Required or Highly Recommended Readings
(Most of Them are Short)

This page revised August 9, 2007

1. Selected Fragments of Xenophanes: A Critic of Greek Popular Religion

2. Fragments of Anaximenes (an early natural philosopher)

3. Selected Heraclitus Fragments

4. Democritus Fragments (See esp. Sections on Knowledge and the Physical World.)

5. The Critias Fragment from Sextus Empiricus Adv. Math.

6. Apology (The Defense Speech of Socrates)

7. Cicero: The Four Roles We Play (On Duties 1.107-115)

8. Thomas Aquinas on Wealth, Power, Pleasure, and Happiness (added 8-9-04)