Revised: February 6, 2012

Texts Attributed to Selected Predecessors of the Stoa

Heraclitus Fragments

Memorabilia of Socrates, by Xenophon (etext)

Classical Stoic and Stoic-Influenced Works Available Online

Stoic Texts at Archive.Org

The Early Stoics

Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of the Philosophers, Book 7, "Zeno [and His School],"

Zeno of Citium, "Traces of the Early Stoics: Zeno Fragments"

Cleanthes (2nd head of Stoic school), Hymn to Zeus (accessed 2/6/2012)

Chrysippus (3rd head of Stoic school), Traces of the Early Stoics: Chrysippus on Ethics (8-26-03)

The "Middle Stoa"

Panaetius of Rhodes Fragments Part I and Fragments Part 2

Roman-Era Works

Sources for a Composite Portrait of the Ideal Roman-Era Philosopher

Latin Works Available on the Internet

Cicero, De Legibus (On the Laws)
Cicero's Works in Latin
The Cicero Homepage
See also Perseus, classics collection


Cicero texts at Wikisource
Moral Development According to the Stoics (from De Finibus III)
On Duties (De Officiis)
Excerpts from On Laws, On the Republic, On Friendship
          (Look under "Civil Wars and Revolution")
On the Laws (Excerpts), On the Republic (Books I, VI), On Duties (complete)
          (Laws and Republic tr. by Thatcher; On Duties tr. by Miller)


Seneca texts at Wikisource
Moral Essays, Book I
          Contains "On Providence," "On the Firmness of the Wise Man,"
          and "On Anger"

Moral Essays, Book II

Moral Essays, Book III (John W. Basore translation of De Beneficiis)
          On Benefits (Aubrey Stewart's 1887 translation of De Beneficiis)

Stoic Letters, Book I
Stoic Letters, Book II
Stoic Letters, Book III

Musonius Rufus, "the Roman Socrates"

Lectures and Fragments, translated by Cora Lutz
Philosophers on the Role of Women


Note: "Manual" and "Handbook" are translations of "Encheiridion."

Beck's translation of The Manual
Fieser's adaptation of the E. Carter translation of The Manual
Thomas W. Higginson translation of The Encheiridion,
          (originally published in 1865)
T. W. Rolleston's translation of The Encheiridion (1881)
P. E. Matheson's translation of The Encheiridion (1916)
The Discourses (incomplete) (MIT)
Discourses, trans. George Long
The Discourses (Greek and English versions) (Perseus Classics Collection)
Simplicius (6th c.), Commentary on Epictetus Encheiridion 4-8
Study Questions by Dr. J. Garrett for Epictetus' Handbook,
          keyed to the N. White (Hackett) translation

Dio Chrysostom

Dio Chrysostom (biography)

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius' Meditations (MIT)

Justus Lipsius, a Renaissance Stoic

Justus Lipsius, His First Book, Of Constancy (1584)
Justus Lipsius, His Second Book, Of Constancy

Adam Smith on the Stoics

Theory of Moral Sentiments, Part VII, Section II, Chapter I