- There is a true philosophy of nature, a single correct view of reality.
- A true ethics is based upon it.
- A true logic will reveal it.
|On the void||infinite; surrounds atoms and allows movement||surrounds kosmos; not required for movement|
|On the total quantity of matter||infinite||finite|
|On the cosmos||ours is one among many||the soul and matter of the kosmos is everlasting; the visible order of the kosmos is reborn innumerable times.|
|On matter||atoms: rigid, unyielding, indivisible, "full," internally unchanging, everlasting, able to form composites||earth, water, air, aither (fire?); infinitely divisble, able to pervade one another; may be transformed into one another|
|On active bodies||randomly swerving atoms||fire (aither?) and air, composing pneuma|
|On passive bodies||all atoms, usually||water and earth|
|Cause of visible wholes||interlinkage of atoms||pneuma and, ultimately, the activity of Zeus (a.k.a. pronoia and Logos)|
|On the kinds of mixture||juxtaposition (as in gravel or trail mix) only||juxtaposition, blending (as in diluted wine), fusion (as in bronze)|
|Admissible types of explanation||mechanical causes (material and moving causes) only||final causes also important|
|On whether there are gods||yes, but irrelevant to physical explanation of most things||Zeus (=designing fire) is the key to physical explanation understood teleologically; other gods seem to be less important than, say, in Homer|
|On universal determinism||no, there are random events||yes, everything follows the perfect plan of Zeus/Logos|
|On the good||pleasure and the avoidance of pain||living consistently in accord with nature=living virtuously|
|On virtue||A means (probably the most reliable means) to the good life||living virtuously is itself the good life: my station determines my duties, whether emperor or slave||On the ideal condition of human beings||ataraxia (freedom from disturbance): avoid politics, retire to the garden for conversation with friends||apatheia (freedom from the violent feelings)|
This chart has been slightly modified 9/25/01.