9. Key Contrasts Between the Two Views

Competitive World: real and ideal  Cooperation: ideal and partly real
Natural order is the Moral Order (i.e., the social world is basically OK the way it is)  World is not always fair but should be made more so (social reform)
SF Morality must be vigorously defended; "morality" must be defended against deviants  Other views must be at least considered; maybe we can learn from them
Bad behavior results from personal causes alone  Social causes often partly explain bad behavior
Retributive punishment is the best response to wrongdoing Restitution should be used instead of retribution where possible
Fear of pain and desire for pleasure are the main motivators  People may be motivated by desire for love, respect, and self-respect

10. Moral Systems and Public Policies

Policy SFM / Conservative         NPM / Liberal
Student loans for needy Oppose Support
Aid to illegal immigrants Oppose Support
Drug use Just say no Education
Society's best response to illegal drugs Jail lawbreakers Decriminalization
Progressive taxation Oppose Support
Abortion rights Oppose Support
Military spending in peacetimeMaintain Decrease
Gun controlOppose Support
Corporal punishmentSupportOppose
Death penalty for "heinous crimes"Support Oppose
Social programs to reduce crime Oppose Support
Affirmative action Oppose Support
Environmental regulations Oppose Support
Diverse cultures in the curriculum Oppose Support
Nonhuman nature Has instrumental
value only
Has inherent value too
Premarital sex Oppose OK sometimes
Gay rights Oppose Support
Post the Ten Commandments in the schools      
and other public places
Support Oppose