI 1774-1792
THE DECLINE OF THE HAPSBURGS
Topics and Terms: Austrian Hapsburgs, Leopold I (1658-1705), Holy Roman Empire, Diet, the Germanies, Ottoman Empire, Hungary, Vienna, Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), Spanish Hapsburgs, Charles II of Spain (1665-1700), The Inquisition, Cervantes, Don Quixote, Philip V, Bourbons.
Hapsburgs & Holy Roman Emperors:
Leopold I, 1658-1705
Joseph I, 1705-1711
Charles VI, 1711-1740
Charles VII, 1742-1745
Francis I, 1745-1765
Maria Theresa, 1740-1780 (not Holy Roman Emperor)
Joseph II, 1780-1790
Leopold II, 1790-1792
Francis II, 1792-1806
Philip V, 1700-1746
Ferdinand VI, 1746-1759
Charles III, 1759-1788
Charles IV, 1788-1808
Ferdinand VII, 1808
Joseph Bonaparte, 1808-1813
Ferdinanad VII, (restored) 1814-1833
Isabella II, 1833-1868
Alfonso XII, 1874-1885
Alfonso XIII, 1886-1931
Juan Carlos I, 1975-
EMERGENCE OF RUSSIA: THE AGES OF PETER THE GREAT AND CATHERINE THE GREAT
Topics and Terms: "The Time of Troubles," Tsar, the Romanovs, Michael Romanov (1613-1645), Peter the Great (1696-1725), western technology, Duma, Patriarch of Moscow, Holy Synod, Nobles, "State Service," Table of Ranks, serfs, secret police, "Windows to the West," Sweden, Great Northern War (1702-1721), Charles XII, Denmark, Poltava (1709), St. Petersburg, Turkey, Peter III (1762), Catherine the Great, II (1762-1796), Poland, "elective monarchy," "liberum veto," Turkey, Russo-Turkish War (1766-1774), Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774), Black Sea, Paul (1796-1801).
Theodore III, 1676-1682
Ivan IV and Peter I, 1682-1689
Peter I "the Great" alone, 1689-1725
Catherine I, 1725-1727
Peter II, 1727-1730
Ivan VI, 1740-1741
Peter III, 1762
Catherine II "the Great," 1762-1796
Alexander I, 1801-1825
Alexander II, 1855-1881
Alexander III, 1881-1894
Nicholas II, 1894-1917
Charles XII, 1697-1718
RISE OF PRUSSIA
Topics and Terms: "The Germanies," [East] Prussia, Hohenzollern, Elector of Brandenburg, Cleves Mark, Junkers, Realpolitik, Frederick II (the Great), War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), Maria Theresa, Pragmatic Sanction, Diplomatic Revolution, Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Treaty of Paris (1763).
Frederick William the Great Elector, 1640-1688
Frederick I, 1701-1713
Frederick William I, 1713-1740
Frederick II "the Great," 1740-1786
Frederick William II, 1786-1797
Frederick William III, 1797-1840
Frederick William IV, 1840-1861
William I, 1861-1888
Frederick III, 1888
William II, 1888-1918
THE INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Topics and Terms: "Century of Genius" (1600s), Francis Bacon and "inductive reasoning," René Descartes and "deductive reasoning," Isaac Newton, Principia, Royal Society of London, Academe Francaise, Deism, The Enlightenment, John Locke, "Old Regime" (Ancien Regime), Philosophes, Salons of Paris, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Social Contract, "General Will," Physiocrats, Quesnay, laissez faire, Encyclopedists, Diderot, British Constitution, British Parliament, House of Lords, House of Commons, Freemen, Rotten Borough, Pocket Borough, George III, John Wilkes, Enlightened "Despots," Frederick II the Great, Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790), Catherine the Great?
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON
Topics and Terms: Confusion in Frace, no budget, Louis XVI, "farming out taxes," Estates General, cahiers, Marie Antoinette, Third Estate, National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, Bastille (July 14, 1789), Paris Commune, bourgeoisie, March on Versailles, Lafayette, "The Great Fear," Legal destruction of Feudalism and serfdom, "August Days," Declaration of the Rights of Man, Reform of Local Administration, The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, assignats, Constitution of 1791, Limited Monarchy, Legislative Assembly, Reactionaries, emigres, "Flight to Varennes," Radicals, proletariat, Cordelier, Jacobins, Danton, Robespierre, Declaration of Pillnitz, Girondins, France Declares War 1792, Duke of Brunswick's Proclamation, Second Revolution Aug. 9-10, 1792, "September Massacres," National Convention, The [First] French Republic (1792-1795), The Mountain, The Plain, Battles of Valmy, Carnot, levée en masse, deputies on mission, The Committee of Public Safety, the "Reign of Terror," reform legislation, Thermidorian Reaction, The Directory, Napoleon, Egyptian Campaign, Egyptology, The Consulate (1799-1804), plebiscite, Trafalgar (1805), Treaty of Tilsit (1807), Grand Empire, Weaknesses of Napoleon's Empire, Nationalism, Invasion of Russia, Smolensk (1812), Borodino (1812), Battle of Leipzig or Nations (1813), Elba, The Hundred Days, Waterloo (1815), St. Helena, appraisal of Napoleon.
Louis XIV, 1643-1715
Louis XV, 1715-1774
Louis XVI, 1774-1792
Napoleon I, Emperor, 1804-1814
Louis XVIII (Bourbon), 1814-1824
Charles X (Bourbon), 1824-1830
Louis Philippe (Bourbon-Orleans), 1830-1848
Napoleon III, Emperor, 1851-1870
REACTION AND REVOLUTION: EUROPE 1815-1848
Topics and Terms: Congress of Vienna, Metternich, Talleyrand, Second treaty of Paris (1815), Legitimacy, Compensation, Security, Quadruple Alliance, Congress System [or Concert of Europe], Verona (1822), Louis XVIII, Charles X, July Ordinances, Lafayette, Louis Philippe, the Germanies, Revolutions of 1830, Greek Revolt, Ypsilanti, Belgian Revolt, Revolutions of 1848, Louis Philippe, "banquets," Revolution in France, Louis Blanc, "June Days" Revolt, Significance of Revolutions of 1848, Conservatism in Britain, Peterloo Massacre (1819), Six Acts (1819), Robert Peel, Catholic Emancipation Act (1829), Reform Bill of 1832, Poor Law of 1834, Factory Act (1833), Mines Act (1842), Chartist Movement, "Six Points," Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846).
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Topics and Terms: Kay's Flying Shuttle (1738), Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny (1767), Arkwright Water Frame (1769), Crompton's Mule (1779), Cartwright's Power Force (1785), Whitney's Cotton Gin (1792), James Watt, steam engine, "self-made men," Social and Economic Consequences, "Classical Economists," Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (1876), laissez faire, "invisible hand," David Ricardo, "iron law of wages," Thomas Malthus, Essay upon Principles of Popularion (1798), Jeremy Bentham, "principle of utility," John Stuart Mill, On Liberty 1859), "economic individualism," growth of cities, Industrial Revolution second phase, dominance of Britain, urbanization, agricultural revolution, arms industry.
PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE, LITERATURE, THE ARTS 1870-1914
Topics and Terms: Evolution, Darwin, Origin of Species (1859), Descent of Man (1870), Religious Response, Social Darwinism, Thomas Huxley, Herbert Spencer, Marx, Communist Manifesto (1848), bourgeoisie, dictatorship of the proletariat, the "Isms," Anarchism, Mikhail Bakunin, Pierre Joseph Proudhon, Socialism, Utopian Socialists, Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, Christian Socialism, Charles Kingsley, Frederick Maurice, Hegel, Hegelian Triad, Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Planck, Einstein, Wundt, Pavlov, Freud, Comte, Realism Balzac, Zola, Flaubert, Madam Bovary, Anatole France (Thibault), Dickens, Hardy, G.B. Shaw, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Impressionism, Wagner, the Russian masters.
THE GROWTH OF NATIONALISM 1848-1870
Topics and Terms: Louis Napoleon, coup d'etat, Eugenie, Baron Haussman, Crimean War, Peace of Paris 1856, Polish Insurrection (1863), Mexican Expedition (1862-1867), Maximillian, Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), Mazzini, Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, Garibaldi, Austro-Sardinian War (1859), Kingdom of Italy (1861), Occupation of Rome, Zollverein (1833), Bismarck, William I, Danish War (1864), Schleswig-Holstein, Austro-Prussian War (1866), North German Confederation, Franco-Prussian war (1870-71), Treaty of Frankfurt, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William E. Gladstone, Reform Bill of 1867, Gladstone's Middle Class Reform, Disraeli and Tory Democracy, unemployment, Labour Party, "welfare state," the Irish Problem.
Victor Emmanuel II, 1861-1878
Humbert I, 1878-1900
Victor Emmanuel II, 1900-1946
Humbert II, 1946
THE THIRD FRENCH REPUBLIC 1870-1914
Topics and Terms: The Franco-Prussian War, the Peace of Frankfurt (1871), Paris Commune Revolt (March-May 1871), Communards, Bloody Week (May 21-28, 1871), The National Assembly, The Third French Republic, Wilson Scandal, Boulanger Crisis, The Panama Scandal, The Dreyfus Affair, Separation of Church and State, Societal Volatility, Action Francais.
THE GERMAN EMPIRE 1870-1914
Topics and Terms: The government, Bundesrat, Reichstag, Bismarck, Kulturkampf, Catholic Center Party, Socialist Workingmen's Party, Bismarck's anti-Socialist Program, "Place in the Sun," William II, characteristics, German society.
EASTERN EUROPE 1870-1914
Topics and Terms: Alexander II, Alexander II, Nicholas II, peasant government, Witte, Radicals, Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Revolution of 1905, "Bloody Sunday," Duma, Social Revolutionary Party, Black Hundreds, Rasputin, Dual Monarchy, Francis Joseph I, the nationalities, the "Sick man," Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909), von Sanders, Young Turks, Mustapha Kemal.
Alexander II, 1855-1881
Alexander III, 1881-1894
Nicholas II, 1894-1917
Francis Joseph, 1848-1916
Charles I, 1916-1918
THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
Topics and Terms: Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, "New Navalism," A.T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power on History, Nationalism, Pan-Slavism, Economic Imperialism, "Yellow Press," Press Lords, Continuing Crisis, Assassination of Francis Ferdinand (1914), Sarajevo, mobilization, war!
WORLD WAR I
Topics and Terms: Central Powers, Germany, Allies, von Schlieffen Plan, Plan 17, Luxembourg, Belgium, Liege, Mons, von Moltke, Alsace-Lorraine, Joffre, Battle of the Marne, "Miracle of the Marne," "Race to the Sea," trench warfare, Tannenburg, Masurian Lakes, Flanders, Verdun, the Somme, Battle of Jutland, Ludendorff, Hindenburg, submarines, "unlimited submarine warfare," Russia, German assault, Armistice, Wilson's 14 Points, Paris Peace Conference, Treaty of Versailles.
RUSSIA: FROM THE REVOLUTION TO 1939
Topics and Terms: Nicholas II, March 1917 Revolution, Petrograd Soviet (Council), Duma, Provisional Government, Kerensky, Kornilov Revolt, Bolshevik Leadership, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, October [Nov.] Revolution, Constituent Assembly, Peace-Bread-Land, "War Communism," Cheka, Counter Revolution, Civil War, Red Army, Red Terror, USSR, Constitution, Communist Party, Secretariat, Central Committee, Orgburo, Politburo, New Economic Program (NEP), Stalin-Trotsky, "Socialism in one country," Five Year Plans, Kulaks, Constitution of 1936, the Purges, Education, Religion, foreign policy.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY
Topics and Terms: Totalitarian Dictatorship, Post-war Problems, Socialists, Benito Mussolini, Fascist Party, Fasces, Blackshirts, March on Rome, Electoral Law of 1923, Fascist Theory, Cult of Leadership and Patriotism, Il Duce (The Leader), Lateran Treaties (1929), Fascist Foreign Policy, Evaluation of Fascism.
THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC AND THE RISE OF HITLER
Topics and Terms: Weimar Republic, Reichstag, Reichsrat, Post-war Problems, Kapp Putsch, Munich Beer Hall Putsch, Ludendorff, Hitler (1889-1945), Mein Kampf, Nazi Party, Prophet, Cult of Leadership, der Fuhrer, Hindenburg, "National Awakening," Reichstag Fire, Election, Enabling Act, Hitler Youth, Ladies Auxillary, Storm Troops (SA), Elite Guards (SS), People's Court, Gestapo, Anti-semitism, Crystal Night, Concentration Camps, Four Year Plans, Religion and Education, Culture and Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, Lebensraum, Disarmament, Rhineland, Rome-Berlin Axis, Spanish Civil War, Anschluss, Munich, Poland Invaded.
BRITAIN AND FRANCE BETWEEN THE WARS
Topics and Terms: Labour Party, Ramsay MacDonald, Liberal Party, Conservative Party, Edward VIII, Abdication Crisis (1936), Womens' Suffrage, General Strike (1926), National (Coalition) Government, Ireland, Easter Rebellion (1916), Sinn Fein, I.R.A., Black and Tans, Dominion 1921, Appeasement, Oxford Poll, Churchill.
Reconstruction, Reparations, Depression, Political Instability, Stavisky Case, Popular Front, Leon Blum, Edouard Daladier, Security, Disarmament, Alliances, Maginot Line, Appeasement.
INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL MOVEMENTS
Topics and Terms: Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Schrodinger, Alexander Fleming, Penicillin, Miles van de Rohe, Le Corbusier, Otto Wagner, Frank Lloyd Wright, Cezanne, Picasso, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Derain, Dufy, Fauvist, Cubism, Modigliani, Chagall, Paul Klee, Vasily Kandinsky, Max Beckmann, Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Juan Grio, Oskar Kokoschka, Franz von Lizst, Smetana, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Jan Sibelius, Finlandia, Bela Bartok, Alexander Scriabin, Arnold Bennett, Old Wives' Tale, John Galsworthy, The Forsythe Saga, H.G. Wells, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Ulysses, Aldous Huxley, A.E. Housmann, W.B. Yeats, Dylan Thomas, T.S. Eliot, Thomas Mann, Erich Maria Remarque, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorki, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Sholokhov, Andre Malraux, Andre Gide, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, O'Neill, Fry, O'Casey, Lorca, Brecht.
DIPLOMACY BETWEEN THE WARS: THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II
Topics and Terms: Treaty of Versailles, Security & Disarmament, Ethiopian Crisis, Washington Naval Conference, London Naval Conference, Locarno Pact, Pact of Paris, Aristide Briand, Frank Kellogg, Alliance Systems, Little Entente, Rome-Berlin Axis (1936), Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis (1937), Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939), Maginot Line, Manchuria, Lytton Report, Remilitarization, Hoare-Laval Pact (1936), Rhineland, Spanish Civil War, Anschluss (March 1938), Munich Crisis, Poland, Mein Kampf, Lebensraum, Czechoslovakia, Memel.
WORLD WAR II
Topics and Terms: Blitzkrieg, Nazi-Soviet Pact, SitzKrieg, Maginot Line, Denmark, Norway, Chamberlain, Churchill, Holland, France, Dunkirk, Vichy France, Mussolini, Charles DeGaulle, Battle of Britain, Luftwaffe, R.A.F., Spitfire, Hurricane, Radar, Mediterranian, North Africa, Libya, Egypt, Africa Korps, Rommel, Barbarossa, Finland, Lend Lease, Pearl Harbor, Philippines, Atlantic Charter, Stalingrad, Kursk, El Alamein, Italy Invaded, D-Day, Strategic bombing, The battle of the Bulge, Coral Sea (May 1942), Midway (June 1942), Leyte Gulf, Island Hopping, Iwo Jima (1945), Okinawa (April-June 1945), Kamikaze, Atomic Bomb, Planning, Cost.
BETWEEN SURRENDER AND COLD WAR: EUROPE IMMEDIATELY AFTER WORLD WAR II
Topics and Terms: Destruction, Confusion, "democracy," Soviet sphere, Yugoslavia, "Western democracy," France, Italy, Germany divided, Japan, Indochina, China.
THE COLD WAR AND WESTERN EUROPE
Topics and Terms: US, USSR, Communism v. Capitalism, Greece,
Doctrine, Berlin Blockade, Korea, Nuclear Stalemate, Alliance Systems,
Warsaw Pact, NATO.
Britain: Clement Attlee, "Welfare State," Churchill, Labour, Harold Wilson.
France: Fourth Republic, DeGaulle, Foreign Policy, "Third Force," Georges Pompidou, Francois Mitterand.
Germany: Federal Republic, Economic Miracle, Konrad Adenauer, Willy Brandt, Berlin Wall, Terrorism, Helmut Schmidt, Helmut Kohl.
Historical Collections for the National Digital Library
The American Civil War Homepage
H-Net: Humanities & Social Studies OnLine
Historical Text Archive
History Links on the Internet
History Resources on the Internet
Making of America: University of Michigan
Making of America: Cornell University
NYPL Digital Library Collections
Old Dominion University Library Digital Services Center
Social Sciences Virtual Library
World War II Resources
The World Wide Web Virtual Library: History
The Book Review Tutor
"Man's inhumanity to Man"
Return to Home Page
Last Modified August 2006