Final Exam for PHIL 401

Final Version: 30 April 2003

I. Take Home Part. (Due to me by 4 p.m. Tuesday, May 6)
Option A. Do each essay at 25 percent of the final exam grade. (About 700 words in all. You may exceed this number without penalty.)
1. Brian Orend introduces a distinction between first- and second-level specification of human rights objects and human rights duty-bearers. What is this distinction? What problems is he trying to solve when he introduces it? What solutions does this distinction make possible?

2. Compare John Rawls' theory of international justice as presented in his essay, "The Law of Peoples" with Darrel Moellendorf's as presented in Cosmopolitan Justice. Select major points of similarity and difference. Try to find at least five points of similarity and at least five points of difference. State the points as clearly as possible in complete sentences. (It may take a few sentences to clarify each one.)

Option B. One essay at 50 percent of the final exam grade. (About 700 words in all. You may exceed this number without penalty.)
Do essay #2 under Option A with this addition: Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Rawls' and Moellendorf's treatments of international justice, concentrating primarily on their strengths and weaknesses in comparison with each other. If there is a third ethical approach to global justice that you understand and think superior (for instance, Walzer or Goodin), you may append a paragraph describing it and explaining why you think it superior to both Rawls' and Moellendorf's approaches.
II. In-class section of final (1 p.m., May 5). Short identification. (50 per cent)
I will select 6-8 of the following items and you will identify or explain the meaning of five of them in a couple sentences each (not to exceed 100 words for each item).

R = Rawls; M = Moellendorf

veil of ignorance (R and M)
liberal people (R)
democratic peace (R)
basic human rights (R)
human rights (M's view)
well-ordered (decent) hierarchical people (R)
associative duties (M)
cosmopolitan original position (M)
burdened society (R)
democratic equality (stand on global distributive justice defined in M)
liberal equality (stand on global distributive justice as defined in M)
global floor principle (Shue, in M)
justified intervention (M, 118-122)*
political realism (defined in M)
imperialism (M)
statism (related to just war theory, discussed in M)

* On this one you may state the four necessary conditions and exceed 100 words.