Review for Final Exam
and Instructions for Take-Home Part
(PHIL 401: Fall 2009)

Contact: Dr. Jan Garrett

Revised: December 11, 2009

The final exam is scheduled for 1-3 p.m. on Friday, December 18, 2009.

About 1/3 of the final will be objective based on the following terms, their meanings, etc., one third will be short essays as generally explained below, and one third will be devoted to a longer essay.

If you wish, you may write your essays using the take-home option.

If you choose to do your essays using the take-home option, you must deliver them to my mailbox in 300 Cherry Hall by 3:00 p.m., Wednesday, December 16th. If you live outside Bowling Green or if the road conditions make travel difficult, you may mail them to me ( as an email attachment before 3:00 p.m., Wednesday, December 16th.

Cognitive Science and Embodied Realism Vocabulary

Basic-level categories/concepts
Classical category
Cognitive Reality Commitment
Cognitive unconscious
Complex metaphor
Conventional metaphorical mapping
Conceptual metaphor
Convergent Evidence Requirement
Direct Realism
Disembodied Realism
Embodied Realism
    Empirically Responsible Inquiry
First-Generation Cognitive Science
Folk Theory
Ideal-type prototype
Image schema
Literal Meaning
Poetic metaphor
Primary metaphor
Radial Category
Second-Generation Cognitive Science
Spatial Relations Concepts

Important Folk Theories and Metaphors for Particular Philosophers and Groups of Philosophers

Short Essays. Pick, from the list, two perspectives, one from the ancient Greek philosophers and philosophical movements and one from the philosophers or movements from the period 1600-1970. In relatively short essays (say, 250-600 words each), discuss how their folk theories and metaphors (selected from the second list, unless you think you can make a case that I should have included it!) shape their thinking. Don't choose a philosopher or movement on which you wrote your third major paper.

Philosophers and Groups of Philosophers

The Enlightenment generally
Formal Analytic Philosophy
    Kantian Ethical Thought
Presocratic natural philosophers in General

Folk Theories and Metaphors

All-Inclusive Category
Categories Are Containers
Causation is Action to Achieve a Purpose
Causes Are Reasons
Essences are Causal Sources
Essence Is Form
Essences are Ideas
Essence Is Matter
Essences are Numbers
Essence Is Pattern of Change
Existence is Being Located Here
Faculty Psychology
Family of Man
General Kinds
Ideas are Essences
Ideas are Objects
Intelligibility of the World
    Knowing Is Seeing
Location Event-Structure
Matter Is Water
Mind as Body
Mind is a Container
Perceiving is Receiving
Purposes are Destinations
Seeing is Touching
Society of the Mind
Substance and Attributes
Thinking is Linguistic Activity
Thinking (or Perception and Reason) is a Machinelike Process
Thinking is Mathematical Calculation
Thinking is Moving
Thinking is Object Construction
Understanding is Grasping
The Will is a Child in a Strict Father Family

II. Large Essay.

Whichever essay topic you choose, do not substantially duplicate a topic on which you composed another essay for this course.

What light does cognitive science shed on one of the following? Briefly compare the cognitive science/Lakoff-Johnson position on this topic to views held by one or more "more traditional" philosophers.

A. The nature of morality
B. Our thinking about causation and events
C. Our thinking about the mind
D. The nature of metaphor. Why is mainstream philosophy is unable to appreciate the role played by conceptual metaphor in human thinking.